3 Argument vs. Explanation Arguments and explanations often have a similar structure. They both have what we might (vaguely) call a basis and a result. They might both take the form: Since <basis>, we have <result>, or: <result>, because <basis>.
4 Argument vs. Explanation In an argument, the basis is the premises, which are already believed. The result is the conclusion, which the argument tries to make us believe. An explanation proposes a possible cause for some observed event. The result is the observed event, the basis is the proposed cause, which isn t observed in most cases.
5 Plain assertion Sometimes we simply assert (say) something. We aren t trying to argue for it, or explain why it happened. We re simply saying that it is the case.
6 Argument, explanation or assertion? I never enjoyed playing sports at school. I don t like watching pro sports on TV either. In fact, I don t like sports, period. Just 3 assertions.
7 Argument, explanation or assertion? There is a God. I believe this because that s how I was raised. I went to Sunday school every week, and read the Bible all the time. Explanation I was raised to believe in God caused I believe in God
8 Argument, explanation or assertion? At the present rate of consumption, global oil production will peak in about 5 years. And we re sure not going to reduce consumption in the near future. So we d better start developing solar power, windmills, and other alternative energy sources pretty soon. Argument
9 Argument, explanation or assertion? The abortion issue is blown out of all proportion. How come we don t hear nearly as much about the evils of the Pill? After all, a lot more potential people are killed by the Pill than by abortion. Argument (possibly a poor one!)
10 Argument, explanation or assertion?? The official account of how the World Trade Center towers collapsed is very fishy. For one thing, they do not attempt to explain the pools of glowing molten metal found in the rubble piles. Argument (Note that one can argue for some claim on the basis that it provides a good explanation for something.)
11 Argument, explanation or assertion? Why is a sodium flame yellow? Because of the ionisation energy of sodium atoms. Photons of this energy have a wavelength that we see as yellow. Explanation Sodium atoms have ionisation energy XYZ Photons of energy XYZ appear yellow to us causes Sodium flames are yellow
12 Argument, explanation or assertion? Why should you believe that the earth is warming up? Because the concentration of CO 2 is up, and in the past this has always meant higher temperatures. Argument
13 Argument, explanation or assertion? The dinosaurs died out as a result of global climate change. This was most likely due a large meteor impact, that would have put a lot of dust in the upper atmosphere, blocking the sun. Explanation
14 Argument, explanation or assertion? The dinosaurs died out as a result of global climate change. The fossil record shows that it happened very suddenly, and there were no other animals around that could have forced them into extinction. Mammals didn t really spread until the dinosaurs were already gone. It had to be severe climate change, as nothing else could have done it. Argument
15 The meanings of because The word because can be used to state an argument or an explanation. I.e. it expresses either logical consequence or cause and effect. <conclusion>, because <premise> <effect> because <cause>
16 1. In each of the following sentences, say whether the word because expresses a relation of logical consequence, or of cause and effect. State the premise and conclusion, or cause and effect, as appropriate. God exists, because otherwise life would be meaningless. The river bank collapsed because of the heavy rain last week. Abortion is not wrong, because a woman should be able to control her own body. The moon was full last night because I saw it!
17 Standard Form The standard form of an argument is as follows: Premise 1 Premise 2 (etc.) Conclusion
18 God can t be both perfectly good and allpowerful. After all, if God were perfectly good he would want to eliminate all evil. And if God were all-powerful he would do whatever he wanted. But evil certainly exists!
19 God can t be both perfectly good and all-powerful. After all, if God were perfectly good he would want to eliminate all evil. And if God were all-powerful he would do whatever he wanted. But evil certainly exists! 1. If God were perfectly good he would want to eliminate all evil. 2. If God were all-powerful he would do whatever he wanted. 3. Evil exists God isn t both perfectly good and all-powerful.
20 Labour is the basis of all property, since nothing can be obtained without someone working. From this it follows that a man naturally owns what he makes by his own hands, so that capitalism is an unjust economic system.
21 Labour is the basis of all property, since nothing can be obtained without someone working. From this it follows that a man naturally owns what he makes by his own hands, so that capitalism is an unjust economic system. nothing can be obtained without someone working Labour is the basis of all property a man naturally owns what he makes by his own hands capitalism is an unjust economic system
22 Labour is the basis of all property, since nothing can be obtained without someone working. From this it follows that a man naturally owns what he makes by his own hands, so that capitalism is an unjust economic system. 1.Nothing can be obtained without someone working Capitalism is an unjust economic system
23 All philosophers are smokers, and most smokers are unfit. So most philosophers are unfit. All philosophers are smokers Most smokers are unfit Most philosophers are unfit (Is it valid?)
24 Validity and Truth Recall that a valid argument is one where the premises have the maximum possible degree of positive relevance to the conclusion. In other words, the premises of a valid argument provide conclusive proof of the conclusion. A consequence of this fact is that a valid argument cannot have true premises and a false conclusion. No such situation can even be consistently imagined.
25 Counter-example world T All philosophers are smokers T Most smokers are unfit F Most philosophers are unfit
26 Validity isn t enough All mammals have gills. Humans are mammals Humans have gills -- but in formal logic, validity is all we look at.
27 Arguments with unstated premises or conclusion (enthymemes) Whales suckle their young because whales are a type of mammal Whales are a type of mammal (All mammals suckle their young) Whales suckle their young What s the unstated premise?
28 Unstated conclusion Fred is a politician. Politicians are corrupt. Need I say more? Fred is a politician Politicians are corrupt (Fred is corrupt)
29 I don t want to criticise my husband s cooking. But he is an Englishman, and he isn t Jamie Oliver.
30 Of course Janet makes a lot of money. She s a lawyer, isn t she?
31 1. Say whether each of the following passages contains an argument, an explanation, or a simple assertion. (i) The City s building permit process is just crazy. So many rules! I feel like I m helplessly ensnared in a sticky web of regulations.
32 (ii) The City s building permit process is just crazy. I think that every time something bad happens, someone invents a new rule to stop that happening again. These bureaucrats are so risk-averse, so afraid of litigation, that they keep adding rules just to be on the safe side. They never consider the stress this creates for ordinary people, just trying to fix their houses.
33 (iii) The City s building permit process is just crazy. A comparison with other municipalities across North America shows that we have almost twice as many forms to fill out as the average, and wait times have tripled over the last five years.
34 (iv) I ve said it before and I ll say it again: No New Taxes! What part of that don t you people understand? I don t care whether you call it a green levy, a modal shift, or a price signal. I won t stand for it!
35 (v) I ve said it before and I ll say it again: No New Taxes! I realise the temptations, but taxes of any kind distort the economy, introduce inefficiencies, and hence reduce economic growth. The market knows better than you guys how to regulate the economy, so keep your hands off the controls.
36 2. Put the following arguments into standard form. I.e. List the premises, draw a horizontal line beneath them, then write the conclusion underneath. Omit any sentence that is neither the conclusion nor a premise. In this exercise do not add any unstated premises. (i) Beer is living proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy. (Benjamin Franklin)
37 (ii) If we don t reduce our carbon emissions drastically in the next 20 years, the results will be devastating. We already know that increased carbon dioxide levels are responsible for most of the warming during the last century. And there are nasty feedback mechanisms, so that warmer temperatures will cause more CO 2 to be released, causing more warming... It follows that the status quo will lead to huge temperature increases, which we know would be very harmful to the planet.
38 (iii) Computers can t really think -- they only simulate thought. The easiest way to see this is to consider the fact that there s nothing mysterious about how computers work. To an engineer, the operation of a computer is as transparent as that of a toaster! But I ve already shown that we can never understand thought itself. The nature of thinking will always be a mystery to us.
39 Aristotelian (Categorical) Logic Aristotle identified four very common sentence forms, i.e. patterns or structures. Some arguments can be shown to be valid by examining the forms of the premises and the conclusion. (A) All S is P (or Every S is P) (E) No S is P (I) Some S is P (O) Some S is not P
40 N.B. In logic, some = at least one. So it s true that: Some moons orbit the earth Some men are married to Celine Dion Some Langara professors are human Some Popes have been Catholic (Etc.)
41 The Square of Opposition
42 Venn Diagrams
43 Or better
44 3. Paraphrase the following sentences into one of Aristotle s forms (A, E, I and O) from the square of opposition. (i) If you re 25 years old and riding the bus, then you re a failure. (Margaret Thatcher) (ii) There aren t any honest politicians. (iii) Not all professors are dull. (iv) There is such a thing as a flying car.
45 Keep it as simple as possible: Avoid negative predicates where possible. E.g. write All students are poor rather than no student is non-poor, or All non-poor things are non-students. Avoid compound predicates where possible. E.g. write some students are poor, rather than some things are poor students
46 Is it valid? No machines are conscious, but some animals are conscious, so no animals are machines. (E) No machines are conscious beings (I) Some animals are conscious beings (E) No animals are machines
47 This argument is of the form: 1. No S is P 2. Some Q is P No Q is S Is it a valid argument?
48 How can we figure it out? 1. No S is P 2. Some Q is P No Q is S We might read the first premise as saying there s no overlap between S and P. And picture it like this:
49 How can we figure it out? 1. No S is P 2. Some Q is P No Q is S Now, what about Q? P2 says there s some overlap between Q and P. So shall we draw it like this?
50 How can we figure it out? 1. No S is P 2. Some Q is P No Q is S In this world, both premises are true, and the conclusion is true as well. So the argument is valid?
51 How can we figure it out? 1. No S is P 2. Some Q is P No Q is S NO! Because there may be other worlds in which the premises are both true, yet the conclusion is false.
52 How can we figure it out? 1. No S is P 2. Some Q is P No Q is S NO! Because there may be other worlds in which the premises are both true, yet the conclusion is false.
53 General Method With 3 properties, there are 8 possible combinations of them, as shown in this Venn diagram. We can just put shading and x s where needed. 1. No S is P 2. Some Q is P No Q is S
54 1. No S is P 2. Some Q is P No Q is S 1. No S is P
55 1. No S is P 2. Some Q is P No Q is S 2. Some Q is P
56 The question now is whether the diagram tells us that the conclusion (No Q is S) is true. Does it? 1. No S is P 2. Some Q is P No Q is S
57 No, it doesn t tell us this. It allows the conclusion to be true, but doesn t guarantee it. There might well be some object that is Q, S and not P, as shown by?. 1. No S is P 2. Some Q is P No Q is S
58 In other words, the argument is invalid. The premises allow that there might be some animal that is a machine and not conscious. If the conclusion were changed to some animals are not machines, then the resulting argument would be valid. This would be Some Q is not S, which the diagram guarantees.
59 We can see that Some Q is not S.
60 For each of the following arguments, say whether or not it is valid. (I.e. don t worry about whether or not the premises are acceptable.) If it is valid then provide a proof, or draw a Venn diagram showing what the premises tell us. If it is invalid then describe a situation where the premises are all true but the conclusion is false.
61 (i) All politicians are ruthless, and no one without loyal friends can be a politician. Of course politicians exist! It follows that some ruthless people have loyal friends. Valid. (Hence you should do either a proof or a Venn diagram.) Proof: We are told (P3) that politicians exist, so let Fred name such a politician. Since all politicians are ruthless (P1) it follows that Fred is ruthless. Further, Fred must have loyal friends, according to P2 (since no one without such friends is a politician). Hence Fred is a ruthless person with loyal friends, so that some such people exist.
62 At what point is it clear? Clear to whom?
63 (i) All politicians are ruthless, and no one without loyal friends can be a politician. Of course politicians exist! It follows that some ruthless people have loyal friends.
64 (ii) No genius is modest, but Fred is no genius. So Fred must be modest. Invalid. Fred could be a non-genius who is not modest.
65 (iii) All dogs are hairy animals, and all dogs are also 4-legged. So we see that all hairy animals are 4-legged. Invalid. There could be a hairy spider, with 8 legs.
66 (iv) All lazy people are highly efficient, but no professors are highly efficient. Clearly, no professors are lazy! Valid. Proof: We will argue by reductio ad absurdum. Let us assume that the conclusion is false, i.e. that some professor is lazy. Let Fred be such a lazy professor. Using P1, and the fact that Fred is lazy, we then infer that Fred is highly efficient. But from P2, since Fred is a professor, we infer that Fred is not highly efficient. This is a contradiction, and hence the conclusion follows by reductio.
67 (iv) All lazy people are highly efficient, but no professors are highly efficient. Clearly, no professors are lazy!
68 Conditional Sentences If A, then B. What does this really say? Does it say A? Does it say B? How is it related to A, if B, A only if B, A unless B, etc.?
69 Do we really want to look at conditionals? They re hard. Maybe we should cut them from the course?
70 I guess we have to cover conditionals then
71 If A then B is an assertion of B, that is in effect only in the circumstance that A is true. If A is false, in fact, then the statement is silent, and says nothing at all. E.g. suppose I say, if you clean my room then I will give you $5. If you do in fact clean my room, then this becomes as good as I will give you $5. But if you don t clean my room, then the statement is null and void.
72 Believing conditionals What does it mean to believe a conditional? E.g. suppose engineer believes that if there s an earthquake, then this bridge will collapse. (If E then C). What does she believe? She believes C, but not in her actual state of knowledge K. She believes C in the expanded state of knowledge K+E.
73 Other forms of the conditional B, if A if A then B A, unless B If B then A A only if B If B then A If A then B A if and only if B If B then A and if A then B
74 Conversational Implication We are familiar with the fact that every statement has logical consequences. E.g. This man was born in Vancouver has the consequence this man was born in Canada. Conversational implication isn t like this. With conversational implication, you infer things from the fact that the person said it, and also that they didn t say other things.
75 Conversational Implication E.g. damning with faint praise UBC is one of the best schools in Point Grey How do you like my home-made wine? -- It has a very unique flavour.
76 Conversational Implication E.g. protesting too much What were you doing in the basement just now? -- I wasn t drinking your whisky. Definitely not!
77 Conversational Implication and Conditionals Suppose there are two brothers, Jim and Luke. Their mother hands Jim $5, with instructions that it is to be given to Luke, as it is owed to him. Jim is an obedient boy, and will certainly do this. But Jim is also crafty, and says to his brother, if you clean my room for me then I will give you this crisp $5 bill Is Jim lying? (Is he being deceitful?)
78 Conversational Implication A father tells a child You can have ice cream only if you first eat all of your broccoli. The child eats the broccoli, and asks for ice cream. The father replies that there is no ice cream in the house, unfortunately. The child claims that the father lied. Did he? Technically?
79 Conversational Implication Conversational implications are meanings that aren t strictly stated in the sentence, but which follow from it, using the rule of honest communication : Say the strongest thing that you believe (that is relevant to the situation).
80 Such implication works through people presuming honesty in the speaker, thinking: If he believed P then he would have said P. Hence he does not believe P. E.g. If I can t have ice cream, whatever I do, then Daddy would have just said so.
81 The father knows that the ice cream has run out, so he believes the proposition: You cannot have ice cream This is relevant to the situation, and logically stronger (more informative) than what he does say, namely: You can have ice cream only if you first eat all of your broccoli. Hence the father is breaking the rule of honesty.
82 But technically, the father isn t saying anything false. A only if B literally means if B then A Hence, You can have ice cream only if you first eat all of your broccoli. literally means: If you don t eat your broccoli, then you cannot have ice cream And this asserts you cannot have ice cream, on the condition that the broccoli isn t eaten. It is silent in the case where the broccoli is eaten.
83 If one believes that B, and this is relevant, honesty requires that we simply assert B. By asserting If A then B, we re suggesting that we re at least unsure of B. Otherwise, people will wonder, what s the point of the If A restriction? It s similar to the case where I tell someone: You have won either $5000 or $1, when I know full well that it is $1.
84 For each of the following sentences, write down anything that is not strictly stated, but is suggested by conversational implication. (i) Everyone other than Fred passed the exam. (ii) If your GPA drops below 3.6 then you will lose your scholarship. (iii) Did you get an A on your exam? Well, I can tell you that you passed at least. (iv) A fever is nothing to worry about, unless you also have a bad sore throat. (v) Not all people are reincarnated.
85 (iii) My brother is, shall we say, tall, dark, and... dark. (N.B. this relies on the audience being familiar with the phrase tall, dark and handsome.) (iv) Do I like my mother in law? Oh gosh, is that the time? I must be going!
86 Inferences involving conditionals Many arguments have a conditional premise. E.g. If chocolate is bad for my teeth, then I need a dentist. Chocolate is bad for my teeth I need a dentist Is this one valid?
87 What about this one? If Fred has measles, then he has a fever. Fred has a fever Fred has measles
88 What about this one? If Fred has measles, then he has a fever. Fred doesn t have a fever Fred doesn t have measles
89 What about this one? If Fred is late today, then he will be fired Fred is not late today Fred will not be fired
90 If A then B If A then B A B B A If A then B If A then B B A A B
91 For each of the following arguments identify the type of inference (modus ponens, affirming the consequent, modus tollens, denying the antecedent, or a disjunctive argument) and say whether or not it is deductively valid. [Note that valid conclusions are conclusively proved by the premises, not just supported to some extent.] (i) Of course I have a soul. A purely physical being, lacking a soul, cannot be conscious, and I know I m conscious!
92 (ii) It s clear that the recession is over. If the recession is over we will see increases in building permit applications, and that s happening right now.
93 (iv) Jen isn t an expert on Canadian history. Someone with a Ph.D. on the subject is an expert, of course, but Jen doesn t have a Ph.D.
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ILLOCUTIONARY ORIGINS OF FAMILIAR LOGICAL OPERATORS 1. ACTS OF USING LANGUAGE Illocutionary logic is the logic of speech acts, or language acts. Systems of illocutionary logic have both an ontological,
Argument What is it? How do I make a good one? Argument Vs Persuasion Everything s an argument, really. Argument: appeals strictly by reason and logic Persuasion: logic and emotion The forum of your argument
Theorem A Theorem is a valid deduction. One of the key activities in higher mathematics is identifying whether or not a deduction is actually a theorem and then trying to convince other people that you
Applied Logic Lecture 2: Evidence Semantics for Intuitionistic Propositional Logic Formal logic and evidence CS 4860 Fall 2012 Tuesday, August 28, 2012 2.1 Review The purpose of logic is to make reasoning
Module 5 Knowledge Representation and Logic (Propositional Logic) Lesson 12 Propositional Logic inference rules 5.5 Rules of Inference Here are some examples of sound rules of inference. Each can be shown
Critical Thinking The Very Basics (at least as I see them) Dona Warren Department of Philosophy The University of Wisconsin Stevens Point What You ll Learn Here I. How to recognize arguments II. How to
1 A Brief Introduction to Key Terms 5 A Brief Introduction to Key Terms 1.1 Arguments Arguments crop up in conversations, political debates, lectures, editorials, comic strips, novels, television programs,
L4: Reasoning Dani Navarro Deductive reasoning Inductive reasoning Informal reasoning WE talk of man* being the rational animal; and the traditional intellectualist philosophy has always made a great point
The free will defense Last time we began discussing the central argument against the existence of God, which I presented as the following reductio ad absurdum of the proposition that God exists: 1. God
1 Clarion Logic Notes Chapter 4 Summary Notes These are summary notes so that you can really listen in class and not spend the entire time copying notes. These notes will not substitute for reading the
Section 1.6 Section Summary Valid Arguments Inference Rules for Propositional Logic Using Rules of Inference to Build Arguments Rules of Inference for Quantified Statements Building Arguments for Quantified
Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall Stetson University Chapter 8 - Sentential ruth ables and Argument orms 8.1 Introduction he truth-value of a given truth-functional compound proposition depends
Indian Philosophy Prof. Satya Sundar Sethy Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module No. # 05 Lecture No. # 20 The Nyaya Philosophy Hi, today we will be
M01_COPI1396_13_SE_C01.QXD 10/10/07 9:48 PM Page 30 30 CHAPTER 1 Basic Logical Concepts deductive arguments about probabilities themselves, in which the probability of a certain combination of events is
Unit 8 Categorical yllogism What is a syllogism? Inference or reasoning is the process of passing from one or more propositions to another with some justification. This inference when expressed in language