Year 5 History May 2017 Exam Preparation

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1 Year 5 History May 2017 Exam Preparation KEY CONTENT TO REVISE 1. Three claimants - Who should be the next King of England in 1066 after Edward the Confessor? Who were the three key claimants? What claims did they have to the English throne? In your opinion, who had the best claim to the English throne? The year of two invasions - How and why did William win, and Harold Godwinson lose the Battle of Hastings? Invasion 1 from the north Battle of Stamford Bridge (summary of key result of this battle) Invasion 2 from the south Battle of Hastings Reasons why William won the Battle of Hastings Reasons why Harold Godwinson lost the Battle of Hastings REVISION RESOURCES Use your history book, a detailed revision guide on SMHW, websites (e.g. BBC Bitesize) KEY REVISION TIP SUMMARISE NOTES INTO KEY WORDS/BITESIZE CHUNKS You must summarise/condense your notes into bitesize chunks of key points. Write them as bullet-points on, e.g. revision cards, Power Point slides, mind-maps, spider diagrams. REMEMBER you are not expected to know and remember everything. MEMORY TECHNIQUES You could use memory techniques to help you remember the key points e.g. visuals/images and mnemonics (e.g. Key reasons why William won the Battle of Hastings: PS LM = Prepared, Skill, Luck, Mistakes (of Harold Godwinson) OR MLASH = Motivation, Luck, Army, Skillful commander, Harold s death) CREATIVE REVISION OPTIONAL - You could create bitesize chunk summary voice recordings, videos, songs, raps, poems, posters, living timelines (on wallpaper rolls, toilet paper rolls?!), laminate notes and put them in the shower - or other creative revision techniques

2 Year 5 History Practice Exam 2017 Please read this information before the examination starts. This examination is 60 minutes long, 50 marks in total The time period focus is Medieval Realms: Britain 1066 The paper is divided into two sections: Section 1: Evidence question 20 marks (40%) Section 2: Essay question 30 marks (60%). You must answer ONE essay question from a choice of 3 Section 1: Evidence you should spend 5 minutes planning and then 20 minutes writing Section 2: Essay you should spend 5 minutes planning and then 30 minutes writing Handwriting and presentation are important SECTION 1 - EVIDENCE QUESTION Using all the sources and your own knowledge, how far do you agree that William being a good leader helped him win the Battle of Hastings? (20 marks) CONSIDER: What message does each source tell us? Which sources agree that William was a good leader? Which sources disagree and argue that there were other reasons why William won? How much can we trust each of the sources? (E.g. who, where, when, what, why was it made?) Your opinion do you agree that William being a good leader helped him win? Or were other reasons more important?

3 SOURCE A: William s preparations for the invasion as recorded in the Bayeux Tapestry, made in France in 1077 under the order of Bishop Odo, William s half-brother who was at the Battle of Hastings. SOURCE B: Adapted extract from an account of the Battle of Hastings by William of Poitiers between 1071 and He had been trained as a knight and worked in William, duke of Normandy s household. Harold s large army was ready and lined up in close formation. Realising that they could not attack such an army without taking big losses, the Normans pretended to run away. The barbarians (Saxons) thinking they were winning shouted with triumph.and chased the Normans, who they thought were running away. But the Normans had tricked them. SOURCE C: An extract from a modern history book written in Harold s men were really weakened in number and spirit by the Battle of Stamford Bridge in the north. Furthermore, the Saxons did not have a chance to rest before fighting William in the south. Harold was taken by surprise by William s quick arrival to Hastings. SECTION 2 ESSAY QUESTION Answer ONE question from this section. Each question is worth 30 marks. 1. Explain who you think had the strongest claim to the throne of England in January Choose either Harold Godwinson; Harald Hardrada; or William, Duke of Normandy. Give reasons why. 2. Explain the reasons why William won the Battle of Hastings. 3. William was lucky. Do you agree this was the main reason why William won the Battle of Hastings?

4 KEY CONTENT TO REVISE 1. Three claimants - Who should be the next King of England in 1066 after Edward the Confessor? Who were the three key claimants? What claims did they have to the English throne? In your opinion, who had the best claim to the English throne? The year of two invasions - How and why did William win, and Harold Godwinson lose the Battle of Hastings? Invasion 1 from the north Battle of Stamford Bridge (summary of key result of this battle) Invasion 2 from the south Battle of Hastings Reasons why William won the Battle of Hastings Reasons why Harold Godwinson lost the Battle of Hastings

5 Key words Heir: Next in line to be king/queen Claimant: Somebody who gives reasons to claim something Contender: Somebody who is competing for something Oath: A formal promise, often sacred (religious)x Anglo-Saxons: Originally came to England from Germany in 450AD/5 th century. They cleared the Celts of England (who had been there since 500BC) and then defended England against the Viking invasions in 800 AD/9 th century. Norman: A person from Normandy in France Edward the Confessor: Edward was called the Confessor because he was very religious. He spent a lot of time praying. He also built the first Westminster Abbey. Harold Godwinson: Harold s father, Godwin, Earl of Wessex, had been the most important Anglo- Saxon in England apart from the king. When Godwin died in 1053 his son took over his job as Earl of Wessex. You can see how he got his surname! The old king dies In January 1066, the King of England, Edward the Confessor, died. He was 62 years old and left no children behind to succeed the throne Anglo-Saxon customs were not clear about how a successor should be chosen in this situation The problem was made worse because, over the years, Edward had promised the throne to a number of people. Three men believed that they should be England s next king and they were ready to use their armies to get their hands on the crown!

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7 SUMMARY OF KEY EVENTS - THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS

8 SUMMARY OF KEY EVENTS - THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS 1. Godwinson s Saxon army defeat Viking army at Battle of Stamford Bridge 2. William s Norman army land in the south after the storm passed on the English Channel 3. Godwinson s Saxon army march 280 miles from north to south to Senlac Hill in Hastings after the Battle of Stamford Bridge near York. 4. Saxon shield-wall on Senlac Hill 5. Norman pretend retreat (running away) down Senlac Hill to trick the Saxons 6. Harold Godwinson killed shot in the eye by an arrow. Replaced by a French King - William the Conqueror ESSAY EXAM QUESTION - Why did William win the Battle of Hastings?

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10 EXTRA DETAIL Flashback: William of Normandy visits Edward the Confessor in 1052 By the winter of it was clear to many that Edward was probably not going to have a son. His wife Edith was childless In 1052, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle tells that William of Normandy visited the court of his cousin King Edward. The Chronicle does not mention that William was promised the throne The Norman chroniclers later suggested that Edward had sent the Archbishop of Canterbury (Robert of Jumieges) to Normandy sometime in 1051/52 to offer William the English throne Whatever the truth, the Normans claimed that from this moment onwards William was the rightful heir to Edward s throne The rise of Harold Godwinson, The 27-yearold was made Earl of Wessex on the death of his father in For the next twelve years he was to be the most powerful nobleman in England His sister, Edith, was married to Edward the Confessor His brothers were also in powerful positions, for example, Tostig was made Earl of Northumbria in 1055 The Godwins controlled much of England and had strong armies. E.g. in 1063, when the Welsh decided to invade England, the Godwin family led an army that crushed them Did Harold swear an oath of loyalty in Bayeux, Normandy? In 1064 or 1065, Harold travelled to France. Why he did is not known and what happened when he got there has caused considerable debate. It has been suggested that Harold was visiting William as Edward s ambassador One account suggests that he was captured on his way to see William (by the Count of Ponthieu) and then William came to Harold s rescue What happened next is the important part of the story. The Bayeux Tapestry clearly shows Harold swearing an oath to William. He is touching the relics of a saint. What the oath was about, we are not too sure The Norman writer William of Poitiers (writing in the 1070s) insisted that Harold swore to support William s claim to the English throne when Edward died but a Norman in 1070 would say that, wouldn t he? There are other possibilities Perhaps Harold swore an oath out of gratitude of being rescued Maybe he was forced to do so as condition of his release Harold might have sworn an oath of friendship (on Edward s behalf) between England and Normandy, not an oath of loyalty Whatever the truth, the claim that Harold had broken a sacred oath was used by the Normans as the excuse for war To break such a promise was seen at the time as a terrible crime against the Church and God William portrayed his invasion of England as a religious crusade (fighting for beliefs) to punish Harold William received a red flag showing Pope Alexander II s support, which was thought to be very important

11 Edward s deathbed wishes As King Edward lay dying in December 1065, the leading nobles of England gathered to discuss who he would nominate as the next king It is interested that William did not travel to England despite the Norman claim that he had been promised the throne by Edward in 1052 and by Harold in 1064 or 1065 However, all of the sources, whether English or Norman, are clear about what happened next On his deathbed Edward nominated Harold to be his successor On 6 January 1066 Edward was buried in his magnificent new Westminster Abbey and Harold was crowned the same day. In the eyes of most English people, Harold was the rightful King of England. Harold was in a strong position: - Harold had been chosen by his brother-in-law, King Edward, to be his successor - He had the support of the English nobles including Earl Morcar and Earl Edwin - He had been accepted as king by the Witan, the gathering of nobility and clergy (churchmen) - Harold had a strong reputation as a military leader. This put him in a good position to resist any invasion attempts. - The Englishman s advantage When King Edward died on 5 th January 1066, Harold had one big advantage over his two rivals William (Normandy) and Hardrada (Norway) were miles away across the sea while Harold was already powerful and in England He wasted no time and was crowned king the very next day but he knew that was not the end of it The other two would soon hear the news and come looking for him and they would both want him dead! Harald Hardrada the HARD, ruthless Viking The third rival for the throne was Harald Hardrada, King of Norway. For 36 years, from 1016 to 1042, England had been ruled by Norweigans The last King of Norway who had ruled England, called HarthaCnut, had promised that when he died, Magnus, King of Norway, could have the throne But this never happened because when he died, his half-brother, Edward the Confessor, seized the English throne Magnus s son, Harald Hardrada, decided to re-try to reclaim England. He was a feared Viking warrior who was supported by Tostig, Harold Godwinson s brother

12 Comprehension questions & answers: 1. Which king died in January 1066? Edward the Confessor 2. What problem arose after the kind died in January 1066? No heir who would be his successor to the English throne? 3. Who were the three key claimants to the English throne? Harold Godwinson; Harald Hardrada; William, Duke of Normandy 4. What was the Englishman s advantage? Already in England, had power and influence over Wessex (south-west England) 5. What problem would the Englishman inevitably have? Invasions from north (Vikings) and south (Normans) Use the table to make an opinion (there is no right or wrong answer). Ensure you can justify reasons why. 6. Who had the strongest claim to the throne? Give two reasons why. E.g. First, Harold Godwinson claimed he should have the throne and be the next King of England because he was the only Englishman among the claimants. He was extremely powerful in England and would therefore be more likely to control and protect the land. In addition, he had family connections to King Edward as his sister was married to him. Furthermore, he claimed that King Edward had promised him the throne on his deathbed in Who had the weakest claim to the throne? Give two reasons why. 1) 6 th January 1066: Harold Godwinson is crowned King Harold. For 9 months, King Harold sat nervously on his throne, waiting for his rivals to make a move and take his crown. He feared attack from both the north and south of England! 2) Early September 1066: Over in France, William is sat waiting to sail to the south of England. Fierce storms are blowing in the English Channel, preventing William s 300 invasion boats from sailing to England. 3) Mid-September 1066: King Harold s wait is over. He is first attacked from the north of England. Hardrada, the King of Norway, arrived near York, with a fleet of 300 Longboats carrying a Viking army of 10,000 men. He is supported by King Harold s younger brother, Tostig. 4) Early morning, 25 th September 1066: King Harold s men had rushed up north, walking 280 miles, and arrived at an old bridge at Stamford, near York to fight the Viking army and Tostig. ROUND 1: The Battle of Stamford Bridge! 5) Lunchtime, 25 th September 1066: The Vikings did not expect to see Harold s army so soon. Many of Hardrada s men do not have their armour and are unprepared. 6) 1pm, 25 th September 1066: A brave Viking warrior blocks the bridge to stop Harold s army but he is killed. Harold s army are then able to cross the bridge and quickly kill Hardrada! Tostig is soon found and cut into pieces. 7) Evening, 25 th September 1066: King Harold is the winner at Stamford Bridge. The Vikings only need 24 ships to take their battered army home to Norway! VICTORY! HOORAY!

13 8) Late evening 25 th September 1066: Out of respect, King Harold buries his dead brother in York. But bad news arrives Harold s army will need to quickly march south to fight William of Normandy who has landed near Hastings! MORE DETAIL THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS 1. Godwinson s Saxon army defeat Viking army at Battle of Stamford Bridge in September 1066 Harold Godwinson s Saxon (English) army defeated Harald Hardraada s Viking army at the Battle of Stamford Bridge near York, in the north of England. 2. William s Norman army land in the south Three days later William of Normandy landed his 300 ships carrying 10,000 Norman archers and knights and 2,000 horses in the south of England after the storm had passed on the English Channel. 3. Godwinson s Saxon army march 280 miles to Hastings arriving in October 1066 Harold had to march his exhausted Saxon troops for 17 days, across 280 miles, all the way down to Hastings where they gathered on Senlac Hill. 4. Saxon shield-wall on Senlac Hill William carried a flag given to him by the Pope (God s representative on Earth Catholic). He believed this meant that God was on his side. Looking up the steep Senlac hill to the Saxons, William ordered his archers to unleash a storm of arrows. Godwinson s men formed a tight shield-wall and hid behind it while the arrows fell amongst them. When the archers stopped firing, the Saxons stood up and started banging their shields and shouting Out! Out! Out! William decided to send his knights and foot soldiers to smash through the Saxon shield-wall. Unfortunately, the steep Senlac hill meant the horses could not charge quickly. The foot soldiers were exhausted before even properly fighting. For two hours, the battle raged and the two sides fought. A rumour arose that William had been killed! But he was not dead and to prove it to his men he galloped amongst them. He lifted his helmet and shouted, I live and will conquer yet! 5. Norman pretend retreat (running away down) Senlac Hill to trick the Saxons William wanted to get the English off the top of Senlac hill. He ordered some of his soldiers to pretend to run away down Senlac hill as if they were retreating. The Saxon army, thinking they were winning, ran after the Normans. Without the safety of the shield-wall, William s men were able to turn around and kill the English soldiers who had followed. Seeing the success of this strategy/tactic, William ordered his soldiers to keep repeating this trick. Gradually the English shield-wall grew weaker and weaker. William then brought his archers back into action to fire upon the weakened English. 6. Harold Godwinson killed. Replaced by a French King - William the Conqueror At about 6pm, Harold was killed, having been shot through the eye with an arrow, and the battle was lost for the English. William, Duke of Normandy was crowned King of England! A French King! Britain had been invaded and conquered.

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