Chapter 5 Fill-in Notes: The Roman Empire

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1 1 Chapter 5 Fill-in Notes: The Roman Empire Pax Romana Octavian s rule brought a period of peace to the Mediterranean world. Pax Romana ( ) _ peace Won by war and maintained by During Roman Peace the came Augustus: The Brought end to Volunteered to share power with the Took the title or first citizen First ruler to be called an emperor was his family name Title of Conferred by Augustus and the Pax Romana Removed, men Created a Established a Sought to abolish in provincial government Reorganized Ordered a very 14 years Sought reforms Encouraged passage of laws that promoted Tiberius adopted son Efficient Depraved and brutal Great rejoicing when he. Caligula Nicknamed Suffered from illness that left him Occasionally had people at banquets Tried to get elected consul by Praetorian Guard Claudius Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian Guard Became one of Rome s, Agrippina Nero Placed on the throne by Tried to have his, but failed Eventually had her First emperor to Christians

2 2 Vespasian The first to rule Rome the Jews. Titus Vespasian s his father s subjugation of the Jews Destroyed in During his reign, erupted destroying &. Domitian Another son of Was in 96 Senate appointed who trained to assume power after him Trajan Under Trajan, a, the Roman Empire reached its. Hadrian A cousin of Built many Standardized Antonius Pius Received the title Pius because of his desire to have the Senate deify Hadrian. Antonius was adopted by Hadrian Marcus Aurelius The last of the so-called Spent much of his reign securing the frontiers against barbarian invasions Died of the plague in 180 Rome borrowed, copied, modified and preserved many of cultures it conquered. Greeks built with eye toward Romans built with eye toward Contributions to Law Romans believed all citizens should have before the law. Legal codes of many modern European countries include many principles based on. Latin Literature and Language Modeled after examples Roman writers added their own literary and Greatest Roman literature produced during lifetimes of and. Poetry of the Augustan Age Virgil Often called the Considered the greatest Roman

3 3 Wrote epic poem Horace Quintus Horatius Flaccus Became the poet of the Age after death of Virgil Warned of danger of and. Praised the virtues of morality, justice, courage, and moderation Ovid Wrote about and. Best known work is History Livy Wrote a lengthy 142 volumes Pompeii Juvenal Wrote bitter on loose morals and social problems of empire Tacitus Favored the old over life under the self-centered emperors Greek Contributions Plutarch (45-125) Wrote that compared lives of important Greek men Galen physician Experimented with Studied the,, and blood Ptolemy (85? 165?) Promoted theory Art & Architecture Aqueducts The Roman Games Chariot races Gladiator contests Wild beast fights Christians were martyred Kept unemployed masses amused The Colosseum Circus Maximus Over 250,000 gathered regularly to watch chariot races Circus Maximus Today The Roman Pantheon Named after the word used for the entire collection of. The Romans believed in many different gods and goddesses. For everything imaginable they had a or in charge. This entire collection of all their gods was called the.

4 4 Epicureanism Founded by There is nothing to fear in There is nothing to be alarmed at in is easily obtained is easily endured Lucretius Greatest of Epicureanism in the Roman world Stoicism The highest good is the pursuit of the virtues of: of life to fellow men Eastern Influence Eastern won popular support among Romans. Rome tolerated these beliefs as long as the people acknowledged that the Roman emperor was too. Roman emperor held the title ( greatest priest ) Aqueducts Introduction of Christianity Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem in Jews throughout the empire Scattered Jews built new centers of worship called Jews came under influence of culture Jews embrace culture and language Hebrew Old Testament translated into, because many Jews could no longer understand Septuagint The World Made Ready The widely known language made possible the easy exchange of. These factors aided the spread of Christianity The moral throughout the empire demonstrated the inability of and to satisfy the longings of man s soul and provide a standard for moral behavior. Jesus Born in a small Roman province of during reign of He began his preaching, teaching, and working miracles demonstrating to all by word and deed the He was the promised, the Son of God. Most Jews rejected Jesus as their Messiah.

5 5 Pontius Pilate Roman who sentenced Jesus to death by crucifixion Jesus was crucified and buried but rose from the grave on the third day according to The Great Commission Matt. 28:18-19 All power is given unto me in heaven and earth. Go ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost Stephen The first Christian One who chooses to rather than religious principles Paul Originally named Born in (in present-day ) Wrote approximately of the New Testament The Destruction of Jerusalem The Jews tolerated foreign rule as long as they could maintain their freedom and administer their own local affairs. They grew dissatisfied with Roman rule as the Roman governors of Judea became more and to their beliefs In Jewish discontent flared into open rebellion. In, Under the leadership of, who would later become emperor, Jerusalem was destroyed Church Organizational Development Christians met in or in the Jewish synagogues for fellowship and worship. The earliest leaders of the church were the, who were chosen directly by Persecution of the Church One of the most periods occurred during time of the Christians charged with being Romans considered Christian and Christianity a to their way of life. The first official Roman persecution of Christianity began under (54-68) He accused the of setting fire to Rome Sporadic persecution of Christians from Nero until 250 Beginning in 250, persecution death by sword crucifixion wild beasts fire burning in oil Most widespread persecution occurred during reign of ( ) of churches of Scriptures Christians ordered to to pagan gods or

6 6 Acceptance Edict of Milan (313) Declaration by the Roman emperor Constantine made Christianity Ended almost of persecution Once threatened by persecution, Christians now found themselves by Roman law, by the Roman emperor, and granted privileges by the Roman state. Council of Nicaea by the name of challenged deity Christ Constantine called for a general council of church leaders to settle controversy Presided over by Constantine Affirmed Christ s and the doctrine of the Branded a heresy Theodosius I Made Christianity the and religion of the Roman state at the end of the 4 th century. As a result of the freedoms granted by Roman government, the church grew rapidly in membership and prosperity. ideas began to creep into the practices of the church Monasticism Monasticism is living life in for or under vows. The path of the monastic involves family life and adopting vows of in order to be able to give more energy and focus directly to spiritual practices. Many spiritual traditions have monastics, including Hindu, Buddhist, and Christian. Church Growth As church grows structure becomes more complex hierarchical structure develops that follows Patriarchs bishops of the most important cities of the empire: Collapse of the Roman Empire invaders enter Roman territories Rome too to expel them Political disorder & unstable government. No plan for of rulers Ambitious generals & to gain control In many cases war broke out between different Political &

7 7 Cost: Defense of Expense of increased Devaluing of Moral Contentment replaced by Reforms and Reorganization Attempts By end of 3 rd century the Roman Empire at point of and introduced strong reforms and delayed the fall of the empire for almost 2 centuries 284 Roman army proclaims Diocletian Good administrator Divides Empire rules western part of empire Temporary stability Diocletian retires and falls apart Barbarian Invasion Germanic tribes settled along Rome s borders: Huns Fierce nomadic tribe out of the

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