Greek Philosophy and History

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1 Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 5, Section 2 Greek Philosophy and History (Pages ) Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: What ideas did Greek philosophers develop? How did Greeks contribute to the history of Western civilization? As you read pages in your textbook, complete diagrams like this one to show the basic philosophies of Socrates. Socrates 96 Chapter 5, Section 2

2 Greek Philosophers (pages ) Complete the following reading guide by filling in the important ideas from each of these Greek philosophers. Use your guide to review main points from your reading. Pythagoras Philosopher Ideas Socrates Plato Aristotle Define or describe the following terms from this lesson. philosophy Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. philosopher Sophist Socratic method Chapter 5, Section 2 97

3 Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Define these academic vocabulary words from this lesson. reject method Use each of these terms that you studied earlier in a sentence that reflects the term s meaning. tyrant (Chapter 4, Section 2) oligarchy (Chapter 4, Section 2) How did Aristotle s idea of government differ from Plato s? 98 Chapter 5, Section 2

4 Greek Historians (page 173) Quickly look over the entire selection to get a general idea about the reading. Then briefly describe what the selection is about on the lines below. Explain why each of these people is important. Herodotus Thucydides Define these academic vocabulary words from this lesson. accurate Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. stress Chapter 5, Section 2 99

5 Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. How did Thucydides view war and politics? Now that you have read the section, write the answers to the questions that were included in Setting a Purpose for Reading at the beginning of the lesson. What ideas did Greek philosophers develop? How did Greeks contribute to the history of Western civilization? 100 Chapter 5, Section 2

6 Name Date Class VOCABULARY ACTIVITY 5-2 Greek Philosophy and History: Words to Know Directions: Select one of the following terms or names to complete each of the sentences below. Aristotle Herodotus philosophers philosophy Plato Pythagoras Socrates Socratic method Sophists Thucydides 1. means love of wisdom. 2. believed that all relationships in the world could be expressed in numbers. 3. Greek thought the human mind could understand everything. 4. We know about the teachings of from the writings of his students. 5. were professional teachers who traveled from city to city. 6. wrote about government in the Republic. 7. The of teaching forced students to use their reason to answer questions. 8. is considered the father of history because he tried to separate fact from legend. Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 9. Plato s best student was, who had his own school called the Lyceum. 10. Many historians consider the greatest historian of the ancient world. Building Academic Vocabulary debate, noun and verb Directions: In this section you read about the Sophists, who encouraged debate. Why is the ability to debate still important today? SECTION

7 Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. SECTION 5-2 Name Date Class GUIDED READING ACTIVITY 5-2 Greek Philosophy and History Directions: Outlining Reading the section and completing the outline below will help you learn more about Greek philosophy and history. Refer to your textbook to fill in the blanks. I. Greek led to the study of history, political science,, and mathematics. A. Many philosophers were like Pythagoras, who taught that all relationships in the world could be in numbers. B. One school of philosophers were the who traveled from city to city making a living by teaching others. C. Socrates was an Athenian whose true love was philosophy. 1. Socrates invented the of teaching, which asks pointed questions to force students to use reason and to see things for themselves. 2. Socrates was accused of teaching young Athenians to against the. D. was a student of Socrates who taught that democracy was not a good system of. E. Aristotle, a student of Plato, influenced the way Europeans and thought about government. II. Greeks wrote the first real in Western civilization. A. Herodotus wrote the history of the Persian Wars and tried to separate from, but used and to explain some events. B. Most historians consider the greatest historian of the ancient world because he saw war and politics as the activities of and stressed the importance of having accurate. 66

8 Name Date Class PEOPLE TO MEET ACTIVITY 5 Hypatia Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Hypatia was one of the first famous women scientists and mathematicians. She invented the hydrometer, an instrument that compares the density of liquids and gases to water. Today, hydrometers are used to make things that Hypatia never dreamed of, including car batteries. Hypatia was born about A.D At that time, most women were not educated. Hypatia s father, Theon, was a mathematician and philosopher, so he taught Hypatia at home. A Scientist and Mathematician Hypatia lived in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. She studied philosophies, arts, and sciences from the Greek, Roman, and Egyptian cultures. Scientists and mathematicians from all over the world came to Alexandria s Museum, which was similar to a research university. Working together, they made many new discoveries. When Hypatia was 31, she became the head of the Museum and the director of the Observatory of Alexandria. Religious Persecution The Christian Church was very strong in Alexandria, but Hypatia Directions: Answer the questions below in the spaces provided. 1. What did Hypatia invent that can be used today to make car batteries? 2. What did Hypatia study in Alexandria? Scholars in Library of Alexandria 3. Writing Why do you think women were not allowed to be educated in Hypatia s time? On another sheet of paper, write a paragraph stating your views. was not Christian. Instead, she led the Neoplatonist school at Alexandria. Neoplatonism is a philosophical school of thought. For 15 years Hypatia taught Neoplatonism, astronomy, and mathematics. However, many church officials feared her scholarship, learning, and depth of scientific knowledge. In A.D. 415, a Christian mob took Hypatia from her home and killed her. Many scientists and mathematicians left Alexandria soon after that. CHAPTER 5 45

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