THE FOUNDING OF SANTA MARTA AND CA RTAGEN A

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE FOUNDING OF SANTA MARTA AND CA RTAGEN A"

Transcription

1 CHAPTER III THE FOUNDING OF SANTA MARTA AND CA RTAGEN A I. The expedition of Bastidas. 11. Vadillo as governor. III. Lermas administration and his interim successor. IV. Heredia the founder of Cartagena. V. The pillaging expedition to the graves of ZenO in DURING the period of the early efforts to explore and colonise New Andalucia, more successful attempts were made to establish settlements on the northern coast of South America, farther towards the west. In 1525, Rodrigo de Bastidas left Santo Domingo for the continent with four ships.' and on the 29th of July of this year founded the town of Santa Marta. He brought to his undertaking a determination to gain the good-will of the natives by humane and considerate treatment. He formed treaties of peace with the tribes who occupied the territory about the place which he had selected for his settlement. But this policy was not approved by his associates. He determined ) moreover, not to distribute among his men the gold which fell into his hands, until the expenses of his military equipment had been met. On this point there was also a disagreement, as well as with respect to the plan to take nothing from the Indians by force. Some of the members of the expedition, irritated by the designs of Bastidas, and led by his lieutenant, Juan de Capitulaci6n que so tomó can Rodrigo de Eastida para la poi> Iacion do Ia provincia y puerta do Santa Maria, Doc. ismtd., xxii. g

2 SANTA MARTA AND CARTAGENA 47 Villafuerte, formed a conspiracy to murder him. They broke into his quarters, stabbed him, and left him for dead. Captain Rodrigo Palomino answered his call for assistance, and drove off the conspirators when they returned to finish their work. Defeated in their second murderous assault, they fled to the forest to escape the vengeance of the indignant settlers. In the forest they were pursued by the Indians, and were obliged to seek refuge in the town. They were here arrested, and sent to Santo Domingo for trial, where they were condemned and executed, Some of the conspirators, who did not dare to return to the town, were lost in attempting to cross from Tierra FiTMC to Santo Domingo in a boat. Bastidas appointed Palomino his lieutenant-general, and empowered him to manage the affairs of the colony and in this manner he recognised the services of Palomino, who had defended him. Bastidas then went to Santo Domingo to be treated for his wounds, and died a little later in Cuba.' 1 Groot, Hiseoria cit Nueva Granada (Bogota, xssg),. 5. Castellanos states the reason of Bastidas destruction in Bib. deane. Esp., iv. 26o. Segn Ins quo mas saben do rate cuento, Fue principle y origin do sus males No consentir hacer mattratamiento Ni robes an aquellos naturales." Lorento, Coiquisia del Peru, 7, describes Bastidas as ' uno de los pores; Europeos quo on aquella época de erodes injusticias buscaban a Ins indios, no para explotarlos desapiadadamente, 5mb para atraerlos A la civilizacion con Ins gores apacibles del cemercie." Pedro Simon, Las Conquistas, ii. 3, refers to Bastidas as a ' vecino de Triana en Sevilla, hombre do buena fama, sangre, calidad y estima.' Piedrahita, lib. iii. cap. i. See " capitulacion quo so tooth con Rodrigo do Bastidas para Ia poblacion do la previncia y Puerto de Santa Marta," Madrid, November 6, The metrical chronicle of Juan de Castellanos, in its relation to the early history of New Granada, calls to mind Ercilla's Araucana in its relation to the early events of Chilean history. Castellanos was born in the little town of.alanis, in the province of Seville, in the first part of the sixteenth century. He left Spain as a soldier, began his military career in Porto Rico, and was later at Paria and in the islands of Trinidad and cubagea. He was transferred to the island of Margarita after the earthquake which caused all of the colonists of cubagua to remove to Margarita. In 5550 he was living at Cape

3 48 THE SPANISH DEPENDENCIES II When the death of Bastidas became known to the audiencia of Santo Domingo, that body appointed Pedro Vadillo to be the governor of Santa Marta. Palomino, however, refused to yield the post of authority to Vadillo, and an armed conflict appeared to be inevitable. Vadillo had under his command a body of only about two hundred men, not enough to \valtant him in undertaking to suppress Palomino by force. Fortunately the two parties agreed to unite and recognise both leaders as equal in authority until the return of the messengers from Spain with the decision of the court. Palomino, continuing his campaigns against the Indians, was drowned by his horse losing his looting in attempting to ford a river. The disappearance of Palomino left Vadillo without embarrassment in exercising his rapacious designs with respect to the natives. He penetrated the interior of the country, crossed the sierra Tairona, and ) by a military occupation of many months, converted flourishing and happy valleys do to Vela, and a little later he is known to have been at Santa Marta, where he remained until lie was in Cartagena when that town was taken by pirates in While here he became a priest, and was appointed to lie the treasurer of the cathedral, but he refused to accept this office, and removed from the diocese. He was finally established at Tunja as the parish priest, and here he wrote his Elegies de varones i7usrres de Ins!,zdios. At. Turin he spent his old age its peace, but the time of his death is not known. It is known, however, that ho was living in 188, for ITS his writings he refers to events which occurred in that year. The first part of the Elegies was printed in 189 the second part was printed near the end of the century and the three parts were issued together in the Iliblioteca de Antares Españotes, in the fourth volume. Reference may be made to three accounts of Castellanos. The first is contained in the Introduction to the Hisioria del Nueva Reino de Granada, by Antonio Paz y Mélia (Madrid, 1886), vol. i The second is a thin volume of one hundred and six pages, by Marcos Jiniénez de La Espada (Madrid xssg), called Juan de Castellanos y so hisloria del Nueno Reino de Granada. The third is Schumacher's Lebensbild, found in Iiamburgsche Feslschn'fl sot Erinne;'nng an die Enldeckitng Anteri/ca's (Hamburg, 1892), ii

4 SANTA MARTA AND CARTAGENA 49 into scenes of desolation and misery. From this campaign, which lasted a year, Vadillo returned to Santa Marta with a large quantity of gold and jewels, and as many slaves as the soldiers could take charge of, who, like thousands that had preceded them ) were destined to perish miserably under the tasks imposed upon them in the islands. Reports of Vadillo's avarice and cruelty having reached the court, he was sent to Spain for trial, but he was lost off the coast of the Peninsula. Thus, like both of his predecessors, the third governor of Santa Marta met a tragic fate.' El Garcia Lerma succeeded Vadillo as governor of Santa Marta, and the beginning of his administration was contemporaneous with the establishment of the rule of the Welsers in Venezuela. In this period the authorities in Spain made another attempt to ameliorate the condition of the Indians. The new governor was required not to sanction the enslavement of the natives but to exercise all possible diligence in discovering, in the islands and elsewhere, the Indians who had been drawn from his territory and reduced to slavery. At the same time it was made his duty to restore such persons to the districts from which they had been taken and the audiencia of Santo Domingo was ordered to assist in this work of justice and humanity. It was presumed that the governor would be assisted in attempts to execute these orders by the twenty ecclesiastics who had accompanied him to America, and particularly by the famous preacher, Tomas Ortiz, who bore the title of Protector of the Indians. But the plan involved in these orders, like other pious designs of the Spanish government, was frustrated, because it was in opposition to the interests of the colonists. Acosta, Nueva Granada, yo gi Simon, Los cairqnislas do Tierra Th yme, ii. r g, See C.H. 4 Sri Afaçestad de Rodrip de Granada, Jul y 15, 1529, Doe. laid., 4 1, 284. VOL. 1. D

5 5 THE SPANISH DEPENDENCIES Governor Lerma brought several kinds of seed from Spain for the purpose of encouraging the cultivation of the soil, yet his attention was directed mainly to the exploration of the interior. Sometimes the members of the companies employed in this enterprise were received by the Indians in a friendly manner; but often they encountered open hostility, or were decoyed into positions where the natives might destroy them without danger to themselves. The Chimilas sometimes hung articles of gold at their doors, and then concealed themselves hard by, where from their ambush they might despatch the Spaniard with their poisoned arrows when he came to take away the gold. A number of attempts were made to explore the Magdalena River during Lerma's administration. An expedition under the leadership of JerOnimo Melo, a Portuguese, was fruitless, owing to the death of Melo in an early period of the undertaking. Under the direction of the priest, Viana, the river was explored to its junction with the Cauca. Viana and his men then followed this latter stream to its confluence with the San Jorje. Throughout their long and wearisome journey they found no inhabitants who seemed to have the gold they sought; and, finally, worn out, half-starved, and discouraged, they constructed rafts and floated down the river, and reached Santa Marta in the beginning of 1532.' For the support of the ecclesiastics of the colony Governor Lerma granted an encomienda, which was to be held by Ortiz in their behalf. A little later Ortiz appears as the first bishop of Santa Marta. He undertook to make more humane the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards, but he was able to accomplish little or nothing in opposition to the greed of the settlers and the practices already confirmed by custom. He, therefore, Benedetti, Historia de Colombia (Lima, 188), : Groot, Historia de Nueva Granada, i. 6, 7 Acosta, Nueva Granada, 97 too Carta e relacion tie Garcia tie Lenna, January ig, 1630, Doe. med., 41,

6 SANTA MARTA AND CARTAGENA 51 went to Spain to give the king an account of the condition of affairs in the colony, but died almost immediately on reaching the Peninsula.' The alcaldes and regidores of Santa Marta issued a statement concerning the administration of Governor Lerma, in which they called attention to the hostility hc had aroused among the Indians, and to the avarice and injustice he had displayed. They affirmed that when he arrived, a Spaniard might safely go alone forty leagues into the interior, and that the Indians would give him whatever he needed without doing him any harm; but, at the time of their writing, a company of fifteen mounted soldiers would not dare to go two and a half leagues from the port. In the beginning the Indians were so friendly that when the chiefs visited the governor they brought gold and jewels, and these things lie received without sharing them with any other persons ; whereas, in justice, having paid the part due the king, he should have given some part of them to the people. And when a soldier came to him to ask permission to go and excavate a grave which lie had seen, lie would grant this request only on condition that the soldier would give him a certain part of the spoil. They affirmed, moreover, that the governor, who had brought two miners, or stone-cutters, with him from Spain, by employing these and other persons in his service, he caused a number of graves to be plundered secretly before they were known to anyone else. On the truth of these and various other charges of greed, injustice, and favouritism, the alealdes and regidores were willing to stake their lives and property.' Before the return of Viana's expedition, the audiencia of Santo Domingo had appointed one of its members, the (hoot, Historia tie Nueva Granada, I. ii Acosta, Ni:eva Granada, 9'....' decimos que fbi obligainos, nuestras cabezas y haciendas, a hacer verdad y probar con toda esta cibtiad lo que en cite mona) se conhiene, pie vá firmado dc nucitros nonibres." Dot. mid., iii. 499.

7 52 THE SPANISH DEPENDENCIES oidor Infante, to occupy the post made vacant by the death of Governor Lerma. The only noteworthy record of the three years of this interim administration is that of violence and plundering, of which the natives were the victims. The governor was not disposed to abate these evils, since he received a part of the price of the Indians sold, and a part of the proceeds of tribute and pillage.' lv More important than the foundation of Santa Marta was that of Cartagena, made by Pedro de Heredia. Heredia had already played a part in Santa Marta before the arrival of Governor Lerma. lie had been the lieutenant of Vadillo, and had had much experience in dealing with the natives. He had acquired more knowledge of their character than the majority of his associates. He was brave, resolute, and endowed with the ability to make his orders obeyed by the adventurers who found in the exploration of America scope for their restless spirits. He had inherited property in Santo Domingo, and this gave him a position sufficiently prominent to cause Vadillo to make him his lieutenant. 'While in the service of Vadillo, he conceived the idea of providing for himself a career of greater independence. Therefore,! shortly after the accession of Garcia de Lerma to the governorship of Santa Marta, Heredia returned to Spain, and obtained a grant covering the then unoccupied coast region extending from Piedrahita, His/oria ge,utral eel ivicvo Reino de Granada, jib. iii. cap. 3. On the 19th of April 1531, Governor Lerma wrote to the king, informing him ' pie a Ins veinte e seis do dicho mes de liebeero pasado, perrnitió thus Nuestrn Seffor, por nuestros defectos, que a media noclie se quemara toda esta cibdad sin quedar cosa alguna on ella, ansi mantenymientos, como todo to deinas de questaha bien bastezida, mas quo nunca 10 estuvo, que a side a todos mucho e muy general dailo e perdida: salvose esta casa do vuestra Magestad, pie fize per su mandado, p05' see de otros materiales pie las otras, ques de piedra, barro e ladril]o." Doe. med., xli. 33'.

8 SANTA MARTA AND CARTAGENA 53 the mouth of the!vlagdalena River to the Gulf of Darien, or Urabá. This concession imposed essentially the same conditions as that under which Bastidas had founded Santa Iviarta.' From the spoils of his excursions among the natives, Heredia was able to employ a large sum to meet the expenses of his expedition. Instructed by his experience, lie knew what articles would be useful, and was thus able to avoid the mistakes made by some of the previous explorers, who had burdened themselves with things that might have been suitable in Spain, but were illadapted to the circumstances of the New World. At Seville Heredia enlisted a hundred and fifty men, constructed two ships, and provided also a small vessel for exploring inlets and rivers which the larger vessels could not enter. He sailed from Cadiz near the end of He touched at Porto Rico and Santo Domingo, where a number of other persons joined the expedition. Among these was Captain Francisco Cósar, who had been one of Sebastian Cabot's companions on the voyage to the Rio de la Plata. Heredia arrived in the Bay of Cartagena in January He had appointed Francisco César to be his chief lieutenant, and on the 21st of January he established a municipality at the site of the present city of Cartagena. After the death of Ojeda and La Cosa, the poisoned arrows of the Indians inspired a well-grounded fear in the settlers, and they accepted San Sebastian as the patron saint of Cartagena, because, as it was affirmed, he had been killed by poisoned arrows, and would, therefore, be especially solicitous to ward off similar assaults by the Indians.2 The most peacefully-disposed governor could not always avoid conflicts with the natives for, on account of the treatment which they had previously received at Dot. med., xxii Benedetti, Historia dc Colombia, 226 Groot, if istoria de Nncva Granada, L Acosta, Nueva Gra,,ada, Piedraliita, pp

9 4 THE SPANISH DEPENDENCIES the hands of the Spaniards, it was difficult to make any tribe attach great importance to Spanish professions of friendship. Hostility became, therefore, almost inevitable whenever a European settlement was made on or near territory occupied by Indians. Heredia wished to enter into such relations with the natives that he could trade with them, yet, in spite of his wishes, he found himself, in the beginning, involved in conflicts with several tribes. But in the course of time he drew to his side some of the tribes, by offering to assist them against their enemies, and by rendering them various services which indicated his friendly spirit. It was not difficult for him to see that to establish peaceful relations with his neighbours was in keeping with a wise commercial policy; for with the inexpensive wares which he had brought from Spain for distribution among them, he might expect to gain more gold than by hostile military operations. In his most successful expedition into the interior, Heredia pursued a policy of conciliation. He required his men to camp at some distance from the Indian towns, in order by this means to avoid all violence and disorder. From this expedition he returned to Cartagena with treasure amounting to more than a million and a half of golden ducats. Each common soldier received from this sum six thousand ducats after the royal fifths, the governor's portion, and the parts reserved for the hospital, the captains, and other purposes had been withdrawn. Among the spoils there was a figure of massive gold, weighing about one hundred and forty pounds, and representing a porcupine. It was found in a temple, and Acosta says, they took it away instantly, saying they could not consent to such beastly idolatry." Nueva Granada, 118.

10 SANTA MARTA AND CARTAGENA 55 V The fame of the riches acquired by Heredia and his men soon made Cartagena the most frequented point of Tierra Firme its excellent harbour attracted vessels bound from Spain to the Isthmus; and the abundance of gold distributed among the inhabitants introduced a certain luxury and movement not characteristic of any other settlement. Owing to the favourable attitude of the neighbouring Indians, and their willingness to furnish the products of their fields, there was no lack of food ; and the vessels from Santo Domingo brought an abundance of the various kinds of supplies that were needed. The town grew rapidly in population, and the large amount of easilyacquired wealth gave it the appearance of great prosperity. In the beginning of 1534, a new expedition was undertaken. It involved two hundred and fifty men, fifty of whom were mounted; and it was more thoroughly equipped than any of the expeditions that had preceded it. It was noteworthy for the rich spoils derived from the cemetery at Zend, in which the natives of the district had been accustomed to bury their dead, together with certain articles of value. At this point in the progress of the expedition, Heredia departed from his policy of peace and conciliation, and ordered the cemetery and the neighbouring town to be pillaged. From the temple he took a number of bells of gold, the value of which amounted to one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and from the cemetery and other sources enormous sums which cannot be definitely and accurately stated in terms of a modern measure of value. The graves at Zenfl continued to be exploited, as if they were mines, long after the return of this expedition to Cartagena; but when they were exhausted, and subsequent expeditions failed to reveal other extraordinary sources of wealth, the adventurous spirits of many of the inhabitants urged them to exploits in other fields. The

11 S6 THE SPANISH DEPENDENCIES province of Darien, and the unexplored valleys of the Atrato and the Cauca appeared to be the most attractive fields within reach. In 1536, Governor Heredia undertook an expedition against the Dobaiba on the Atrato, but he was not more successful than those who had failed in a similar undertaking previously. The next year Francisco César penetrated the valley of the Cauca, which was then the most densely populated and most thoroughly cultivated of the territory which to-day is embraced in the province of Antioquia."' But during the period of these campaigns, dissatisfaction with the conduct of the governor had appeared in Cartagena, and the complaints which were made warranted the appointment of a visitador to examine the charges that had been brought against him, and to subject him to the trial known as the residencia. The person appointed by the court to conduct the trial having died on the voyage from Spain, the audiencia of Santo Domingo conferred the office upon Juan de Vadillo, a member of the audiencia, who was a brother of Pedro de Vadillo, formerly governor of Santa Marta. The evidence in the hands of the visitador seemed to incriminate both the governor and his brother, Alonso de Heredia, and both were arrested. The most serious charges were that they had defrauded the public treasury in the distribution of the gold taken from the graves at Zenü, and had ma!- treated and enslaved the Indians. This event closed the first period of Heredia's administration in Piedrahita, See letters of Juan de Vadillo to the king, dated at Cartagena, February ii, October 13, and October 15, 1537, Doe, med., xli

Sir Walter Raleigh ( )

Sir Walter Raleigh ( ) Sir Walter Raleigh (1552 1618) ANOTHER famous Englishman who lived in the days of Queen Elizabeth was Sir Walter Raleigh. He was a soldier and statesman, a poet and historian but the most interesting fact

More information

In the 15th and 16th century, interest in exploration had reached its peak. Encouraged by

In the 15th and 16th century, interest in exploration had reached its peak. Encouraged by 1 In the 15th and 16th century, interest in exploration had reached its peak. Encouraged by monarchs such as Prince Henry the Navigator, many Europeans set off to find new trades routes to the East so

More information

Section 1 The Oregon Country: The U.S. was a nation that was destined to be a country that reached from coast to coast.

Section 1 The Oregon Country: The U.S. was a nation that was destined to be a country that reached from coast to coast. Chapter 14 Manifest Destiny Section 1 The Oregon Country: The U.S. was a nation that was destined to be a country that reached from coast to coast. Settlers Move West: The Oregon Country included the present

More information

World History One DBQ:

World History One DBQ: World History One DBQ: Global Exploration s Consequences for Native Americans Bartholome de Las Casas Condemning the Cruel Treatment of the Indians by the Conquistadors The Following task is based on the

More information

Amerigo Vespucci Italy He wanted to explore the New World after he met Christopher Columbus. In 1507, America was named after him.

Amerigo Vespucci Italy He wanted to explore the New World after he met Christopher Columbus. In 1507, America was named after him. Christopher Columbus- 1492 Italy He wanted to sail west to reach the Indies. He wanted to find jewels, spices and silk. He first landed in Americas in 1492. He thought he was in the Indies and named the

More information

1600 AD SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN TURNS HIS ATTENTION BACK TO THE SEA

1600 AD SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN TURNS HIS ATTENTION BACK TO THE SEA 1600 AD SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN TURNS HIS ATTENTION BACK TO THE SEA If you have run with men on foot, and they have wearied you, then how can you contend with horses? If in the land of peace, wherein thou

More information

Christopher Columbus: Hero or Villain? U.S. History 8: DBQ #1. Introduction

Christopher Columbus: Hero or Villain? U.S. History 8: DBQ #1. Introduction Christopher Columbus: Hero or Villain? U.S. History 8: DBQ #1 Introduction Recent historical interpretations of Christopher Columbus' voyages to the New World have created controversy surrounding the national

More information

Unit 10: The Roosevelt and Taft Administrations

Unit 10: The Roosevelt and Taft Administrations T h e A r t i o s H o m e C o m p a n i o n S e r i e s T e a c h e r O v e r v i e w In 1902 Mr. Roosevelt had become president by accident. If it had not been for the tragedy of President McKinley s

More information

Last Will and Testament of Juan Nuñez de Nodal aboard Nuestra Señora de Atocha, May 18 th, 1622

Last Will and Testament of Juan Nuñez de Nodal aboard Nuestra Señora de Atocha, May 18 th, 1622 Last Will and Testament of Juan Nuñez de Nodal aboard Nuestra Señora de Atocha, May 18 th, 1622 By Corey Malcom Reprinted from Navigator: Newsletter of the Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Society, Vol.24

More information

Chapter 11, Section 1 Trails to the West. Pages

Chapter 11, Section 1 Trails to the West. Pages Chapter 11, Section 1 Trails to the West Pages 345-349 Many Americans during the Jacksonian Era were restless, curious, and eager to be on the move. The American West drew a variety of settlers. Some looked

More information

Why Some New World Colonies Succeeded and Others Failed

Why Some New World Colonies Succeeded and Others Failed Why Some New World Colonies Succeeded and Others Failed An Online Professional Development Seminar Sponsored by the Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources Eastern Region Program, coordinated

More information

Explorers A to Z Bonnie Rose Hudson WriteBonnieRose.com

Explorers A to Z Bonnie Rose Hudson WriteBonnieRose.com Explorers A to Z The world is a big place. That doesn t come as a surprise to you and me. All of our lives, we ve had maps that show us where we are compared with every single nation on earth. We can count

More information

DBQ Unit 6: European Age of Exploration

DBQ Unit 6: European Age of Exploration Name Date Part A DBQ Unit 6: European Age of Exploration Directions The task below is based on documents 1 through 5. This task is designed to test your ability to work with the information provided by

More information

Oregon Country. Adams-Onís Treaty. Mountain Men. Kit Carson. Oregon Trail. Manifest Destiny

Oregon Country. Adams-Onís Treaty. Mountain Men. Kit Carson. Oregon Trail. Manifest Destiny Chapter 11 Section 1: Westward to the Pacific Oregon Country Adams-Onís Treaty Mountain Men Kit Carson Oregon Trail Manifest Destiny Chapter 11 Section 2: Independence for Texas Davy Crockett The area

More information

Lecture Six Fall 2016

Lecture Six Fall 2016 Lecture Six Fall 2016 Rudolfo Anaya, author of Bless Me, Ultima and the dean of contemporary Chicano literature, receive the National Humanities Medal from President Obama at a White House ceremony on

More information

AP World History!!!!!!!! Name Period 4: !!!!!!!! Period!

AP World History!!!!!!!! Name Period 4: !!!!!!!! Period! AP World History Name Period 4: 1450-1750 Period Exploration and Conquest: Part I, The Motivation The following 3 documents represent different motivations for colonization of the New World. Read and annotate

More information

Dear Sir and Father, We treated them as such, and then waited to see what they would do.

Dear Sir and Father, We treated them as such, and then waited to see what they would do. MEMORIAL TO SIR WILFRID LAURIER, PREMIER OF THE DOMINION OF CANADA FROM THE CHIEFS OF THE SHUSWAP, OKANAGAN AND COUTEAU TRIBES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. PRESENTED AT KAMLOOPS, B.C. AUGUST 25, 1910 Dear Sir

More information

Source: Diego Rivera, Battle between the Aztecs and Conquistadors

Source: Diego Rivera, Battle between the Aztecs and Conquistadors Spanish Exploration DBQ: For the period 1486 to 1560, analyze the connection between Spanish exploration and conquest in the Americas and the role of religion. Historical Background: During the Middle

More information

Second Regular Session Seventieth General Assembly STATE OF COLORADO INTRODUCED

Second Regular Session Seventieth General Assembly STATE OF COLORADO INTRODUCED Second Regular Session Seventieth General Assembly STATE OF COLORADO INTRODUCED LLS NO. 1-0.01 Kate Meyer x HOUSE BILL 1- HOUSE SPONSORSHIP Salazar, Melton, Fields, Lebsock, Garnett, Becker K., Buckner,

More information

Why did English men and women colonize America?

Why did English men and women colonize America? Why did English men and women colonize America? They were looking for religious freedom? They wanted to spread their religion? They were seeking adventure? They were seeking fame? They wanted to grow the

More information

America: The Story of US. Chapter 3: sections 1-4

America: The Story of US. Chapter 3: sections 1-4 America: The Story of US Chapter 3: sections 1-4 In this Chapter What will we see? Setting: Time & Place Time: 1588 Place: Europe: England & Spain How it all started. Spain and England always fought against

More information

The Making of a Nation #47

The Making of a Nation #47 The Making of a Nation #47 The national election of 1832 put Andrew Jackson in the White House for a second term as president. One of the major events of his second term was the fight against the Bank

More information

(2) SIGNIFICANT THEMES AND HIGHLIGHTS

(2) SIGNIFICANT THEMES AND HIGHLIGHTS 13 Moving West (1) CHAPTER OUTLINE Narcissa Whitman her husb Marcus, were among thouss of Americans who played a part in the movement into the trans-mississippi West between 1830-1865. The chapter also

More information

Sir Walter Raleigh. Roanoke

Sir Walter Raleigh. Roanoke Sir Walter Raleigh Roanoke Sir Walter Raleigh was an English explorer, soldier and writer. At age 17, he fought with the French Huguenots and later studied at Oxford. He became a favorite of Queen Elizabeth

More information

Lord Governor and Commandant Inspector: J[ose]ph Padron by [his] first marriage, with permission do

Lord Governor and Commandant Inspector: J[ose]ph Padron by [his] first marriage, with permission do 55 1782 [cross] Petition presented by Antonia Rosala.a de Armas for the division and distribution (of property left) at the decease and death of her mother; her brother Pedro Granado [acting] as executor.

More information

Remember the Alamo! The Making of a Nation Program No. 47 Andrew Jackson Part Two

Remember the Alamo! The Making of a Nation Program No. 47 Andrew Jackson Part Two Remember the Alamo! The Making of a Nation Program No. 47 Andrew Jackson Part Two From VOA Learning English, welcome to The Making of a Nation, our weekly program of American history for people learning

More information

THE DE LUNA EXPEDITION

THE DE LUNA EXPEDITION THE DE LUNA EXPEDITION BRENDAN SULLIVAN, O.P. ll HE- J Charles V abdicated the throne of Spain in favor of his son, Phillip II, many grave and critical problems were presenting themselves for settlement.

More information

( ) EUROPE AWAKENS... 3 SPANISH CLAIMS AND CONQUESTS ENGLISH EFFORTS SPANISH FRENCH AND DUTCH... 33

( ) EUROPE AWAKENS... 3 SPANISH CLAIMS AND CONQUESTS ENGLISH EFFORTS SPANISH FRENCH AND DUTCH... 33 HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY 801 EUROPE COMES TO AMERICA (1492 1620) CONTENTS I. QUEST AND CONQUEST.................. 2 EUROPE AWAKENS.................................. 3 THE VOYAGES OF COLUMBUS..........................

More information

Chapter 2: Historical Overview of Independence

Chapter 2: Historical Overview of Independence Chapter 2: Historical Overview of Independence In this chapter you will find: A Brief History of the HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF INDEPENDENCE Photograph on cover page: Independence County Courthouse remodeled

More information

Map Exercise Routes West and Territory

Map Exercise Routes West and Territory Routes to the West Unit Objective: examine the cause and effects of Independence Movements west & south of the United States; investigate and critique U.S. expansionism under the administrations of Van

More information

Prayer for the Community of Saints

Prayer for the Community of Saints PRAYER Prayer for the Community of Saints We give thanks for All the saints, Signs of hope for us In a time when hope is Often difficult to discern. We give thanks for The communion of saints, Our living

More information

Journal of Christopher Columbus, 1492, (Excerpt)

Journal of Christopher Columbus, 1492, (Excerpt) Journal of Christopher Columbus, 1492, (Excerpt) Italian explorer Christopher Columbus's voyage to the Western Hemisphere in 1492 was one of the most significant events in modern history, bringing together

More information

The New England Colonies. How Do New Ideas Change the Way People Live?

The New England Colonies. How Do New Ideas Change the Way People Live? The New England Colonies How Do New Ideas Change the Way People Live? Seeking Religious Freedom Guiding Question: Why did the Puritans settle in North America? The Jamestown settlers had come to America

More information

1. Why did God create you? God made me to know Him, love Him, and serve Him in this world, so to be happy with Him in Heaven.

1. Why did God create you? God made me to know Him, love Him, and serve Him in this world, so to be happy with Him in Heaven. 1. Why did God create you? God made me to know Him, love Him, and serve Him in this world, so to be happy with Him in Heaven. 2. What happens in the Sacrament of Baptism? 1) God forgives us of all sin.

More information

The War Begins! Domingo de Ugartechea return a canon refused take it by force.

The War Begins! Domingo de Ugartechea return a canon refused take it by force. TEXAS REVOLUTION The War Begins! By 1835, many Texans were upset with the Mexican government because of Santa Anna s actions Fearing trouble, Mexican general Domingo de Ugartechea, ordered the people of

More information

DBQ: Who Caused the American Revolution?

DBQ: Who Caused the American Revolution? DBQ: Who Caused the American Revolution? wiki.dickinson.eduwiki.dickinson.edu Who caused the American Revolution? Document 1 That this kingdom has the sovereign, the supreme legislative power over America,

More information

Christopher Columbus. revised English 2327: American Literature I D. Glen Smith, instructor

Christopher Columbus. revised English 2327: American Literature I D. Glen Smith, instructor Spanish Exploration of Americas Early in the exploration of the Americas, Spain used divine sanction from Pope Alexander VI to explore and conquer the New World. As history progressed, the Spanish conquest

More information

Lecture Six Fall 2014

Lecture Six Fall 2014 Lecture Six Fall 2014 Tenochtitlan on Lake Texcoco about 1519, today Mexico City Series of small islands Canals cross the city Floating gardens (tenampas) Tenochtitlan before 1519 The Great Pyramid of

More information

Joseph Bonnell: The Forgotten Texas Leader. Truman Dowdy. Junior Division. Lone Star Leadership in History

Joseph Bonnell: The Forgotten Texas Leader. Truman Dowdy. Junior Division. Lone Star Leadership in History Joseph Bonnell: The Forgotten Texas Leader Truman Dowdy Junior Division Lone Star Leadership in History PAGE 1 May it be said, Well done; Be thou at peace Captain Joseph Bonnell. 1 There are many people

More information

Today Squanto s tribe, the Wampanoag, live in Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

Today Squanto s tribe, the Wampanoag, live in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. The Story of Squanto Blessed is he who in the prime of his youth and the heyday of his life will arise to serve the Cause of the Lord of the beginning and of the end, and adorn his heart with His love.

More information

Puritanism. Puritanism- first successful NE settlers. Puritans:

Puritanism. Puritanism- first successful NE settlers. Puritans: Puritanism Puritanism- first successful NE settlers Puritans: Want to totally reform [purify] the Church of England. Grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant Reformation back in England. Separatists:

More information

H THE STORY OF TEXAS EDUCATOR GUIDE H. Student Objectives TEKS. Guiding Questions. Materials

H THE STORY OF TEXAS EDUCATOR GUIDE H. Student Objectives TEKS. Guiding Questions. Materials H C H A P T E R F I V E H A GROWING SENSE OF SEPARATENESS Overview Chapter 5: A Growing Sense of Separateness begins at the entrance of the Second Floor exhibits and stretches through Stephen F. Austin

More information

Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Class Notes

Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Class Notes Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Class Notes The Lost Colony of Roanoke - England wanted colonies in North America because they hoped America was rich in gold or other resources. - Establish a colony is very difficult

More information

The use of diaries as a primary source for the study of history not only makes

The use of diaries as a primary source for the study of history not only makes , Pens, & Prose: Discovering Early Manuscripts COMING TO CALIFORNIA Juan Bautista de Anza Establishes a Land Route Grade 4 California History This project is generously made possible through a grant from

More information

The Epistle of Hebrews Chapter 4

The Epistle of Hebrews Chapter 4 The Epistle of Hebrews Chapter 4 Commentary by Gerald Paden The Promised Sabbath-Rest : Hebrews 4: 1-16 1 16 Hebrew 4 continues the discussion of the exodus that ended in failure. The children of Israel

More information

Attributed to SEBASTIÁN DE LLANOS Y VALDÉS (Seville, ca ) Equestrian Portrait of the Emperor Caligula. Oil on canvas x 151.7cm Ca.

Attributed to SEBASTIÁN DE LLANOS Y VALDÉS (Seville, ca ) Equestrian Portrait of the Emperor Caligula. Oil on canvas x 151.7cm Ca. Attributed to SEBASTIÁN DE LLANOS Y VALDÉS (Seville, ca.1605 1677) Equestrian Portrait of the Emperor Caligula Oil on canvas 211.4 x 151.7cm Ca.1660 Provenance: Private collection, USA In the certificate

More information

Pt.II: Colonialism, Nationalism, the Harem 19 th -20 th centuries

Pt.II: Colonialism, Nationalism, the Harem 19 th -20 th centuries Pt.II: Colonialism, Nationalism, the Harem 19 th -20 th centuries Week 9: Morocco [Nov. 11 Remembrance Day Holiday; Nov. 13 cancelled; Discussion Nov. 15] Morocco: 19 th -20 th C. History of Imperial

More information

Discovering and Exploring the Americas

Discovering and Exploring the Americas Discovering and Exploring the Americas By Cindy Barden COPYRIGHT 2001 Mark Twain Media, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58037-821-5 Printing No. 1395-EB Mark Twain Media, Inc., Publishers Distributed by Carson-Dellosa

More information

The Great Encounter: American Indians Meet Explorers & Mountain Men

The Great Encounter: American Indians Meet Explorers & Mountain Men Slide 1 CHAPTER 4 The Great Encounter: American Indians Meet Explorers & Mountain Men Slide 2 The Mood Just as different groups of Native American Indian people had displaced other groups who lived in

More information

The Wittenberg Times

The Wittenberg Times 1541 Henry VIII Named King of Ireland The Parliament of Ireland voted to declare Henry VIII as their king after his troops put down the popular rebellion of Silken Thomas, the Earl of Kildare. The rebellion

More information

Indian Ocean Trade and Social & Cultural Change AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( )

Indian Ocean Trade and Social & Cultural Change AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( ) Indian Ocean Trade and Social & Cultural Change AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS (600 1450) After 1200 there was an expansion of trade in the Indian Ocean, why? Rising prosperity of Asia, European, &

More information

Guide to the Fitch Family Papers MS 25

Guide to the Fitch Family Papers MS 25 http://oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/kt4199s0h5 No online items Finding aid prepared by Katrina White Collection processed as part of grant project supported by the Council on Library and Information

More information

ADDRESS ON COLONIZATION TO A DEPUTATION OF COLORED MEN.

ADDRESS ON COLONIZATION TO A DEPUTATION OF COLORED MEN. ADDRESS ON COLONIZATION TO A DEPUTATION OF COLORED MEN. WASHINGTON, Thursday, August 14, 1862. This afternoon the President of the United States gave an audience to a committee of colored men at the White

More information

Colonial America. Roanoke : The Lost Colony. Founded: 1585 & Founded by: Sir Walter Raleigh WHEN: WHO? 100 men

Colonial America. Roanoke : The Lost Colony. Founded: 1585 & Founded by: Sir Walter Raleigh WHEN: WHO? 100 men Colonial America Roanoke : The Lost Colony Founded: 1585 & 1587 Reasons for Settlement Vocabulary a country s permanent settlement in another part of the world. the ability to worship however you choose.

More information

Chapter 3: Many Flags over Iowa

Chapter 3: Many Flags over Iowa Chapter 3: Many Flags over Iowa CONTENT OBJECTIVES IOWA PAST TO PRSENT TEACHERS GUIDE Revised 3 rd Edition Following the completion of the readings and activities for this chapter, students will have acquired

More information

Manifest Destiny Unit Text Chapter 13

Manifest Destiny Unit Text Chapter 13 Manifest Destiny Unit Text Chapter 13 8.58 Describe the concept of Manifest Destiny and its impact on the developing character of the American nation, including the purpose, challenges and economic incentives

More information

British North America Part I

British North America Part I British North America Part I Charter Colonies Received a charter from the King. Were commercial ventures. Elected their governments and the governor was appointed by the English Parliament. Proprietary

More information

The Beattie Family Papers, MS 158

The Beattie Family Papers, MS 158 The Beattie Family Papers, 1814-1884 MS 158 Introduction The Beattie Family Papers consist of lands deeds, correspondence, and various legal documents from the years 1814 to 1884. The collection primarily

More information

Unit 24: A Roman Dictator

Unit 24: A Roman Dictator T h e A r t i o s H o m e C o m p a n i o n S e r i e s T e a c h e r O v e r v i e w Julius Caesar is the most famous of the Roman rulers. Many of the Roman rulers were assassinated as others became jealous

More information

Dr. Goodluck Ofoegbu Prof. Oby Ofoegbu Banking Blessings Ministry San Antonio, Texas USA

Dr. Goodluck Ofoegbu Prof. Oby Ofoegbu Banking Blessings Ministry San Antonio, Texas USA Dr. Goodluck Ofoegbu Prof. Oby Ofoegbu Banking Blessings Ministry San Antonio, Texas USA What We Will Learn Through Esther s appeal to King Xerxes And God s intervention Mordecai triumphed over conspiracy

More information

CRISIS AND REFORMS CRISIS AND REFORMS DIOCLETIAN ( )

CRISIS AND REFORMS CRISIS AND REFORMS DIOCLETIAN ( ) CRISIS AND REFORMS After death of Marcus Aurelius (the end of the Pax Romana) the empire was rocked by political and economic turmoil for 100 years Emperors were overthrown regularly by political intrigue

More information

Colonies Take Root

Colonies Take Root Colonies Take Root 1587-1752 Essential Question: How did the English start colonies with distinct qualities in North America? Formed by the Virginia Company in search of gold Many original settlers were

More information

Station 1: Maps of the Trail of Tears

Station 1: Maps of the Trail of Tears Station : Maps of the Trail of Tears. According to the maps, how many total Native American Tribes were resettled to the Indian Lands in 8? Name them.. There were no railroads in 8 to transport the Native

More information

Columbus Describes His First Voyage

Columbus Describes His First Voyage Columbus Describes His First Voyage On his return voyage to Spain in January 1493, Christopher Columbus composed a letter intended for wide circulation and had copies of it sent ahead to Isabella and Ferdinand

More information

The Louisiana Territory Act-It-Out

The Louisiana Territory Act-It-Out I N F O R M ATI O N MASTER A The Louisiana Territory Act-It-Out Follow the narration below to create an act-it-out about the Louisiana Territory. When your teacher says Action!, the actors will move, act,

More information

Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West

Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West The Market Revolution factory system changed the lives of workers and consumers. People will stop growing and making things for their own survival and begin

More information

Vikings A Reading A Z Level T Leveled Book Word Count: 1,358

Vikings A Reading A Z Level T Leveled Book Word Count: 1,358 Vikings A Reading A Z Level T Leveled Book Word Count: 1,358 LEVELED BOOK T Vikings Written by William Houseman Illustrated by Maria Voris T W Z Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials.

More information

DERRIBANDO FORTALEZAS (SPANISH EDITION) BY DEREK PRINCE DOWNLOAD EBOOK : DERRIBANDO FORTALEZAS (SPANISH EDITION) BY DEREK PRINCE PDF

DERRIBANDO FORTALEZAS (SPANISH EDITION) BY DEREK PRINCE DOWNLOAD EBOOK : DERRIBANDO FORTALEZAS (SPANISH EDITION) BY DEREK PRINCE PDF Read Online and Download Ebook DERRIBANDO FORTALEZAS (SPANISH EDITION) BY DEREK PRINCE DOWNLOAD EBOOK : DERRIBANDO FORTALEZAS (SPANISH EDITION) BY DEREK Click link bellow and free register to download

More information

(Nuestra Señora de Covadonga Reina Del Rosario Santissimo de La Trinidad y Las Cordilleras)

(Nuestra Señora de Covadonga Reina Del Rosario Santissimo de La Trinidad y Las Cordilleras) (Nuestra Señora de Covadonga Reina Del Rosario Santissimo de La Trinidad y Las Cordilleras) Every day more and more devotees and pilgrims from all over the country are flocking the San Jose Parish Church

More information

Module 01: Demographic Catastrophe What Happened to the Native Population After 1492?

Module 01: Demographic Catastrophe What Happened to the Native Population After 1492? Module 01: Demographic Catastrophe What Happened to the Native Population After 1492? Evidence 10: Mayan Experience With Smallpox Introduction The Annals of the Cakchiquels tells the history of a branch

More information

PART II. war and realizing the dangers of a province so open to British

PART II. war and realizing the dangers of a province so open to British PEOPLE OF COLOR IN LOUISIANA PART II Louisiana was transferred to Spain but was not long to be secure in the possession of that country. France again claimed her in 1800, and Napoleon, busy with his English

More information

Our Mission Ad Gentes to Europe and the Americas.

Our Mission Ad Gentes to Europe and the Americas. Richard K. Baawobr, m.afr. Paris, 8 th December 2014 Our Mission Ad Gentes to Europe and the Americas. The decision of the 2010 General Chapter Our 27 th General Chapter (2010) affirmed the validity of

More information

Unit Test. The New Republic. Form A. best choice in the space provided. Bear Flag Revolt? a. A union of Spanish settlers

Unit Test. The New Republic. Form A. best choice in the space provided. Bear Flag Revolt? a. A union of Spanish settlers The New Republic Unit Test Form A MULTIPLE CHOICE For each of the following, write the letter of the best choice in the space provided. 1. What happened during the Bear Flag Revolt? a. A union of Spanish

More information

Chapter 3. Comparison Foldable. Section 1: Early English Settlements. Colonial America

Chapter 3. Comparison Foldable. Section 1: Early English Settlements. Colonial America Chapter 3 Colonial America 1587-1776 Section 1: Early English Settlements This colony became the first successfully established English colony in North America. Jamestown Comparison Foldable Directions

More information

Section 3. Objectives

Section 3. Objectives Objectives Identify the advanced civilizations that were flourishing in 1050. Explain the causes and effects of the Crusades. Summarize how Christians in Spain carried out the Reconquista. Terms and People

More information

A Model of Christian Charity,

A Model of Christian Charity, Document # 1: John Winthrop left England in 1630 with a group of Puritan settlers bound for New England. After arriving in Salem, Massachusetts, and before leaving the ship, Winthrop wrote a statement

More information

HISTORICAL STUDY OF THE ARRIVAL OF APOSTLE ST. THOMAS IN KERALA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE LIFE OF THE ST.THOMAS CHRISTIANS

HISTORICAL STUDY OF THE ARRIVAL OF APOSTLE ST. THOMAS IN KERALA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE LIFE OF THE ST.THOMAS CHRISTIANS HISTORICAL STUDY OF THE ARRIVAL OF APOSTLE ST. THOMAS IN KERALA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE LIFE OF THE ST.THOMAS CHRISTIANS Final Report of the Minor Research Project Submitted to the University Grants Commission,

More information

Westward Expansion. What did the United States look like before Westward Expansion?

Westward Expansion. What did the United States look like before Westward Expansion? Westward Expansion What did the United States look like before Westward Expansion? In 1803, Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, purchased 828,000 square miles from France. This

More information

Document A: John Easton's Account (Modified)

Document A: John Easton's Account (Modified) Document A: John Easton's Account (Modified) John Easton, a Rhode Island official, met Metacomet on June 16, 1675, to try to prevent war between the colonists and the Native Americans. However, the negotiations

More information

Supplement to Chapter 17 Conflict and Change in the West

Supplement to Chapter 17 Conflict and Change in the West Supplement to Chapter 17 Conflict and Change in the West 1865-1902 The Native American Though the Native American is portrayed as being a singular stereotype, they were diverse in culture and in lifestyles

More information

The Peace of Augsburg, 1555

The Peace of Augsburg, 1555 Name Homework- Kagan 407-414 This document and some maps and more pictures can be found on the (File name- Thirty Years War Tasks) http://ahsanderson.weebly.com/age-of-religious-wars.html 15. In order

More information

The Punic Wars The Punic Wars BCE Carthage The Harbor of Carthage

The Punic Wars The Punic Wars BCE Carthage The Harbor of Carthage The Punic Wars The Punic Wars 264-146 BCE Punic comes from the Latin word for Three conflicts fought between Rome and Carthage First Punic War 264-241 BCE Fought over Second Punic War 218-201 BCE Fought

More information

The American Colonies: Why do the New England, Middle and Southern colonies develop different ways of life?

The American Colonies: Why do the New England, Middle and Southern colonies develop different ways of life? ! The American Colonies: Why do the New England, Middle and Southern colonies develop different ways of life? Overview: In May 1607, about 110 Englishmen arrived at the mouth of a great bay on the coast

More information

Pilgrims Found Plymouth Colony

Pilgrims Found Plymouth Colony Pilgrims Found Plymouth Colony Name: Class: List as many reasons as you can as to why a family today might decide to move. For what reasons did the settlers start the Jamestown colony? Why come to America?

More information

Vespers on the eve of installation. Archbishop J. Peter Sartain Cathedral of Saint James Seattle November 30, 2010

Vespers on the eve of installation. Archbishop J. Peter Sartain Cathedral of Saint James Seattle November 30, 2010 Vespers on the eve of installation Archbishop J. Peter Sartain Cathedral of Saint James Seattle November 30, 2010 Of You My Heart Has Spoken. Many years ago I don t remember exactly when that phrase from

More information

The Power of the Church

The Power of the Church Questions 1. How powerful was the Roman Catholic Church? 2. What were the Crusades? 3. What caused the Crusades? 4. Why was the First Crusade unsuccessful? 5. Which Muslim leader took over Jerusalem during

More information

Is the Bible a message from a God I can t see? Accurate long-term predictions (part 1)

Is the Bible a message from a God I can t see? Accurate long-term predictions (part 1) Week 1 Session 2 Is the Bible a message from a God I can t see? Accurate long-term predictions (part 1) 1. Introduction We ve all seen castles in various conditions. They can be virtually intact, ruins,

More information

U.S. History: Chapter 1

U.S. History: Chapter 1 U.S. History: Chapter 1 OBJECTIVES: Chapter 1 o We will examine the early history of Native American Indigenous cultures. o We will examine how the conditions in Europe such as the Papacy having supreme

More information

Catholics & the Process of Reconciliation

Catholics & the Process of Reconciliation ACSJC AUSTRALIAN CATHOLIC SOCIAL JUSTICE COUNCIL PO BOX 1615 NORTH SYDNEY NSW 2059 Tel: +61 (0) 2 9956 5811 Fax: +61 (0) 2 9954 0056 Email: admin@acsjc.org.au Website: www.socialjustice.catholic.org.au

More information

SARGON, the ruler of neighboring Akkad, invaded and conquered the citystates of Sumer around 2300 B.C.E.

SARGON, the ruler of neighboring Akkad, invaded and conquered the citystates of Sumer around 2300 B.C.E. SARGON, the ruler of neighboring Akkad, invaded and conquered the citystates of Sumer around 2300 B.C.E. He built the first EMPIRE, known to history. An empire is several states and/or territories controlled

More information

The Renaissance Begins AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( )

The Renaissance Begins AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( ) The Renaissance Begins AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS (600 1450) During the Medieval times the Latin West had fallen backward and was far behind the Islamic world in intellectual achievements. In the

More information

Welcome to History 06 History of the Americas II Prof. Valadez

Welcome to History 06 History of the Americas II Prof. Valadez Welcome to History 06 History of the Americas II Prof. Valadez Colonial Legacies European Settlements in the Americas African-Indian-European Relations What are the characteristics of the Spanish, Portuguese,

More information

NATIVE AMERICAN PROTOCOLS, ARCHDIOCESE OF LOS ANGELES

NATIVE AMERICAN PROTOCOLS, ARCHDIOCESE OF LOS ANGELES NATIVE AMERICAN PROTOCOLS, ARCHDIOCESE OF LOS ANGELES INTRODUCTION The Archdiocese of Los Angeles acknowledges that the Native Americans of California are the First People of the Land and that the boundaries

More information

Indian Ocean Trade. Height C.E.

Indian Ocean Trade. Height C.E. Indian Ocean Trade Height 800 1400 C.E. Key Vocabulary: Zanj Arab name for the people of East Africa Monsoons the seasonal wind of the Indian Ocean and southern Asia, blowing from the southwest in summer

More information

World History (Survey) Chapter 14: The Formation of Western Europe,

World History (Survey) Chapter 14: The Formation of Western Europe, World History (Survey) Chapter 14: The Formation of Western Europe, 800 1500 Section 1: Church Reform and the Crusades Beginning in the 1000s, a new sense of spiritual feeling arose in Europe, which led

More information

Parts one and two of the transcriptions of the documents within the Elena Gallegos Land Grant papers

Parts one and two of the transcriptions of the documents within the Elena Gallegos Land Grant papers The Elena Gallegos Land Grant Part III by Henrietta M. Christmas and Angela Lewis Parts one and two of the transcriptions of the documents within the Elena Gallegos Land Grant papers can be found in the

More information

A. True or False Where the statement is true, mark T. Where it is false, mark F, and correct it in the space immediately below.

A. True or False Where the statement is true, mark T. Where it is false, mark F, and correct it in the space immediately below. AP U.S. History Mr. Mercado Name Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619-1700 A. True or False Where the statement is true, mark T. Where it is false, mark F, and correct it in the space immediately

More information

Essays Birth of a New World Relgion Shannon M. Hannon

Essays Birth of a New World Relgion Shannon M. Hannon Essays Birth of a New World Relgion Shannon M. Hannon Reconquest and Religious Purification Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand s 1492 conquest of Granada marked the end of the Christians centuries-long

More information

LOVE AND JUSTICE Lars Wilhelmsson

LOVE AND JUSTICE Lars Wilhelmsson 1 LOVE AND JUSTICE Lars Wilhelmsson Love without justice is a Christian impossibility, and can only be practiced by those who have divorced religion from life, who dismiss a concern for justice as politics

More information