PATRICK CARY: A SEQUEL

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1 PATRICK CARY: A SEQUEL PAMELA WILLETTS To place the recently acqired manscript of Italian poems attribted to Patrick Cary' more exactly in context and to dispel any dobts concerning his athorship I shold like to bring together some scattered information. I shold also like to discss frther sorces regarding the last few years of his life. Patrick Cary's formidable mother. Lady Falkland, and the most reasonable of her sons, Lcis, 2nd Viscont Falkland, can be seen from the Catholic viewpoint in a report to Rome on 11 December 1636 by George Con, the sccessor to Gregorio Panzani as Papal emissary to Henrietta Maria. In Con's words 'il detto Milord e stimato fra qesti protestanti sopra ogni altro di qesto Regno, ed e veramente dottissimo, e di grandissimo spirito. La Madre e cattolica, ed ha tradotto in linga Inglese opere del Signor Cardinale di Perona. Ha na sorella Dama della Regina di spirito tanto elevato, che non e lontana dalla pazzia'.- From the time that she annonced her conversion to Catholicism in 1626 Lady Falkland was in financial difficlties. After the death of his father in 1633 Lcis was charged with the natral dty of seeing to her welfare althogh he differed from her on points of religion. Lady Falkland petitioned members of the Privy Concil for assistance in obtaining means of spport and on 9 December 1636 the Concil enqired of Lcis what was settled pon her.-^ In his reply on 16 December 1636 Lcis was able to show that he had contribted according to his means.'^ He referred to her recently increased expenses in looking after his sisters 'who are retrned to her and refsed to stay with mee, after the stealth of my Brothers' (the srreptitios removal of Patrick and Henry Cary from his hose in the preceding spring). Then, discreetly, he toched on his mother's character : 'my Mother having no over-frgall Disposition (which is the most that it wold bee fitt for mee to sayof anyexpence of hers) a little which shee expects not will more helpe her, then mch more which shee knowing wold entend to spend according to, and so bee likely to spend beyond'. The Privy Concil evidently decided that some restriction of Lady Falkland's personal freedom was reqired, for a rogh note of proceedings made by Edward Nicholas indicated that she was to be confined to sch a place as the Lord Treasrer shold think fit.5 Lady Falkland's distress at these arrangements led her to contemplate desperate action which cased a flrry of alarm in Rome. A worried secretary of Cardinal Barberini wrote to Con on 12 March 1637 regarding a rmor that Lady Falkland was on the point of leaving for Rome and that she proposed to bring with her two sons and for daghters: 148

2 Intendendosi che la Viscontessa di Fclandia cattolica tratti di trasferirsi d'inghiltcrra in Roma con defigliolimaschi, e con qattro femine, perche la Sede apostolica pigli sopra di se la cra di ttta qesta famiglia, e di lei, qale intendo di pi che sia lnatica, e ben lo mostra, venendo in tempo che la Sede apostolica si trova tanto aggravata, e che al pi qando arrivi qa, ella con le figliole sara posta in n Monastero, ed i figlioli in n Seminario; Vostra Signoria dnqe se all' arrivo di qesta non sara partita di costa procri che ella intenda bene qesta difficolta, e non si metta a sproposito di venir qa, mentre non vi e perseczione in cotesto Far from welcoming the prospect of a distingished visitor Ferragalli, the secretary, said blntly that he had heard that Lady Falkland was mad, and tbat she showed it coming to Rome at a time when the Papal See was so brdened. The most that cold be done for the family wold be to place the mother and daghters in a convent and the sons in a seminary. He asked Con to stop her leaving if possible and since she had little sense ('essendo ella di poco cervello') it wold be as well to get in toch with her confessors, the Benedictines, and ask them to dissade her. Con replied on 9 April 1637 that Lady Falkland's difficlties were financial ('credo che la sa intenzione di peregrinare nasca dalla poverta') and that he wold try to pt her off.^ With a hint of reproof he reminded the secretary tbat Lady Falkland had translated the works of Cardinal Dperron into English ('Qesta e qella che ha tradotto in linga Inglese le opere del Cardinale D Perona'), the implication being that Lady Falkland's intellectal powers had been dismissed too lightly.^ The matter took some time to arrange; Ferragalli thanked Con for his efforts on 12 Jne 1638.^ Given this timing one wonders whether Patrick Cary's jorney to Rome (he arrived in the atmn of 1638 and vvas looked after by the Procrator ofthe English Benedictines, Father John Wilfrid) was part of a bargain made with the Benedictines by Lady Falkland when she gave p her own intention of going to Rome.^ Shortly after Patrick Cary arrived in Rome the first of a nmber of recommendations on his behalf to Cardinal Francesco Barberini, the Protector ofthe English (fig. x), was sent. On 6 December 1638 Walter Montag, persona grata in Rome owing to his recent conversion, wrote at the Qeen's reqest to recommend 'n gentilhomme anglois nomme Patricis Cary, q'est a present a Rome, il est d'ne famille fort honorable, la mere est ne catholiqe fort virtese, et a fait elever ses filles en cette religion, la piete et le zele de la mere est fort notable et de grand exemple icy elle a e encore le bonher de lever dex de ces garcons catoliqes dont cely q'est a Rome a present est l'n por qi Monseigner la Reyne ma Maitresse m'a commande de vos demander sa protection et faver'." No identifiable reference to Patrick Cary in Rome has so far been fond in the correspondence between Con and Cardinal Barberini, althogh English visitors broght by Father John Wilfrid to have an adience with the Cardinal, are freqently mentioned. Patrick Cary wrote in a later letter to Edward Hyde that he had been 'bred p in the Schools' in Rome.'' Presmably he attended the University in the Palazzo della Sapienza, whicb was patronised by the Barberini, rather than the Collegio Romano which was controlled by tbe Jesits.'-'' We know from Patrick Cary's letters to Edward Hyde that Henrietta Maria contribted 149

3 Fig, I. Cardinal Francesco Barberini. From H. Teti, Aedes Barberinae (1642) 150

4 to his financial spport in Rome. Sch assistance formed part of the Qeen's energetic policy in aid of the Catholic case which is reflected in a contemporary portrait bearing the motto, 'Servir a Die c'est regner' (fig. 2). In the spring of 1641, not long before the opening of the trial of Strafford when the Qeen was engaged in many political manoevres, she did more for him. A frther letter of recommendation was sent to Cardinal Barberini and this time Henrietta Maria sed as her advocate an English Benedictine, David Codner. A certain amont is known abot the writer which helps to explain the eccentricities of his letter.''* He had srvived an eventfl career in England since his arrival in 1626 and was one of those who owed his liberty to the protection of the Qeen. Dring the 1630s he wrote a series of detailed bt obviosly partial reports to Italy nder the psedonym of 'Matteo Selvaggio'. Panzani did not trst him bt admitted that he had nothing definite against him ('a me non piace in modo alcno, e dbito grandemente di li, ma confesso, che non ne ho havto cattiva relatione').'^ He smmed p his dislike precisely by saying that Codner was too fidgety, was never still, knew everything and talked too mch ('lo vedo troppo mobile, sempre salta hor qa, hor la, mai sta fermo; sa ogni cosa; non finisce mai di ciarlare'). Henrietta Maria was not to know that her advocate was regarded with some sspicion in Rome. At the time of writing Codner was attached to the chapel of Marie de Medici in London and was therefore easily at hand to serve the Qeen in this commission. He evidently regarded it as a highly important dty and went to astonishing lengths in drafting the recommendation for Patrick Cary. In a letter of close on a thosand words, coched in highly ornate Latin, he extolled the virtes of Cary's mother and the promise of her son^^ ('Sentiat, qaeso, sentiat, in hoc adolescente, Eminentissime atqe Amplissime Cardinalis, tantae Matris filio'). He mentioned the sfferings of Lady Falkland in bringing p her children to be Catholics, her worldly sacrifices, her intellect above that of women {'spra mliebre ingenim'), her most erdite pen which had translated the works of Cardinal Dperron into English. Lady Falkland had died in October 1639 and Codner piosly wished that her spirit in heaven might rejoice ('gadeant in coelo sanctissimae Matris manes') to see her offspring, particlarly this one, not forsaken bt growing p nder the Cardinal's protection to attain fortne, excellence of character, and blossom hereafter in the Chrch ('in aetatem, fortnas, virttesqe niversas, sb ta solis clientela optima sccresceret, et ad promerendm etiam in Ecclesia aliqando efflorescet'). Codner hoped that the Bishop of Angoleme (Cardinal Dperron's nephew and Grand Almoner to Henrietta Maria) might rejoice in hearing of Cardinal Barberini's beneficence to this yong man. He wished that the fiock of faithfl Catholics in England might have the joy of seeing this flower blossom, sprng from the midst of the most deserted wastes of the deserts of faith, and the most prickly thickets of heresy, and snatched away by his mother's pios care to the Cardinal's protection in Rome. Codner's extravagant rhetoric can best be jdged from the fll Latin text of the sentence jst smmarised: Gratletr demm sibi CathoHcs Petri in Britannia grex, ci triblationes qotidianae pascis, crciats gloriae, carccres Palatiis, crces solatiis, mortes deliciis, et snt et fere, hnc florem, inter deserta fidei desertissima tesqa, et incltissima rdera, haeresmqe hie pngentissima

5 Ftg. 2. Henrietta Maria. Engraving by George Glover, 1640, after Van Dyck. Reprodced by cortesy of the Trstees of the British Msem

6 senticeta, maternae stdiis pietatis, enatm atqe abreptm, taeqe Prprae tam solicite cstoditm, Romae tandem, cis et invisendi ipsa, dm viveret, qam appetentissima fit, post se sperstitem relictm, ab innoxia sqe adolescentia foeliciter consecratm, foelicis efflorescere, ad sorm solatim, ac bonorm expectationem reliqorm. Whatever dobts Rome may have had abot Codner the letter seems to have worked in Patrick Cary's favor. A few months later in Jly 1641 Henrietta Maria followed p her previos efforts by writing a personal letter of thanks to Cardinal Barberini thanking hini for his kindness to Patrick Cary and asking him to contine: Votre charite sest temoygnee dans le soing qe vos aves pris de Patrick Carie jantilhomme englois qe je vos avois recommande sy devant cellci(?) me fait vos en remercier et vos prier de voloir continer," Ths it seems that the improvement in Patrick Cary's fortnes dates from This was presmably the time when he was received into the literary circles of the Barberini and fond sfficient favor with Urban VIII to be granted the revenes of an abbey and a priory.'^ The next reference to Patrick Cary brings news of his literary activities in Rome. It dates from 1646 shortly after the flight of the Barberini when the otlook as regards Cary's prospects was not yet sombre. He is mentioned casally in a letter from his friend and compatriot Father John Wilfrid with whom he stayed in Rome. Father Wilfrid wrote to Cardinal Barberini in Paris to defend himself against malicios accsations of having spoken and acted in ways prejdicial to the Qeen's interests. At the end of the letter comes the following passage: II Signor Patrizio contrasta con Tavversa fortna, essendoli mancate qelle entrate che haveva ricevto dalla mnificenza di Vostra Eminenza, si consola pero con le mse, essendo riscito no de' primi Poeti Italiani della Citta, et ha fatta na comedia pastorale ttta in verso, di argomento ben si profano ma modestissima, che in gidizio di qelli che Thanno letti [sic) non cede pnto alle prime compositioni scite in stampa.'^ So here we have news of Patrick Cary for it mst be he and his Italian poems at exactly the time estimated as the likely date of compilation of the manscript of the msical settings of his Italian poems recently acqired by the British Library. Note that Cary, althogh missing the income which he had received from the Cardinal in Rome, is apparently consoling himself with the Mses and finding considerable sccess to the extent of being recognised as one of the best Italian poets in Rome. The loss of his chief financial resorces, his abbey and his priory, was not to occr ntil the following year and Cary mst still have anticipated a brilliant career, perhaps in literatre as well as in the chrch. The Cardinal's exile was evidently regarded as a passing clod ('qesta nvoletta di contraria fortna') and Cary might have hoped that his pastoral cold figre among the private entertainments at the Palazzo Barberini (fig. 3).^^ There was no difficlty abot 153

7 ^. J. Frontispiece to H. Teti, Aedes Barberinae (1642), showing the Palazzo Barberini in the backgrond. On the left the doorway in the wall led to the theatre area

8 an intending cleric being known as the athor of plays or libretti. After all Cardinal Rospigliosi (later to become Clement IX) was the athor of the libretto to Sant' Alessio, the first of the msic dramas performed for the Barberini, and his other works inclded the seclar comedy Chi soffre speri which Milton had seen in the Barberini theatre in Bt the next mention of Patrick Cary shows that the wheel of fortne had trned again. On 20 November 1647 Sir Kenelm Digby, Henrietta Maria's Resident in Rome, pt in a long complaint to Innocent X abot the nsatisfactory reslts of his negotiations. Together with his official complaints he mentioned several private persons, of particlar merit and warmly recommended to the Pope by the Qeen, who had not received the help they deserved. Among these were Richard Crashaw and Patrick Cary: Come in particolare Pabbate Patritio Careo figliolo del Visconte di Falchelandia gia Vice Re d'hibernia, et fratello del primo Secretario di stato del Re mio Signore, nel qale con la nobilta del sange, et chiarezza della nascita vanno conginti il proprio merito et qalita tali che dai fiori che gia in li si veggono felicemente spntar fori si po promettere in pi matra eta copiosi frtti per il servitio di Dio et per Thonore et gloria della Sa Chiesa. Et per qesto fine e stato dedicato fin dalla pi tenera eta alia Vita Ecclesiastica dalla divotione particolare della Vice Regina d'hibernia Sa madre... come ancora dalla vigilante prdenza della Regina d'inghilterra persadendosi Sa Maesta che da simil soggetto non po mancare di nascere in progresso di tempo notabili emolmenti dalla inchnatione propria, et dal consiglio di soi pi stretti parenti, et intimi amici, havendo egli qattro sorelle et n fratello ttti Religiosi deu'ordine di San Benedetto; talmente che si po con verita dire che ttta qesta cosi nobile famiglia sia straordinariamente consacrata al pi stretto modo di servire Iddio. E con ttto cio dopo varie lettere scritte in favor so da Sa Maesta a Vostra Santita et al Principe Don Camillo So Nipote mentre era Cardinale et dopo iterate raccomandationi da me fatte a Vostra Santita in nome della Regina, non ha nientedimeno potto attenere alcn benefitio 6 aito. Di modo che gu sara necessario di lasciar i soi stdii in qesta Corte et mtare il disegno di Sa Vita con tornare alle trbolenze et ai pericoli del nostro infelice paese, solo per non haver con che sstentarsi; mentre Tabbatia nel regno di Napoli della qale lo favori il Predecessore di Vostra Santita di felice memoria gli viene non solamente infrttosa dalle rivoltioni presenti di qel Stato, ma ancora disptata d'altro pretendente, di sorte che da qesta liberalita di Papa Urbano (la qale Sa Santita credeva essere di molto maggiore rilievo che poi in effetto risci) qesto Signor Abbate invece d'na frttosa Chiesa non ha sposato altro che na dispendiosa lite.^' Ths Digby complained that despite the natral promise which both his mother and the Qeen thoght wold bring abndant frits to the chrch, Patrick Cary wold be forced to abandon his stdies and alter the whole corse of his life by retrning to England throgh lack of means to spport himself. The abbey in the Kingdom of Naples, which Urban VIII thoght wold be of mch greater assistance to him than had trned ot to be the case, was rendered fritless to him by the revoltion in Naples and was the sbject of an expensive lawsit with another claimant. Patrick Cary's retrn to what Digby called *the trblences and dangers of or nhappy contry' was toched on in my previos article. What I did not discss, for they were not relevant to the cantata manscript, were several remarks, referring not only to Patrick Cary 155

9 bt also to his brother Henry, who had entered the Benedictine Order in 1641, in letters from Percy Chrch to Edward Nicholas.^^ Percy Chrch was associated with the hosehold of the Contess of Denbigh and was ths close to the circle of Henrietta Maria in Paris; Edward Nicholas was in the entorage of Charles II in Holland. Percy Chrch's disapproving remarks on the two brothers have been qoted elsewhere bt are given here to rond off the pictre: 8 October A reference to two brothers 'no'w Pillars to ye Protestant Chrch, and famos for theire ndertakings since they reverted'. 29 October An amplification of this remark: 'I perceave by yor Honors not knowing whoe I ment by ye two Protestant Pillars, that Mr Chancellor [Edward Hyde] read not my letter, for then hee wold have told yo they were two Benidicten Moncks and Brothers to the Lord Falkland secretarie of State, ye elder of them goeing as secretarie to Penn or Venables, in which voyage its sayed hee dyed, and the other Brother as I heare lives bt an nhansome rambling life, some times in Ireland, and some times in England.' IQ November In answer to Nicholas: 'Yor Honor tells mee that the behavior of the two Brothers was no marvell, in regard of theire witt, its tre I have not seene in my time the witts to thrive, Nevertheless Mr Chancellor and Dr Earles esteemed them as no small Pillars when they forsaked theire Frock'. Percy Chrch was inaccrate in detail he reversed the ages of the brothers and Patrick Cary was a novice, not a monk bt his gossip was well fonded. As several writers have noticed, there is evidence to spport Percy Chrch's statement that both Patrick and Henry Cary retrned to seclar life and changed their religios allegiance.^^ The chief sorce concerning Patrick Cary's volte-face is a series of letters from Henry Hammond, former chaplain to Charles I, to Gilbert Sheldon, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbry.^ These personal letters contain many references to the yong Lord Falkland, Patrick Cary's nephew, who was giving his ttor and gardians mch troble in their efforts to control him, and occasional references to other members of the Cary family. A nmber of passages refer to Patrick Cary, his financial affairs, marriage, first jorney to Ireland and conversion from Rome. The letters are dated mostly by day and month and their chronology is ncertain. I find it difficlt to accept some of the dating sggested by Krt Weber, who sed the letters in his accont of Patrick Cary pblished as an Appendix to his life of Lcis Cary. In particlar, Weber assigns a letter dated 'No 9' to November 1650.^^ jhis letter mentions the following seqence of events which can hardly have been crammed into the short time between Patrick Cary's departre from Doai (after Agst 1650) and November of the same year: Of Pa: Cary I since heare that he hath marryed Sir W. Udals brothers daghter, having 300^, is alowd by his brother H. 2% by ye Lord 25^ for his & wives life, leaves that to her, & goes recommended by ye Speakers letters to all in power in Ireland for some place there, that of ye Nnnes one is dead, a zd come over by pass from ye Parliament to London to take Physick, bt mst retrn again.^^ 156

10 Lcy Cary died on i November 1650 (N.S.) and Anne Cary is known to have soght medical attention in Paris in On 10 November 165c Patrick Cary wrote to Edward Hyde asking his advice on the prospects of employment in Spain; he does not mention marriage or Ireland.^^ Hammond's letter may more plasibly be dated November after a grop of letters referring to Patrick Cary's financial affairs and religios scrples which, as Weber sggests, were probably written in the early part of the same year. The letters are smmarised or qoted by Weber and show that Patrick Cary was able to improve his financial resorces by an assignment from his brother Henry of the latter's claims on the Falkland estate. Hammond's remarks on Patrick Cary's religios position may be qoted again here to show the vacillating state of his mind. On 4 March Hammond wrote: 'Mr. Pa. Cary is (as Mr Dnc[on] assres me) trnd from Popery, & I am very earnestly desired to come to Tew & settle him...'.-^ However, for whatever reasons, Patrick Cary was not 'settled' and on April i Hammond wrote more dobtflly of the 'conversion': 'Mr Pa: Caryes conversion as yet is rather from the Romish, then to ye Prot: rel: a seeker he saith he is, & nravells & qestions all, that he may bild infallibly'.^^ Hammond had heard throgh an acqaintance that Patrick Cary's religios position was 'abot all, nder a God & a moral law. Bt as he thinkes not fit to write to me particlarly his scrples, so hee is not inclinable (for want of aeqipage I sppose) to come hither'. It does not sond as thogh Patrick Cary was ever a convinced recrit to the Chrch of England even thogh he later had his children baptised by some form of chrch ceremony. This reaction against the Catholic Chrch wold have stood him in good stead when he decided, presmably to improve his prospects of office, to apply for admission to Lincoln's Inn, as it wold have enabled him to comply with the entry reqirements in respect of religion. His admission entry on 10 Febrary 1651/2^ was signed by the Speaker, William Lenthall, who had already provided him with letters of recommendation 'to all in power in Ireland'.-^^ No detailed information has apparently come to light regarding Patrick Cary's activities in Ireland. ''- That these involved collaboration with the Cromwellian athorities seems most probable. Patrick Cary had travelled far from the path envisaged for him by the Royal and Papal patrons of his yoth. 1 The British Library Jornal, II, 2 (1976), pp. 10Q-119, 2 Marini Transcripts, British Library, Add. MS, 15389, fol Translation: 'The said Lord is esteemed above all others in this kingdom among these Protestants, and he is trly very learned and of great wit. His mother is a Catholic and has translated into English the works of Cardinal Dperron. He has a sister who is one of the Qeen's Ladies and is so highly strng that she is nearly insane.' Con's reference to a sister of Lcis is possibly to Lcy Cary, who afterwards became a nn, rather than to Victoria, one of the 157 Maids of Honor, who was renowned in her yoth for her wit and beaty (Notes and Qeries, cc(i955), pp, )- 3 The Lady Falkland: Her Life (London, 1861), pp Pblic Record Office, S.P. 16/337, " Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, i636~i6jy, P Marini Transcripts, Add. MS, 15390, fols Translation: 'It is nderstood that Lady Falkland, a Catholic, is speaking of removing herself from England to Rome with two male children and for female, so that the Apostolic

11 N I->H jsan tn II' Ir n Mary 6 z 3 c Fra veds bo 3 -a o,^ -D - OO & s3 da. B CL, 1- ir so *.«< T3 O U -J 3 O -2 "O "? 3 w i^ ^ Cr E Ilia n T3 _O cn _ II Ir n o Vici *+ T3 -J r-i in i-j» a W I c so -^ c - R -J -t so ' E 3 o n C 0 r- 2 "*" C so 0 - L' O -o c 13' c z3 crt (J.UCl 1 ^ ^alkl E 0' ^ "a w] ^ C 3.i2 -^ J > tl, 158

12 See can take pon itself the care of this whole family, and of herself and I hear frther that she is mad, and she shows it coming at a time when the Apostolic See is so brdened and at the most, when she arrives here, she and the daghters will be placed in a convent and the sons in a seminary; if she has not already left before the arrival of this letter, yo will therefore see that she nderstands this difficlty, and does not foolishly arrange to come here, while there is no persection in that kingdom.' 7 Ibid,, fol. 217b. 8 Lady Falkland's translations have not all srvived. The Reply of the... Cardinal of Perron was pblished in Doai (1630). 9 Pblic Record Office, Roman Transcripts, PRO, 31. lo/ii. The transcripts qoted in this article are from materials in the Vatican. 10 The Benedictines seem to have looked after all the Catholic members of the family. For daghters entered the convent of English Benedictine nns at Cambrai between 31 Ag, 1638 and 8 Mar and Lady Falkland retired there before her death in October Roman Transcripts, PRO /137. Montag wrote in very anglicised French to recommend Patrick Cary mentioning the virtes of his family and particlarly of his mother. Many years later in his English poems Patrick let his tonge rn on the infelicities of Walter Montag's English style: Bt tell mee pray, if ever yo Read th'english of Watt Montag, Is"t not more hard then French? This may have been a family joke as Victoria Cary had taken part in The Shepheard's Paradise. See Notes and Qeries, loe. cit. 12 Clarendon State Papers, ii (1773), p Urban VIII engaged Francesco Borromini as architect for the Sapienza Chrch of St. Ivo which was commenced in The grond plan, a star hexagon, was said to be derived from the heraldic bee in the Barberini coat of arms. 14 M. Lnn, 'English Benedictines and the Oath of Allegiance, ', Recsant History, x ( ), pp ; D. Lnn, 'The English Cassinese ( )', Recsant History, xiii { ), pp Panzani's report of 20 Feb./2 Mar Roman Transcripts, PRO /17B. 16 Letter of 26 Feb Roman Transcripts, PRO /129. Literal translation of the longest extract: 'May the Catholic flock of Peter in Britain, to whom daily triblations are and have been as pastres, tortre glory, prisons palaces, crosses consolations, deaths delights, rejoice at last that this flower, sprng from the midst of the most deserted regions and ncltivated wastes ofthe deserts of faith and the most prickly thickets of heresies, and snatched away by the endeavors of maternal piety, finally looked after so solicitosly in Rome (which she so mch desired to see while she lived), the protege of Yor Prple, left srviving after her, dedicated aspiciosly to religion from innocent adolescence, is blossoming abndantly, to the consolation of his family and friends and the expectation of other good men,' 17 Roman Transcripts, PRO /126. t8 Clarendon State Papers, ii, p Roman Transcripts, PRO /130, Father Wilfrid wrote; 'Signor Patrick is strggling against adverse fortne and misses the income which he received from the generosity of Yor Eminence, bt is consoling himself with the Mses, and has become one of the best ItaHan poets in the City. He has written a pastoral comedy, all in verse, on a seclar sbject bt very proper, which in the jdgment of those who have read it does not fall short of the best compositions which have appeared in print.' 20 A. Ademollo, / Teatri di Roma (Rome, 1888), pp ; A. Blnt, 'The Palazzo Barberini: the Contribtions of Maderno, Bernini and Pietro da Cortona', Jornal of the Warbrg and Cortald Instittes, xxi (1958), pp Roman Transcripts, PRO /94. Translation: 'As, in particlar, the Abbe Patrick Cary, son of Lord Falkland, former Viceroy of Ireland, and brother of the First Secretary of State of the King, my master, in whom are joined to nobility of blood and distinction of birth his own merit and qality, sch that from the flowers which can already be seen blossoming forth so abndantly in him, one can predict in matrer years copios frits for the service of God and the honor and glory of His Chrch. And to this end he has been dedicated from his most tender years to the ecclesiastical life by the particlar devotion of his mother... as also by the vigilant prdence ofthe Qeen of England, Her Majesty being persaded that there cold not fail, in the progress of time, to isse from sch a sbject notable frits, from his own inclination, and from the advice of his 159

13 closest relations and most intimate friends, he having for sisters and one brother all religios of the Order of St. Benedict; so that it can be said that all this noble family is extraordinarily dedicated in the strictest way to the service of God. And with all that, after varios letters written in his favor by Her Majesty to Yor Holiness and to Don Camillo, Yor nephew, when he was Cardinal, and after repeated recommendations made by me to Yor Holiness, in the name of the Qeen, he has nonetheless not been able to obtain any favor or help. So that it will be necessary for him to leave his stdies in this Cort and alter the design of his life by retrning to the trblences and dangers of or nhappy contry, simply becase he does not have the means to spport himself, while the abbey in the Kingdom of Naples, w^ith which Yor predecessor of illstrios memory favored him, not only is made fritless to him by the present revoltions of that state, bt is also dispted by another pretender, so that from this generosity of Pope Urban (which His Holiness thoght wold be of mch greater assistance than trned ot to be the case) this Signor Abbe has esposed not a fritfl chrch bt a costly lawsit.' 22 British Library, Egerton MS. 2535, fols. 446b, 487b, 540; The Nickotas Papers (Camden Society), ed. G. F. Warner, iii (1897), pp. 72, QQ, Notes and Qeries, cc {1955), pp ; K. Weber, Lcis Cary (New York, 1940}, pp British Library, Harley MS K. Weber, op. cit., pp Harley MS. 6942, n K.. Weber, op. cit., p. 317 note, assigns this letter to 1649 bt the sorce, a copy in the Bodleian Library (Clarendon Papers), is dated 1650 and refers to Patrick Cary's letter from Doai (30 Agst 1650), and his 'want of Health, and departre thence for England'. 28 Harley MS. 6942, n. 95. John Dncon had been chaplain to Lettice, Lady Falkland (d. 1647). 29 Harley MS. 6942, n The Records of... Lincoln^s Inn (Admissions), i (1896), p William Lenthall had been a trstee for Lcis Cary in his minority. Patrick Cary seems to have pt LenthalPs longstanding connection with his family to good se. 32 The new edition of The Poems of Patrick Cary, by Veronica Delany, jst pblished by Oxford University Press, incldes some details of Patrick Cary's career in Ireland. 160

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