Generation XXXIV Ane nr /

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1 Indholdsfortegnelse Side Kort overblik 2 Edward I Van Engeland og Aelfleda Van Bernicia 4 Kildemateriale 12 Fortsættes på side 1 Alfred De Grote & Ealswythe Gainsbor. Æthelhelm af Wiltshire & Elswitha? Ane nr / / Edward I Van Engeland & Aelfleda Van Bernicia / Eadgyfu V. Engeland Lodewijk IV Karel West-Francië Ermengarde Lothar Albert II Van Namen Albert III V. Namen Henri Van Namen Beatrice Van Namen Godevaart I V.Breda Goodevaart II Breda Sofie Van Breda Joannes van Gavere Eksaerde Wilhelmus Van Gavere Eksaarde Willem Van Gavere Kathelijne Van Gavere - Haasdonk Katelijne Hutzers - Haasdonk Willem Scoemaekers Petrus Scoemaekers Petrus Scoemaekers Livine Scoemakere Margriete V. Couteren Sint-Niklaas Dierik Ver Braecken Sint-Niklaas 6718 Johanna Ver Braken Sint-Niklaas 3359 Catharina De Maere Tielrode 1679 Amelberga Vernimmen - Thielrode 839 Marie Anne Smedt - Thielrode 419 Anne Petron. Everaert Thielrode 209 Robert Van Landeghem Thielrode 104 Bruno Van Landeghem Thielrode 52 Julien Van Landeghem Thielrode 26 Christ. V. Landeghem Boom 13 Emiel Jan Person Antwerpen 6 Louisa Augusta Person Åbyhøj 3 Grete A./Emil H. Sørensen - Lind/Værløse 1 aner\ /jan.2013 Side 0

2 Ane nr. Ealhmund og? / Ane nr. Egbert Of Kent Oslak Van Wight Aethelwulf Wessex Osburga Van Wight Fortsat fra side 1 aner\ /jan.2013 Side 1

3 EDWARD I VAN ENGELAND & AELFLEDA VAN BERNICIA Edward I Van Engeland er født omkring 870 som søn af Alfred De Grote og Ealswythe Gainsborough. Hans fødested er det endnu ikke lykkedes at opspore. Aelfleda Van Bernicia er født omkring 870 som datter af Æthelhelm af Wiltshire og Ælswitha?. Hendes fødselsår og fødested er det endnu ikke lykkedes at opspore. Edward I Van Engeland og Aelfleda Van Bernicia får 8 børn. Aelfleda dør i 920, Edward I i 924. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 2

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5 Edward I Van Engeland og Aelfleda Van Bernicia Edward I Van Engeland og Aelfleda Van Bernicia bosætter sig formentlig i Wessex. Her får de følgende børn: , - Eadgyfu Van Engeland 2. 8xx/9xx - Edfleda Van Engeland 3. 8xx/9xx - Æthelfleda Van Engeland 4. 8xx/9xx - Ælfweard Van Engeland 5. 8xx/9xx - Eadwine Van Engeland 6. 8xx/9xx - Æthelhild Van Engeland 7. 8xx/9xx - Eadgyth Van Engeland 8. 8xx/9xx - Ælfgifu Van Engeland. Edward I Van Engeland er fra 899 til 924 konge af England. Datteren Eadgyfu Van Engeland (ane nr ) gifter sig med Karel III Van West-Francië (ane nr ). De får 1 søn: Lodewijk IV Van West-Francië. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 4

6 Edward I Van Engeland s forældre (ane nr / ): Alfred De Grote van Wessex og Ealswythe Gainsborough. Alfred De Grote van Wessex er født i 849 som søn af Aethelwulf og Osburga?. Hans fødested er det endnu ikke lykkedes at opspore. Ealswythe Gainsborough s fødselsår, fødested og forældre er det endnu ikke lykkedes at opspore. Alfred De Grote van Wessex og Ealswythe Gainsborough får følgende børn: Edward (Aedweard) I Van Engeland, Aedmund, Elfreda, Æthelgiva, Ælftryth (Elftrude), Æthelflæd og Æthelweard Van Wessex. Alfred De Grote er i en årrække angelsaksisk konge af Wessex. Han udkæmper i sin regeringstid mange kampe med de danske vikinger, der jævnligt invaderer Wessex- og de øvrige angelsaksiske områder. Alfred De Grote dør den 26.okt.899, Ealswythe Gainsborough omkring 6.dec.905. Begge begraves i Winchester. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 5

7 Statue af Alfred den Store i Winchester aner\ /jan.2013 Side 6

8 Alfred De Grote s forældre (ane nr / ): Aethelwulf van Wessex og Osburga van Wight Aethelwulf van Wessex er født omkring 820 som søn af Egbert of Kent og Redburga Van Franken. Hans fødested er det endnu ikke lykkedes at opspore. Osburga van Wight er født omkring 820 datter af Oslak of Wight og?. Hendes fødested er det endnu ikke lykkedes at opspore. Aethelwulf van Wessex og Osburga van Wight får følgende børn: Alfred (Ælfred) De Grote, Æthelbald, Æthelswith, Æthelred og Osweald Van Wessex. Aethelwulf van Wessex er i en årrække angelsaksisk konge af Wessex. Osburga dør i 846, Aethelwulf i 858. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 7

9 Aethelwulf Van Wessex es forældre (ane nr / ): Egbert of Kent og Redburga Van Franken Egbert of Kent er født omkring 790 som søn af Ealhmund of Kent og?. Hans fødested er det endnu ikke lykkedes at opspore. Redburga Van Franken er født omkring 790. Hendes fødested og forældre er det endnu ikke lykkedes at opspore. Egbert of Kent og Redburga Van Franken får følgende børn: Aethelwulf og Eadgyth Van Wessex. Egbert of Kent er i en årrække angelsaksisk konge af Wessex. Osburga Van Wight s forældre (ane nr / ): Oslak of Wight og? Oslak of Wight er født omkring 790. Hans fødested og forældre er det endnu ikke lykkedes at opspore. Oslak of Wight s hustru er født omkring 790. Hendes fødested og forældre er det endnu ikke lykkedes at opspore. Oslak of Wight og? får en datter: Osburga Van Wight. Oslak of Wight er i en årrække lensmand på Wight. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 8

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13 Kildemateriale for ane nr / Kildemateriale 1: Herweijer/Familien Edward I Generatie XXV EDWARD I (DE OUDERE), koning van Engeland, geboren ca. 870, overleden op te Farndon, Cheshire. Hij huwde (1e) met Egwine en (3e) met Edgiva, die na 955 overleed. Zoon van ALFRED DE GROTE (zie ) en EALSWYTHE (zie ) AELFLEDA VAN BERNICIA. Datteren Eadgyfu: Generatie XXIV KAREL III DE EENVOUDIGE, koning van West-Francië, geboren op , overleden op te Péronne. Hij huwde (2e) in 907 met Frederuna, zoon van LODEWIJK II VAN WEST-FRANCIE (DE STAMELAAR) (zie ) en ADELHEID VAN PARIJS (zie ). Gehuwd 917/919 met EADGYFU (Van Engeland), geboren 896. Zij huwde (2e) in 951 met Heribert II van Troyes, dochter van EDWARD I (DE OUDERE) (zie ) en AELFLEDA VAN BERNICIA (zie ). Kildemateriale 2: cgi-bin/familien Edward I ID: I66979 Name: Edward I 'de Oudere' van Engeland Given Name: Edward I Surname: 'de Oudere' van Engeland Sex: M Birth: 869 Death: 7 JUL 927 in Farndon Burial: Winchester Father: Alfred 'de Grote' van Wessex b: 849 in Wantage Mother: Ealswyth Gaini b: ABT 852 Marriage 1 Aelfleda Bernicia Children: 1. Eadgyfu van Engeland b: ABT Edith van Engeland b: ABT 910 in Wessex Marriage 2 Edgiva Children 1. Edmund 'de Oudere' van Engeland b: 921 in Wessex Marriage 3 Spouse Unknown. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 12

14 Kildemateriale 3: Wissenburg/Familien Edward I Edward I van ENGELAND Familienaam Index Vader Moeder Tevens , , , Geboren 869 Overleden Frandon (of 925) Edward the Elder, koning van Engeland sinds 900. Edward had Wessex, Kent en Sussex geërfd en Mercia, Essex en East-Anglia veroverd, terwijl hij zich als opperheerser over Schotland, Wales en Northumbrië deed erkennen; hij streed gedurende zijn gehele regeringsperiode tegen de Denen. Huwt (1) Ecgwyn N. Geboren ca. 875 Overleden voor 901 Huwt (2) ca Aelfleda van BERNICIA Familienaam Index Vader Moeder Tevens , Overleden 920 b. Winchester Ook Elflide genoemd. Huwt (3) Edgiva van KENT Familienaam Index Vader Moeder Tevens Geboren rond 890 Overleden (?) Kinderen 1. Ethelwerd van Wessex, geboren rond 890, overleden in het jaar Edwin van Wessex, geboren rond 892, verdronken 3. Elfleda van Wessex, non te Winchester, geboren rond Eadgyfu Zie Ethelhilda van Wessex, lekenzuster, geboren rond Edhilda (Eathild) Zie Eadgyth (Edith) Zie Elgiva Zie Edmund I Zie aner\ /jan.2013 Side 13

15 Kildemateriale 4: Wikipedia/Familien Edward I den ældre Alfred the Great (Old English: Ælfrēd; 849 October 26, 899), also spelled Ælfred, was king of the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex from 871 to 899. Alfred is noted for his defence of the kingdom against the Danish Vikings, becoming the only English king to be awarded the epithet "the Great".[1] Alfred was the first King of the West Saxons to style himself "King of the English". Details of his life are described in a work by the Welsh scholar Asser. Alfred was a learned man, and encouraged education and improved his kingdom's law system as well as its military structure. In 868, Alfred married Ealhswith, daughter of Ealdorman of the Gaini (who is also known as Aethelred Mucill), who was from the Gainsborough region of Lincolnshire. She appears to have been the maternal granddaughter of a King of Mercia. They had five or six children together, including Edward the Elder, who succeeded his father as king, Ethelfleda, who would become Queen of Mercia in her own right, and Ælfthryth who married Baldwin II the Count of Flanders. His mother was Osburga daughter of Oslac of the Isle of Wight, Chief Butler of England. Asser, in his Vita Alfredi asserts that this shows his lineage from the Jutes of the Isle of Wight. This is unlikely as Bede tells us that they were all slaughtered by the Saxon under Caedwalla. However, ironically Alfred could trace his line via the House of Wessex itself, from King Wihtred of Kent, whose mother was the sister of the last island king, Arwald. Edward the Elder (Old English: Ēadweard se Ieldra) (c July 924) was King of England ( ). He was the son of Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd se Grēata) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith, and became King upon his father's death in 899. He was king at a time when the Kingdom of Wessex was becoming transformed into the Kingdom of England. The title he normally used was "King of the Anglo-Saxons"; most authorities do regard him as a king of England, although the territory he ruled over was significantly smaller than the present borders of England Family Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda, Queen of the Mercians and Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders. King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too. Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893, and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric, King of Dublin and York in 926. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 14

16 Kildemateriale 4: Wikipedia/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest. [10][11] When he became king in 899, Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married Ælfflæd, a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire. [12] Their son Ælfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and Ælfflæd had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; Ælfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadflæd and Eadhild. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933[13] was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear. Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Edgiva, aka Eadgifu, [12] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis l'aveugle. Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 15

17 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre %20Kings.htm#_Toc ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON & DANISH KINGS H. KINGS of WESSEX , KINGS of ENGLAND EDWARD , ÆTHELSTAN , EDMUND , EADRED , EADWIG EADWEARD, son of ALFRED King of Wessex & his wife Ealhswith ([872]-Farndon-on-Dee near Chester 17 Jul 924, bur Winchester Cathedral [1619]). "Eadwardum" is named by Roger of Hoveden as the younger of King Alfred's sons by Queen Ealswith [1620]. "Edward/Eadweard filius regis" subscribed charters of King Alfred dated 871 and 892 (two) [1621]. He defeated the Danes at Fareham 893. "Eadweard rex" subscribed a charter of King Alfred dated 898 [1622], implying that he was crowned in the lifetime of his father. He succeeded his father in 899 as EDWARD "the Elder" King of Wessex, crowned 31 May or 9 Jun 900 at Kingston-upon-Thames. He was faced soon after by the rebellion of his first cousin Æthelwold, son of Æthelred I King of Wessex, whom he finally defeated at the battle of the Holm in [902/05]. King Edward attacked the Danes in Northumbria in 909 and forced them to accept peace on his terms. The Danes countered by raiding Mercia as far as the Bristol Avon, but Edward defeated them at Tettenhall 5 Aug 910. In 911, Edward occupied London and Oxford, and in Summer 912 he attacked the Danes in Essex. King Edward continued northwards in 915, occupying Bedford. Edward began a major offensive against the Danes in the Midlands in 917, helped by the Mercian troops of his sister Æthelflæd. After his sister's death in 918, King Edward seized Tamworth to ensure the loyalty of Mercia, but left his niece Ælfwynn in nominal authority in Mercia until the winter of 919 when he had her taken to Wessex, marking the final integration of Mercia into Wessex. This was followed by the submission to him by the Welsh kings of Gwynedd, Dyfed and the lands between Merioneth and Gower, which made King Edward overlord of major parts of Wales. Edward then turned his attention to the reconquest of the remaining Danish colonies south of the river Humber, which he completed by 920, culminating with the submission to him of Rægnald King of York, Ealdred of Bamburgh and the king and people of Strathclyde [1623]. He was suppressing a revolt in Chester when he died. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of King Edward at Farndon-on-Dee in Mercia in 924 and his burial at Winchester [1624]. m firstly ([892/94]) ECGWYNN, daughter of --- (-[901/02]). Roger of Hoveden names "muliere nobilissima Egcwinna", but does not refer to her as "regina" in contrast to King Edward's third wife [1625]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 16

18 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat Florence of Worcester says that the mother of Edward's first born son was "a woman of very noble birth named Egwina" [1626]. According to William of Malmesbury, she was "an illustrious lady" but at another point in his text calls her "a shepherd's daughter" [1627]. The Book of Hyde names "Egwynna..quædam pastoris filia" as concubine of King Eadweard [1628]. Roger of Wendover names "concubine Egwynna" as mother of King Edward s "filium primogenitum Ethelstanum" [1629]. The accession of her son King Æthelstan in 924 was challenged apparently on the grounds that he was "born of a concubine" [1630]. However, Æthelstan is named ahead of his half-brother Ælfweard in the list of subscribers in two charters of their father [1631], indicating his seniority and presumably implying the legitimacy of his parents' union. m secondly (901 or before) ÆLFLÆD, daughter of ealdorman ÆTHELHELM & his wife Ælswitha --- (-920, bur Winchester Cathedral [1632]). "Elffled coniux regis" subscribed a 901 charter of King Edward [1633]. The Book of Hyde names "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda" as first wife of King Eadweard [1634]. Roger of Wendover calls her "secunda regina sua Alfleda, Elfelmi comitis filia" [1635]. m thirdly (920) EADGIFU, daughter of SIGEHELM Lord of Meopham, Cooling and Lenham in Kent & his wife --- (-26 Aug 968, bur Canterbury Cathedral). "Eadgifu regis mater" subscribed charters of Kings Edmund and Eadred between 940 and 953 [1636]. Eadgifu recited her title to land at Cooling by charter dated 959 which names her father Sigelm and records that he was killed in battle [1637]. King Eadred granted land in Berkshire to "Aedgyfu regis mater" in 945 [1638]. King Eadred granted land at Felpham, Sussex to "Eadgifu famula dei matri mee" by charter dated 953 [1639]. She appears to have supported her grandson Edgar against Eadwig in 957, the latter depriving her of her property. "Eadgifu hil ealdan moder/predicti regis aua" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated [959/63] and 966 [1640]. King Edward "the Elder" & his first wife had [three] children: 1. ÆLFRED ([893/94]-[901]). "Elfredus filius regis" subscribed a charter of King Edward dated 901, named first in order of the subscribers before that of "Ethelwardus filius regis" (assumed to be King Edward's younger brother) and "Æthelstan filius regis" (assumed to be King Edward's son). Assuming this entry is not a mistake, Ælfred must have been either the brother or the son of King Edward. If the brother, it is likely that he was older than Æthelweard whom he precedes in the list. If the son, it is likely that he was older than Æthelstan. Looking at naming patterns, it is more likely that he was King Edward's son as there appears to be no case in the Wessex royal family before [1016/17] [1641] of a son being named after his father. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 17

19 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat In addition, there is no reason to doubt that Asser's list of the children of King Alfred is not exhaustive, as he even names his son Edmund who died in infancy. This speculation is corroborated by the Book of Hyde which names "Athelstanum et Elfredum et Edgytham" as the children of King Eadweard "ex concubina Egwynna" [1642], although this suggests that Ælfred was younger than Æthelstan. It is assumed that Ælfred died soon after the date of this charter as no other references to him have been found. 2. ÆTHELSTAN ([895]-Gloucester 27 Oct 939, bur Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire [1643]). Roger of Hoveden gives his parentage, specifying that he was his father's oldest son [1644]. "Æthelstan filius regis" subscribed charters of King Edward dated 901 (named in the list of subscribers after "Elfredus filius regis" and "Ethelwardus filius regis") and 909 (two, in both of which he is named second after "Æthelwerd frater regis") [1645]. He was brought up in the household of his uncle Æthelred ealdorman of Mercia [1646]. He succeeded his father in 924 as ÆTHELSTAN King of Wessex, and was independently recognised as King of the Mercians [1647]. He was crowned at Kingston-upon-Thames 4 Sep 925. William of Malmesbury records that King Æthelstan's succession was challenged by "Elfred" (who has not been idenfified, unless it refers to his half-brother who in other sources is named Ælfweard) [1648]. Sihtric King of York proposed an alliance with him in 925, sealed by his marriage to Æthelstan's sister. After the death of his brother-in-law, Æthelstan invaded York and expelled Sihtric's son and successor Olaf. The rulers of Scotland, Strathclyde and Bamburgh acknowledged Æthelstan as overlord at Eamont near Penrith 12 Jul 927. He agreed the frontier with the Welsh princes along the river Wye at a meeting in Hereford in [930], exacting a heavy tribute from them. He also agreed the frontier with the Britons of Cornwall along the river Tamar in [931], and installed a British bishop in the recently established see of St Germans. In 934, he launched an attack on Scotland, the army pressing as far as Fordun in Kincardineshire, the navy ravaging the coast up to Caithness. He helped Alain de Porhoët re-establish himself as Comte de Vannes et de Nantes in Brittany in 936. He was able to build a network of alliances with neighbouring foreign powers through the marriages of his half-sisters. He defeated a joint invasion by Olaf Guthfrithson (claimant to the kingdom of York), Constantine King of Scotland and Owen King of Strathclyde at Brunanburh in 937. In many of his charters he is described as "King of the English and ruler of all Britain" [1649]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death 27 Oct [940/41] of King Athelstan [1650]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 18

20 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat 3. EADGYTH ([895/902]-, bur Tamworth). The Book of Hyde names "Athelstanum et Elfredum et Edgytham" as the children of King Eadweard "ex concubina Egwynna", specifying that Eadgyth married "Sirichio regi Northanhymbrorum" and was buried at Tamworth [1651]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that "King Athelstan [gave] Sihtric king of Northumbria his sister in marriage" at Tamworth 30 Jan 925 [1652]. Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance which Sihtric King of York proposed to her brother. After her husband's death, she became a nun at Polesworth Abbey, Warwickshire in 927, transferring to Tamworth Abbey, Gloucestershire where she was elected Abbess. Later canonised as St Edith of Polesworth or St Edith of Tamworth, her feast day is 15 or 19 July [1653]. m (Tamworth 30 Jan 926) as his second wife, SIHTRIC "Caoch" Danish King of York, son of --- (-[926/27]). King Edward "the Elder" & his second wife had [eight] children: 4. EDFLEDA (-bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire [1654]). William of Malmesbury names (in order) "Edfleda, Edgiva, Ethelhilda, Ethilda, Edgitha, Elfgiva" as the six daughters of King Eadweard & his wife "Elfleda", specifying that Edfleda became a nun [1655]. A manuscript which recounts the founding of Wilton Monastery, records that rex Alrudus (referring to Alfred King of Wessex) installed Elfledæ infantis, et filiæ principis Edwardi senioris at Wilton abbey [1656]. It is not known whether this refers to King Eadweard s daughter Edfleda, but in any case the report must be anachronistic considering the date of death of King Alfred and the likely dates of birth of King Eadweard s children. Nun, maybe at Winchester [1657]. 5. [ÆTHELFLEDA (-bur Romsey Abbey, Hampshire). The Book of Hyde names "Elfledam sanctam" as first of the six daughters of King Eadweard by his first wife "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda", specifying that she was buried "apud Romeyam" [1658]. It is possible that this is the same daughter who is called "Edfleda" by William of Malmesbury.] 6. EADGIFU ([902/05]-26 Sep after 951, bur Abbaye de Saint-Médard de Soissons). William of Malmesbury names (in order) "Edfleda, Edgiva, Ethelhilda, Ethilda, Edgitha, Elfgiva" as the six daughters of King Eadweard & his wife "Elfleda", specifying that Edgiva married "king Charles" [1659]. The Book of Hyde names "Edgivam" as second of the six daughters of King Eadweard by his first wife "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda", specifying that she married "Karolo regi Francorum filio Lodowyci" [1660]. Her birth date range is estimated from the birth of Eadgifu's son in [920/21]. If this is correct, Eadgifu must have been one of King Edward's oldest children by his second marriage. She fled with her two-year-old son to England in 923 after her first husband was deposed. She returned to France in 936. Abbess of Notre Dame de Laon, resigned 951. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 19

21 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat Flodoard names "Ottogeba regina, mater Ludowici regis" when recording her second marriage [1661]. m firstly ([917/19]) as his second wife, CHARLES III "le Simple" King of the Franks, son of LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks & his second wife Adélaïde [d'angoulême] (posthumously 17 Sep 879-Péronne 7 Oct 929, bur Péronne St Fursy). m secondly (951) HERIBERT Comte "le Vieux" [de Vermandois], son of HERIBERT [II] Comte de Vermandois [Carolingian] & his wife Adela de Paris [Capet] ([910/15]- [980/984]). He succeeded his brother Robert in 967 as Comte de Meaux et de Troyes. 7. ÆLFWEARD (-Oxford 2 Aug 924, bur Winchester Cathedral). "Ælfweard filius regis" subscribed two charters of King Edward dated 909, in both of which he was named third in the list of subscribers after "Æthelweard frater regis" and "Æthelstan filius regis" [1662]. The Book of Hyde names "Ethelwardum et Edwynum" as the two sons of King Eadweard by his first wife "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda" [1663]. According to William of Malmesbury, he was "deeply versed in literature" [1664]. William of Malmesbury says that "King Edward therefore dying, was shortly followed by his legitimate son Ælfweard" [1665], which could be interpreted as indicating that Ælfweard briefly succeeded his father as king before his own early death, although the more likely interpretation of the text is simply that Ælfweard died soon after his father. At another point in his narrative, Malmesbury asserts that Ælfweard's half-brother Æthelstan succeeded "as his father had commanded in his will" [1666], which appears to exclude the possible accession of Ælfweard. Florence of Worcester records that King Eadward left his kingdom to "Æthelstano filio", and that not long afterwards "filius eius Ælfwardus" died "apud Oxenafordam" [1667]. The Anglo- Saxon Chronicle records the death in 924 of "his [King Edward's] son Ælfweard at Oxford" 16 days after his father died and his burial at Winchester [1668]. 8. EADWINE (-drowned English Channel 933, bur St Bertin's Abbey, Flanders). The Book of Hyde names "Ethelwardum et Edwynum" as the two sons of King Eadweard by his first wife "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda" [1669]. According to William of Malmesbury, he was accused of involvement in the plot by Ælfred against his halfbrother King Æthelstan, was "driven into exile" but was drowned at sea while crossing the Channel, although the chronicler appears sceptical about the truth of the story [1670]. Simeon of Durham records that "King Ethelstan ordered his brother Eadwin to be drowned in the sea" in 933 [1671]. The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 932 of "Edwinus rex Anglorum", which suggests that Edwin may have had Flemish support for his rebellion and that they recognised him as king [1672]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 20

22 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat 9. ÆTHELHILD (-bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire [1673]). William of Malmesbury names (in order) "Edfleda, Edgiva, Ethelhilda, Ethilda, Edgitha, Elfgiva" as the six daughters of King Eadweard & his wife "Elfleda" renounced "the pleasure of earthly nuptials in a lay habit" [1674]. The Book of Hyde names "Etheltildam deodictam" as third of the six daughters of King Eadweard by his first wife "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda", specifying that she was buried "Wyltoniæ" [1675]. Nun at Wilton. 10. EADHILD (-937). William of Malmesbury names (in order) "Edfleda, Edgiva, Ethelhilda, Ethilda, Edgitha, Elfgiva" as the six daughters of King Eadweard and his wife "Elfleda", specifying that Ethilda married "Hugh" [1676]. The Book of Hyde names "Ethyldam" as fourth of the six daughters of King Eadweard by his first wife "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda", specifying that she married "pater Hugonis Capet" [1677]. Flodoard mentions, but does not name, "filiam Eadwardi regis Anglorum, sororem coniugis Karoli" when recording her marriage to "Hugo filius Rotberti" in 926 [1678]. m ([926]) as his second wife, HUGUES "le Grand" de France [Capet], son of ROBERT I King of France & his second wife Béatrix de Vermandois ([898]-Dourdan, Essonne Jun 956, bur Saint-Denis). At the time of his betrothal, he sent sumptuous gifts to King Athelstan, including spices, jewels, richly caparisoned horses, three holy relics and a gold crown [1679]. He was granted the title Duc des Francs 25 Dec EADGYTH ([908/12] [1680]-26 Jan 946, bur Magdeburg Cathedral). The Book of Hyde names "Edgitham et Elgimam" as fifth and sixth of the six daughters of King Eadweard by his first wife "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda", specifying that they were both sent to "Henrico Alemanorum imperatori" and that the former married "filio sui Othoni" [1681]. Thietmar names "Edith daughter of King Edmund of England" when recording her marriage during the lifetime of Otto's father, in a later passage stating that she urged her husband to begin establishing the city of Magdeburg [1682]. The Annalista Saxo records the wife of Otto as "Ediht filiam Ehtmundi regis Anglorum" [1683]. Thietmar records her death 26 Jan "in the eleventh year" of the reign of her husband, after 19 years of marriage, and her place of burial [1684]. m (Sep 929) as his first wife, OTTO of Germany, son of HEINRICH I "der Vogelsteller/the Fowler" King of Germany & his second wife Mathilde --- (23 Nov 912-Memleben 7 May 973, bur Magdeburg cathedral). Associate King of Germany, with his father, 930. He was elected OTTO I "der Große" King of Germany 7 Aug 936. Crowned Emperor at Rome 2 Feb 962. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 21

23 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat 12. ÆLFGIFU. The Book of Hyde names "Edgitham et Elgimam" as fifth and sixth of the six daughters of King Eadweard by his first wife "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda", specifying that they were both sent to "Henrico Alemanorum imperatori" and that the latter married "cuidam duci iuxta Alpes" [1685], who has not been identified. Hroswitha of Gandersheim describes her as "Adiva younger in years and likewise inferior in merit" to her older sister Eadgyth, confirming that she accompanied to Germany to provide an alternative choice of bride for Otto of Germany [1686]. According to William of Malmesbury, she married "a certain Duke near the Alps" [1687]. Some possibilities have been suggested concerning the identity of the husband of Ælfgifu. A marriage with Boleslaw II "der Fromme" Duke of the Bohemians seems improbable chronologically. Although Duke Boleslaw's birth date is not known, the birth of his younger brother Strakhvas is recorded on 28 Sep 929 [1688]. If this is correct, it seems unlikely that Boleslaw could have been born much earlier than 925 at the earliest, whereas Ælfgifu was probably born in the range [910/15] assuming that she was of marriageable age when she went to Germany with her sister. Another possibility is Ludwig Graf im Thurgau, son of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy, who, according to Europäische Stammtafeln [1689], married "Edgifa, daughter of Edward I King of England". The latter suggestion is chronologically implausible, assuming that it refers to Ælfgifu's younger half-sister Eadgifu who was married according to William of Malmesbury to "Louis Prince of Aquitaine" (see below), as King Rudolf's children were probably born between 880 and 900. A third possibility is that iuxta Alpes should be interpreted as meaning the area south of the Alps, indicating south-eastern France or northern Italy, although it would be fruitful to speculate on the identity of Ælfgifu s husband if this is correct given the number of possibilities, especially if the title duci should be interpreted broadly. m King Edward "the Elder" & his third wife had four children: 13. EADMUND (921-murdered Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire 26 May 946, bur Glastonbury Abbey [1690]). "Eadmundus regis frater" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan dated 931 and 939, under the latter also being the grantee of land at Droxford, Hampshire [1691]. He fought with his half-brother King Æthelstan at Brunanburh in 937 [1692]. He succeeded his half-brother in 939 as EDMUND King of Wessex, crowned 29 Nov 939 at Kingston-upon-Thames. Olaf Guthfrithson King of Dublin invaded England in 939 and by the end of that year had occupied York. In raids on northern Mercia the following year, King Olaf took Tamworth and nearby land, and under a treaty agreed with King Edmund took the whole of modern Leicestershire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. King Olaf continued by invading Northumbria over the Tees, but died aner\ /jan.2013 Side 22

24 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat before the end of 940. King Edmund regained the lost territories from Olaf's successor Olaf Sihtricson in 942. King Edmund brought Northumbria under his control in 944, expelling both Olaf Sihtricson and Rægnald Guthfrithson from York. From that time he may be regarded as king of a united England. He ravaged Strathclyde in 945. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St Augustine's day 946 of King Edmund [1693]. Simeon of Durham records that King Edmund was killed "VII Kal Jun" in 946 and buried at Glastonbury [1694]. Florence of Worcester records that he was stabbed to death by Leof "a ruffianly thief" while attempting to defend his steward from being robbed [1695]. [m firstly] ([940]) ÆLFGIFU, daughter of --- & his wife Wynflæd --- (-Shaftesbury Abbey after 943). "Alfgifu concubine regis" subscribed a 943 charter of King Edmund [1696]. This reference suggests that Ælfgifu was not married to King Edmund, corroborated by another charter of the same year 1700 in which his [second] wife is differentiated by the epithet "regina" and the dating of which (if accurate) suggests that the king's relationship with both "wives" was simultaneous. If this is correct, Ælfgifu's date of death cannot necessarily be assumed to be [944/46]. She was popularly reputed a saint after her death as St Elgiva [1697]. Ælfgifu was probably the daughter of Wynflæd as "Wynflæd aua mea" is named in King Edgar's grant of confirmations to Shaftesbury Abbey dated 966 [1698]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 23

25 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat m [secondly] (943 or before) ÆTHELFLÆD, daughter of ÆLFGAR Ealdorman of the Wilsaetas & his wife --- (Damerham, Wiltshire --- -Shaftesbury Abbey [after 975/92], bur Shaftesbury Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Æthelflæd of Damerham, daughter of ealdorman Ælfgar" as queen of King Edmund in 946 [1699]. "Eadmundus rex" granted "Æthelflæd regina sua" lands in Hampshire and Dorset by charter dated 943 [1700]. She became a nun at Shaftesbury Abbey. King Edmund & his first [wife] had two children: a) EADWIG ([940]-1 Oct 959, bur Winchester Cathedral). "Eaduuius filius regis" subscribed a charter of King Edmund dated 941 [1701]. As an infant, he was passed over for the succession in 946 in favour of his uncle. "Eadwig rex" subscribed a charter of King Edmund dated 946 and "Eadwig cliton" one of King Eadred dated 956 [1702]. He succeeded his uncle in 955 as EADWIG King of England, crowned [26] Jan 956 at Kingston-upon-Thames. The people of Mercia and Northumbria rebelled against him in 957 and elected his brother Edgar king, after which the River Thames formed the boundary between the two kingdoms [1703]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death 1 Oct 959 of King Eadwig [1704]. m ([955], separated 958) ÆLFGIFU, daughter of [EADRIC & his wife Æthelgifu] (-Gloucester [Sep 959] [1705]). There is no direct proof that Ælfgifu whose will is dated to [966/75] was the same person as the wife of King Eadwig but this looks likely. Ælfgifu and her husband were separated on grounds of consanguinity by Oda Archbishop of Canterbury [1706], but the precise relationship has not been found. Weir dates the death of Ælfgifu to [Sep 959] [1707] but the source on which this is based is not known and the date is inconsistent with the dating of the will. The will of "Ælfgifu" dated to [966/75] devises estates at Mongewell and Berkhampstead to "Ælfweard and Æthelweard and Ælfwaru", grants to "my sister Ælfwaru all that I have lent her", and "to my brother's wife Æthelflæd the headband which I have lent her" [1708]. b) EDGAR ([943]-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey). Florence of Worcester records the birth of "filium Eadgarum" to "regi Eadmundo sua regina sancta Ælfgiva", undated but dateable to [943] from the context [1709]. Reuniting the kingdom on his brother's death, he succeeded in 959 as EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England. - see below. 14. EADBURGA (-15 Jun 960, bur Nunnaminster Abbey, transferred to Pershore Abbey, Worcestershire). Roger of Hoveden names her as the daughter of King Edward by "regina Edgiva", although he also attributes the king's son Eadwin and three other daughters to the king's third marriage [1710]. The Book of Hyde names "sanctam Edburgam Deo dictam...[et] Edgivam" as the two daughters of King Eadweard by his second wife "Edgiva", specifying that the former was buried "in monasterio monialium Wyntoniæ" [1711]. A nun at Nunnaminster Abbey, Winchester. She was canonised as St Edburga of Winchester, feast day 15 June [1712]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 24

26 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat 15. EADGIFU ([921/23]-). The Book of Hyde names "sanctam Edburgam Deo dictam...[et] Edgivam" as the two daughters of King Eadweard by his second wife "Edgiva", specifying that the latter married "Aquitanorum principi Lodowyco" [1713]. According to William of Malmesbury, Eadgifu married "Louis Prince of Aquitaine", in a later passage specifying that he was a descendant of Charlemagne [1714]. Her husband has not been identified. According to Europäische Stammtafeln [1715], "Edgifa, daughter of Edward I King of England" was the wife of Ludwig Graf im Thurgau, son of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy & his wife Willa. This seems chronologically implausible as King Rudolf's children were probably born between 880 and 900. If Graf Ludwig married a daughter of King Eadweard, it is more likely that she was Eadgifu's older half-sister Ælfgifu (see above). m EADRED ([924]-Frome 23 Nov 955, bur Winchester Cathedral). "Ædred/Eadredus frater regis" subscribed charters of Kings Æthelstan and Edmund dated between 931 and 944 [1716]. "Eadredus rex" subscribed a charter of King Edmund dated 946 [1717], which suggests that he ruled jointly with his brother before the latter's death. He succeeded his brother in 946 as EADRED King of England, crowned 16 Aug 946 at Kingston-upon-Thames. The Northumbrians swore fealty to King Eadred in 949, rebelled later that year and elected Erik "Blodøks/Blood-axe" King of Norway as their king. Eadred laid waste the whole of Northumbria, during the course of which the monastery of Ripon was burnt to the ground [1718]. He brought Northumbria back under his lordship in 954, installing Oswulf as under-king. King Alfred, under his will probably dated [951/55], made a bequest to "my mother land at Amesbury, Wantage and Basing" [1719]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St Clement's day in 955 of King Eadred at Frome, and his burial in Winchester Old Minster [1720]. Noter/Referencer: [1619] Malmesbury II, 130, p. 113, and Florence of Worcester, 924, p. 96. [1620] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 41. [1621] S 356, S 348 and S 355. [1622] S 350. [1623] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. [1624] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 924. [1625] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 51. [1626] Florence of Worcester, 901, p. 86. [1627] Malmesbury II, 126, p. 109, and Malmesbury II, 139, pp [1628] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1629] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p [1630] Malmesbury II, 131, p. 113, though the chronicler is clearly sceptical about the claim. [1631] S 375 and S 378. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 25

27 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat [1632] According to Malmesbury II, 126, p. 110, Ælfleda was buried at Wilton Abbey. [1633] S 363. [1634] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1635] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p [1636] S 465, S 470, S 477, S 487, S 488, S 516, S 491, S 519, S 558 and S 562. [1637] S 959. [1638] S 517. [1639] S 562. [1640] S 811 and S 746. [1641] The birth of Edmund son of King Edmund "Ironsides", although he may have been posthumous which could have justified a change in the naming pattern. [1642] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1643] Florence of Worcester, 940, p. 98. [1644] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 51. [1645] S 366, S 375 and S 378. [1646] Malmesbury II, 133, p [1647] Stenton (2001), p [1648] Malmesbury II, 137, p [1649] Stenton (2001), p [1650] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 941, D, 940 and E, 940. [1651] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1652] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 925. [1653] Attwater (1970), p [1654] Malmesbury II, 126, p [1655] William of Malmesbury 126, p [1656] Dugdale Monasticon II, Wilton Monastery, Wiltshire, I, De prima Fundatione Wiltonensis Cœnobii, p [1657] Weir (2002), p. 13. [1658] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1659] William of Malmesbury 126, p [1660] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1661] Flodoard 951, MGH SS III, p [1662] S 375 and S 378. [1663] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1664] Malmesbury II, 126, p [1665] Malmesbury II, 139, p [1666] Malmesbury II, 133, p [1667] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p [1668] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 924. [1669] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1670] Malmesbury II, 139, p [1671] Simeon of Durham, p [1672] Annales Blandinienses 932, MGH SS V, p. 25. [1673] Malmesbury II, 126, p [1674] William of Malmesbury 126, p [1675] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p aner\ /jan.2013 Side 26

28 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat [1676] William of Malmesbury 126, p [1677] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1678] Flodoard 926, MGH SS III, p [1679] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians (Longman, London and New York), p [1680] This estimated birth date range is based on her son being born in 930. [1681] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1682] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press) 2.1, p. 90, and 2.3, p. 91. [1683] Annalista Saxo 936. [1684] Thietmar 2.3, p. 92. [1685] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1686] Hroswitha of Gandersheim, Gesta Ottonis, quoted in Hill, B. H. (1972) Medieval Monarchy in Action: The German Empire from Henry I to Henry IV (London, George Allen and Unwin), p [1687] Malmesbury II, 126, p [1688] ES I.I 176. [1689] ES III 736. The precise source for the information is unclear. [1690] Florence of Worcester, 946, p. 99. [1691] S 414 and S 446. [1692] Florence of Worcester, 938, p. 97. [1693] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and D, 946. [1694] Simeon of Durham, p [1695] Florence of Worcester, 946, p. 99. [1696] S 516. [1697] Weir (2002), p. 17. [1698] S 776. [1699] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D 946. [1700] S 513. [1701] S 477. [1702] S 515 and S 571. [1703] Florence of Worcester, 957, p [1704] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, B, C and E, 959. [1705] Weir (2002), p. 19. [1706] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 958. [1707] Weir (2002), p. 19. [1708] S 1484, and Kelly, pp [1709] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p [1710] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 51. [1711] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p [1712] Attwater (1970), p [1713] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p aner\ /jan.2013 Side 27

29 Kildemateriale 5: MedLands/Familien Edward I den ældre fortsat [1714] Malmesbury II, 126, p. 110, and II, 135, p The editor of Malmesbury, p. 119, footnote 1, identifies him with Louis King of Arles, son of Boso, but this is unlikely given that King Louis died 5 Jun 928. [1715] ES III 736. It is not clear what is the precise source for the information. [1716] S 414, S 446, S 459, S 461, S 465, S 470, S 477, S 487, S 488, S 516 and S 491. [1717] S 946. [1718] Florence of Worcester, 949 and 950, p. 99. [1719] EHD, 107, pp [1720] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D and E, 955. Kildemateriale 6: Wikipedia/Familien Edward I den ældre Wessex (pronounced /ˈwɛsɨks/), from the Old English Westseaxe (i.e. the "west Saxons"), was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the West Saxons, in South West England, from the 6th century, until the emergence of the English state in the 9th century, under the Wessex dynasty. It was to be an earldom after Canute the Great's conquest of 1016, from 1020 to After the Norman Conquest there was a dissollution of the English earldoms, and Wessex was split between the followers of William the Conqueror. The unification of England and the Earldom of Wessex. After the invasions of the 890s Wessex and English Mercia continued to be attacked by the Danish settlers in England and by small Danish raiding forces from overseas, but these incursions were usually defeated, while there were no further major invasions from the continent. The balance of power tipped steadily in favour of the English. In 911 Ealdorman Aethelred died, leaving his widow, Alfred's daughter Aethelflaed, in charge of Mercia. Alfred's son and successor Edward the Elder, then annexed London, Oxford and the surrounding area, probably including Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, from Mercia to Wessex. Between 913 and 918 a series of English offensives overwhelmed the Danes of Mercia and East Anglia, bringing all of England south of the Humber under Edward's power. In 918 Aethelflaed died and Edward took over direct control of Mercia, extinguishing what remained of its independence and ensuring that thenceforth there would be only one Kingdom of the English. In 927 Edward's successor Athelstan conquered Northumbria, bringing the whole of England under one ruler for the first time. The Kingdom of Wessex had thus been transformed into the Kingdom of England. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 28

30 Kildemateriale for ane nr / Kildemateriale 1: Herweijer/Familien Alfred De Grote Generatie XXVI ALFRED DE GROTE, koning van Wessex, geboren 848/849 te Wantage (Wessex), overleden op , zoon van AETHELWULF (zie ) en OSBURGA (zie ). Gehuwd 868 met EALSWYTHE, overleden 905. Sønnen Edward I: Generatie XXV EDWARD I (DE OUDERE), koning van Engeland, geboren ca. 870, overleden op te Farndon, Cheshire. Hij huwde (1e) met Egwine en (3e) met Edgiva, die na 955 overleed. Zoon van ALFRED DE GROTE (zie ) en EALSWYTHE (zie ) AELFLEDA VAN BERNICIA. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 29

31 Kildemateriale 2: Wissenburg/Familien Alfred De Grote Alfred van WESSEX Familienaam Index Vader Moeder Tevens Geboren Wantage 849 Overleden (of 899), begraven te Hyde Abbey, Winchester Alfred de Grote, koning van Wessex en Kent, streed zijn gehele leven tegen de Denen, wier heerschappij hij wist in te dammen; bouwde de eerste Engelse oorlogsvloot. Huwt Ealswyth GAINSBOROUGH Familienaam Index Vader Moeder Tevens Overleden 904/5 (5 december?) Ook bekend als Elswyth Mucel of the Gaini, non na 899. Kinderen 1. Elftrudis van Wessex (?) 2. Edward I van Engeland ( ) Zie Ethelwerd van Wessex, geboren rond 874, overleden in het jaar Ethelfleda van Wessex, koningin van Mercia , geboren rond 874, overleden te Tamworth op 12 juni 918. Ethelfleda trok met haar broer Edward the Elder op tegen de Denen, die bezig waren Oost-Engeland te veroveren. Nog voor de dood van haar man voerde zij het feitelijke bestuur over Mercia. Zij bouwde aan de grenzen en later ook daarbuiten talrijke forten en werd befaamd om haar verovering van de stad Derby en haar bezetting van Leicester. Zij overleed echter voordat deze operatie voltooid was. Ethelfleda was gehuwd met Ethelred van Mercia, edelman, *870 overleden in het jaar Ethelgiva van Wessex, abdis, geboren rond Elfryth van Wessex Zie aner\ /jan.2013 Side 30

32 Kildemateriale 3: Wikipedia/Familien Alfred De Grote Alfred the Great (Old English: Ælfred, "elf-advice"; October 899), also spelled Ælfred, was king of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex from 871 to 899. Alfred is noted for his defence of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of southern England against the Vikings, becoming the only English king to be awarded the epithet "the Great". [1] Alfred was the first King of the West Saxons to style himself "King of the Anglo-Saxons". Details of his life are described in a work by the Welsh scholar and Bishop, Asser. Alfred was a learned man, who encouraged education and improved his kingdom's legal system as well as its military structure. Alfred was born in 849 at Wantage, Oxfordshire (in the historic county of Berkshire). He was the youngest son of King Æthelwulf of Wessex, by his first wife, Osburga. [2] In 868 Alfred married Ealhswith, daughter of Æthelred Mucil. [3] At the age of five years, Alfred is said to have been sent to Rome where, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, [4] he was confirmed by Pope Leo IV who "anointed him as king". Victorian writers interpreted this as an anticipatory coronation in preparation for his ultimate succession to the throne of Wessex. However, his succession could not have been foreseen at the time, as Alfred had three living elder brothers. A letter of Leo IV shows that Alfred was made a "consul"; a misinterpretation of this investiture, deliberate or accidental, could explain later confusion. [5] It may also be based on Alfred's later having accompanied his father on a pilgrimage to Rome where he spent some time at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks, around On their return from Rome in 856, Æthelwulf was deposed by his son Æthelbald. With civil war looming, the magnates of the realm met in council to hammer out a compromise. Æthelbald would retain the western shires (i.e., traditional Wessex), and Æthelwulf would rule in the east. King Æthelwulf died in 858; meanwhile Wessex was ruled by three of Alfred's brothers in succession. Bishop Asser tells the story of how as a child Alfred won a prize of a volume of poetry in English, offered by his mother to the first of her children able to memorise it. This story may be true, or it may be a myth intended to illustrate the young Alfred's love of learning. During the short reigns of his two eldest brothers, Æthelbald of Wessex and Æthelbert of Wessex, Alfred is not mentioned. However, his public life began with the accession of the third brother, Æthelred of Wessex, in 866. It is during this period that Bishop Asser applies to him the unique title of "secundarius", which may indicate a position akin to that of the Celtic tanist, a recognized successor closely associated with the reigning monarch. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 31

33 Kildemateriale 3: Wikipedia/Familien Alfred De Grote fortsat It is possible that this arrangement was sanctioned by Alfred's father, or by the Witan, to guard against the danger of a disputed succession should Æthelred fall in battle. The arrangement of crowning a successor as royal prince and military commander is well known among other Germanic tribes, such as the Swedes, with whom the Anglo-Saxons were closely related. In 868, Alfred is recorded as fighting beside his brother Æthelred, in an unsuccessful attempt to keep the invading Danes out of the adjoining Kingdom of Mercia. [4] For nearly two years, Wessex was spared attacks because Alfred paid the Vikings to leave him alone. However, at the end of 870 the Danes arrived in his homeland. The year which followed has been called "Alfred's year of battles". Nine engagements were fought with varying fortunes, though the place and date of two of these battles have not been recorded. In Berkshire a successful skirmish at the Battle of Englefield, on 31 December 870, was followed by a severe defeat at the siege and Battle of Reading on 5 January 871; and then, four days later, Alfred won a brilliant victory at the Battle of Ashdown on the Berkshire Downs, possibly near Compton or Aldworth. Alfred is particularly credited with the success of this latter battle. However, later that month, on 22 January, the English were again defeated at Basing and, on the 22 March at the Battle of Merton (perhaps Marden in Wiltshire or Martin in Dorset), in which Ethelred was killed. The two unidentified battles may also have occurred in between. Alfred the Great King of the Anglo-Saxons Reign 23 April October 899 Predecessor: Æthelred of Wessex Successor: Edward the Elder Spouse: Ealhswith Issue: Ælfthryth Æthelflæd Æthelgifu Edward the Elder. Æthelweard Full name Ælfre-d of Wessex Father: Æthelwulf of Wessex Mother: Osburga Born c. 849 Wantage, Berkshire Died 26 October 901 (around 50) Burial c Winchester, Hampshire, now lost. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 32

34 Wessex (pronounced /ˈwɛsɨks/), from the Old English Westseaxe (i.e. the "west Saxons"), was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the West Saxons, in South West England, from the 6th century, until the emergence of the English state in the 9th century, under the Wessex dynasty. It was to be an earldom after Canute the Great's conquest of 1016, from 1020 to After the Norman Conquest there was a dissollution of the English earldoms, and Wessex was split between the followers of William the Conqueror. Mercia (pronounced /ˈmɜrsiə/, /ˈmɜrʃə/)[1] was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. It was centred on the valley of the River Trent and its tributaries in the region now known as the English Midlands. The name is a Latinisation of the Old English Mierce, meaning "border people". Mercia's neighbours included Northumbria, Powys, the kingdoms of southern Wales, Wessex, Sussex, Essex, and East Anglia. The name of Mercia is still in use today by a wide range of organisations, including military units, public, commercial and voluntary bodies. In 852, Burgred came to the throne and with Ethelwulf of Wessex subjugated North Wales. In 868, Viking invaders (from Denmark) occupied Nottingham. The Vikings drove Burgred, the last king of Mercia, from his kingdom in 874. In 886, the eastern part of the kingdom became part of the Danelaw, while Mercia was reduced to its western portion only. The Danes appointed a Mercian thegn, Ceolwulf II, as king in 873 while the remaining independent section of Mercia was ruled by Earl Æthelred of Mercia, called an ealderman, not a king. He ruled from 883 until 911, in a close and trusting alliance with Wessex. Æthelred had married Æthelflæd, daughter of Alfred the Great of Wessex. She gradually assumed power as her husband sickened after about 900, possibly as a result of his wounds gained at the decisive battle against the Vikings at Tettenhall where the last large Viking army to ravage England suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the combined Mercian and Wessex army. After Æthelred's death Æthelflæd ruled alone as Lady of the Mercians until her death in 918, when her brother, Edward the Elder of Wessex, became king over Mercia as well. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 33

35 Kildemateriale 3: Wikipedia/Familien Alfred De Grote fortsat In 911, immediately after Æthelred s death, Æthelflæd freely gave London and Oxford, with the lands belonging thereto, to her brother in Wessex as a token of loyalty. She then concentrated on fortifying Mercia's existing borders east towards Nottingham, north to Chester, along the Welsh marches, and down to the Severn estuary. In 917 she expelled the Danes from Derby. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 34

36 Kildemateriale 4: MedLands/Familien Alfred De Grote %20Kings.htm#_Toc ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON & DANISH KINGS H. KINGS of WESSEX , KINGS of ENGLAND ALFRED ÆLFRED, son of ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex & his [second] wife Osburga --- (Wantage, Berkshire Oct 899, bur Winchester Cathedral, transferred to Hyde Abbey, Winchester, later called the New Minster [1567]). Asser records the birth in 849 of Alfred, son of King Æthelwulf, at Wantage in Berkshire [1568]. "Ælfred filius regis" subscribed charters of Kings Æthelwulf, Æthelberht, Æthelred I in 855, 862 (anachronistic), 864 and 868 [1569]. Asser records that in 853, his father sent him to Rome where Pope Leo IV baptised him [1570]. He succeeded his brother in 871 as ALFRED King of Wessex. After the Danish victory at Wilton in May 871, King Alfred agreed to pay Danegeld for the first time as the price for ceasing further attacks. After a second invasion of Wessex in 875/77, during which Wareham in Dorset and Exeter were occupied, Alfred again bought peace in 877. He was forced to flee westwards in the face of a third invasion in 878 during which Chippenham was occupied, and took refuge at Athelney in Somerset. King Alfred's subsequent counter-offensive proved more effective, as he defeated the Danes under Guthrum at Edington in Wiltshire in May 878. After mixed successes against the Danes in East Anglia in 885, and his occupation of London in 886, Alfred made a peace treaty with Guthrum which lasted until 892. "Ælfred rex" subscribed a charter of "Æthelred dux et patricius gentis Merciorum" dated 887 [1571]. The Danish offensive of 892/96 was less successful and no further Danish attacks on Wessex are recorded after 896. King Alfred is famous for the fleet of ships built to his design in the hope of defeating the Danes while they were still at sea, considered as forming the basis for the modern English navy. Having learnt Latin late in life, Alfred was responsible for English translations of five Latin works between 892 and 899: Gregory the Great's Cura Pastoralis, Orosius's History of the Ancient World, Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica, Boethius's De Consolatione Philosophae, and a collection which starts with the Soliloquies of St Augustine. He was also responsible for a collection of laws, although these were largely refinements of the works of his predecessors Ine King of Wessex, Offa King of Mercia and Æthelberht King of Kent. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of King Alfred on 26 Oct 899 [1572]. King Alfred, under his will probably dated to [879/88], made bequests (in order) to "Edward my elder son", his unnamed younger son, his unnamed eldest, middle and youngest daughters, "my brother's son Æthelhelm my brother's son Æthelwold my kinsman Osferth" and Ealswith [1573]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 35

37 Kildemateriale 4: MedLands/Familien Alfred De Grote fortsat m (Winchester 868) EALHSWITH, daughter of ÆTHELRED "Mucil" Ealdorman of the Gainas & his wife Eadburh (-Winchester 5 or 8 Dec 905 [1574], bur Winchester, St Mary's Abbey, transferred to Winchester Cathedral). Asser records the marriage in 868 of Alfred and "a noble Mercian lady, daughter of Athelred surnamed Mucil earl of the Gaini [and] Edburga of the royal line of Mercia" [1575]. Roger of Hoveden records the names of her parents, specifying that her mother was related to the kings of Mercia. "Ealhswith mater regis" subscribed a charter of King Edward dated 901 [1576]. She founded the convent of St Mary's at Winchester, and became a nun there after her husband died. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in [902/05] of "Ealhswith" [1577]. King Alfred & Queen Ealhswith had [seven] children: 1. ÆTHELFLÆD ([869]-Tamworth 12 Jun 918, bur Gloucester Cathedral). Asser names (in order) "Ethelfled the eldest Edward Ethelgiva Ethelwitha and Ethelwerd" as the children of King Alfred & his wife, specifying that Ethelfled was married to "Ethered earl of Mercia" [1578]. "Egelfledam Merciorum dominam" is named by Roger of Hoveden first in his list of King Alfred's daughters by Queen Ealhswith [1579]. "Æthelflæd conjux" subscribed a charter of "Æthelred dux et patricius gentis Merciorum" granting land in Oxfordshire to the bishopric of Worcester dated 887 [1580]. "Æthelflæd" also subscribed the joint charter of King Alfred and "Æthelred subregulus et patricius Merciorum" dated 889[1581], the charter of "Æthered" dated 901, and three charters of King Edward dated 903 and 904, in the last of which her name is listed immediately after her husband's and before "Æthelswitha regina" [1582]. Known as the "Lady of the Mercians", she effectively governed Mercia after her husband's death "save only London and Oxford" [1583]. Florence of Worcester records that she carried out a plan of fortress building to protect Mercia from the Danes, at Bridgenorth in 912, Tamworth and Stafford in 913, Eddisbury Hill in Cheshire and Warwick in 914, and Chirbury and Runcorn in 915 [1584]. Her Mercian troops played a decisive part in her brother's offensive against the Danes in the Midlands in 917, conquering Derby and Tempsford where they killed the Danish king of the East Angles, and Leicester in early 918 [1585]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in 918 of Æthelflæd "12 days before midsummer at Tamworth in the eighth year of her rule over Mercia as its rightful lord" and her burial at Gloucester St Peter's church [1586]. m ([end 889]) ÆTHELRED Ealdorman of western Mercia, son of --- (-912). aner\ /jan.2013 Side 36

38 Kildemateriale 4: MedLands/Familien Alfred De Grote fortsat 2. EADMUND (-young). Asser names (in order) "Ethelfled the eldest Edward Ethelgiva Ethelwitha and Ethelwerd besides those who died in their infancy one of whom was Edmund" as the children of King Alfred & his wife [1587]. While Asser does not specify where Edmund fits in the order of births, it is a fair assumption that he was the eldest son otherwise he may not have been deemed worthy of mention. According to Weir [1588], Edmund was crowned in the lifetime of his father, but it is assumed that this is based on a misreading of the charter of King Alfred dated 898 which was subscribed by "Eadweard rex" [1589]. 3. EADWEARD ([872]-Farndon-on-Dee near Chester 17 Jul 924, bur Winchester Cathedral). "Eadwardum" is named by Roger of Hoveden as the younger of King Alfred's sons by Queen Ealswith [1590]. He succeeded his father in 899 as EDWARD "the Elder" King of Wessex. - see below. 4. ELFREDA. The Book of Hyde names "Elfredam virginam" as second of the four daughters of King Alfred & his wife [1591]. She is not named by Asser as one of the children of King Alfred. 5. ÆTHELGIVA (-[896], bur Shaftesbury Abbey). Asser names (in order) "Ethelfled the eldest Edward Ethelgiva Ethelwitha and Ethelwerd" as the children of King Alfred & his wife, specifying that Ethelgiva "was dedicated to God and submitted to the rules of a monastic life" [1592]. "Ethelgivam sanctimonialem" is named by Roger of Hoveden second in his list of King Alfred's daughters by Queen Ealswith [1593]. Nun at Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset, elected the first Abbess in [888] [1594]. The Book of Hyde names "Elgivam virginam" as third of the four daughters of King Alfred & his wife, specifying that she was "Schaftlouiæ abbatissa" [1595]. A document which narrates the foundation of Athelney Monastery records that regis Alfredi installed filiam propriam Algi-vam as abbess after founding the monastery [1596]. 6. ÆLFTHRYTH of Wessex ([877]-7 Jun 929, bur Ghent, St Pieter). Asser names (in order) "Ethelfled the eldest Edward Ethelgiva Ethelwitha and Ethelwerd" as the children of King Alfred & his wife [1597]. "Elfthtritham" is named by Roger of Hoveden third in his list of King Alfred's daughters by Queen Ealswith [1598]. She is called "Æthelswitha" by Asser [1599]. "Elftrudis" is named as wife of Count Baudouin II in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin [1600]. This marriage represented the start of a long-lasting alliance between England and Flanders, founded on their common interest of preventing Viking settlements along the coast. "Elstrudis comitissa cum filiis suis Arnulfo et Adelolfo" donated "hereditatem suam Liefsham in terra Anglorum in Cantia" to Saint- Pierre de Gand, for the soul of "senioris sui Baldwini", by charter dated 11 Sep 918 [1601]. The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 929 of "Elftrudis comitissa" [1602]. The Memorial of "filia regis Elstrudis Balduini domini" records her death "VII Iunii"[1603]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 37

39 Kildemateriale 4: MedLands/Familien Alfred De Grote fortsat An undated charter, dated to [962], recording the last wishes of "marchysi Arnulfi", notes that "pater meus et mater mea" were buried in the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Gand [1604]. m ([893/99]) BAUDOUIN II "le Chauve" Count of Flanders, son of BAUDOUIN I Count of Flanders & his wife Judith of the Franks [Carolingian] ([863/65]-[10 Sep] 918, bur St Bertin, transferred 929 to Ghent, St Pieter). 7. ÆTHELWEARD ([880]-16 Oct 922, bur Winchester Cathedral [1605]). Asser names (in order) "Ethelfled the eldest Edward Ethelgiva Ethelwitha and Ethelwerd" as the children of King Alfred & his wife [1606]. "Egelwardum" is named by Roger of Hoveden as the younger of King Alfred's sons by Queen Ealhswith [1607]. "Æthelweard filius regis" subscribed charters of King Edward dated 900, 901 (three), 903 and 904 [1608] (in all but two of which he is named first in the list of subscribers), and "Æthelweard frater regis" subscribed two charters dated 909 (in both of which he is named first in the list of subscribers, ahead of the king's sons) [1609]. Simeon of Durham records the death "XVII Kal Nov" in 922 of "Ethelward the Atheling brother of King Eadward" and his burial in Winchester [1610]. m ---. The name of the wife of Æthelweard is not known. Æthelweard & his wife had [three] children: a) [TURKETUL (-3 Jul 975, bur Croyland Abbey). Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland names Turketul Chancellor of King Æthelstan, later abbot of Croyland, as "eldest son" of Æthelweard, bother of King Eadweard [1611]. This has not been corroborated in any other source so far consulted. The same source records that Turketul became a monk at Croyland in the second year of the reign of King Eadred [1612]. A further clue about his ancestry is provided by Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland recording that Turketul's "kinsman Osketul" was installed as Archbishop of York [1613]. The same source records the death of Turketul "V Non Jul" in 975 and his burial in the church at Croyland [1614].] b) ÆLFWIN (-killed in battle Brunanburh 937, bur Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire). King Æthelstan donated property to Malmesbury for the souls of "patruelium meorum Æthelwardi clitonis videlicet Ælfwinis et Æthelwinis" by three charters dated 937 [1615]. Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records that King Æthelstan's "two kinsmen, Elwin and Athelstan, the sons of his uncle Ethelward" were killed in battle by the Danes at Bruneford [1616]. c) ÆTHELWIN (-killed in battle Brunanburh 937, bur Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire). King Æthelstan donated property to Malmesbury for the souls of "patruelium meorum Æthelwardi clitonis videlicet Ælfwinis et Æthelwinis" by three charters dated 937 [1617]. Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records that King Æthelstan's "two kinsmen, Elwin and Athelstan, the sons of his uncle Ethelward" were killed in battle by the Danes at Bruneford [1618]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 38

40 Kildemateriale 4: MedLands/Familien Alfred De Grote fortsat Noter: [1566] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 866 [865]. [1567] Malmesbury II, 124, p [1568] Asser, p. 2. [1569] S 315 (King Æthelwulf), S 333 (King Æthelberht), S 334 and S 340 (King Æthelred). [1570] Asser, Part I. Kirby (2000), p. 164, suggests it is more likely that Alfred accompanied his father to Rome in 855. [1571] S 217. [1572] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, D and E, 901 [899]. [1573] S 1507, and EHD, 96, pp [1574] Florence of Worcester, 905, p. 88. [1575] Asser, p. 11. [1576] S 363. [1577] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 905 [904], C, 902, and D, 905. [1578] Asser, p. 25. [1579] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 41. [1580] S 217. [1581] S 346. [1582] S 221, S 367, S 371 and S 361. [1583] Dl 912, p. 89. [1584] Florence of Worcester, 913, 914, 915 and 916, pp [1585] Florence of Worcester, 918 and 919, pp Florence of Worcester's chronology of Æthelflæd's exploits appears to be one year late in each case, assuming her death in 918 is correct. [1586] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 918. [1587] Asser, p. 25. [1588] Weir (2002), p. 10. [1589] S 350. [1590] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 41. [1591] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIII.7, p. 60. [1592] Asser, p. 25. [1593] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 41. [1594] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 49. [1595] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIII.7, p. 60. [1596] Dugdale Monasticon II, Athelney Monastery, Somerset, I, De Fundatione Cœnobiorum et Elemosinis Regis Alfredi, p [1597] Asser, p. 25. [1598] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 41. [1599] Asser, Part II. [1600] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint- Bertin (Paris) ("Saint-Bertin") II.73, 918, p aner\ /jan.2013 Side 39

41 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Alfred De Grote fortsat [1601] Lokeren, A. van (1868) Chartes et documents de l abbaye de Saint Pierre au Mont Blandin à Gand (Gand) ("Gand Saint- Pierre"), 14, p. 20, and Fayen, A. (1906) Cartulaire de la ville de Gand, Chartes et documents T. I, Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis (Gand) ("Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis"), 60, p. 52. [1602] Annales Blandinienses 929, MGH SS V, p. 24. [1603] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p [1604] Gand Saint-Pierre 29, p. 33. [1605] Malmesbury II, 130, p. 113, and Florence of Worcester, 922, p. 95. [1606] Asser, p. 25. [1607] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 41. [1608] S 359, S 362, S 364, S 366, S 368 and S 372. [1609] S 375 and S 378. [1610] Simeon of Durham, p [1611] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 72. [1612] Ingulph's Chronicle, pp [1613] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 83. [1614] Ingulph's Chronicle, p [1615] S 434, S 435 and S 436. [1616] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 77. [1617] S 434, S 435 and S 436. [1618] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 77. [1619] Malmesbury II, 130, p. 113, and Florence of Worcester, 924, p. 96. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 40

42 Kildemateriale for ane nr / Kildemateriale 1: Herweijer/Familien Aethelwulf AETHELWULF, koning van Wessex, zoon van EGBERT (zie ) en REDBURGA (zie ). Gehuwd op met JUDITH VAN WEST-FRANCIë, koningin van Wessex in 856, geboren ca Zij huwde (2e) in 858 met met Aethelbald van Wessex. Dochter van KAREL II DE KALE (zie ) en ERMENTRUDIS VAN ORLEANS (zie ) OSBURGA, overleden na 876, dochter van OSLAK (zie ). Sønnen Alfred: Generatie XXVI ALFRED DE GROTE, koning van Wessex, geboren 848/849 te Wantage (Wessex), overleden op , zoon van AETHELWULF (zie ) en OSBURGA (zie ). Gehuwd 868 met EALSWYTHE, overleden 905. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 41

43 Kildemateriale 2: Wissenburg/Familien Aethelwulf Aethelwolf van WESSEX Familienaam Index Vader Moeder Tevens Overleden Ethelwulf, koning van Engeland ( ). Ethelwulf moest strijden tegen de invallen van de Denen, die hij in 851 te Aclea (Ocley bij Gravensend?) beslissend versloeg. Hij voegde Mercia aan zijn gebied toe. Ethelwulf was een religieus man, hij ondernam in 855 een pelgrimstocht naar Rome en liet daarbij het bestuur over zijn land over aan zijn oudste zoon Ethelbald. Huwt (1) Osburh van WIGHT Familienaam Index Vader Moeder Tevens Overleden 846 (Haar zoon Alfred zou echter geboren zijn tussen 848 en 849.) Osburga stamt uit een Noormannengeslacht der Juten op het eiland Wight. Dochter Judith is waarschijnlijk apocrief. Huwt (2) Verberie-sur-Oise Judith van WEST-FRANCIË Familienaam Index Vader Moeder Tevens Zie Kinderen: 1. Alfred Zie Ethelbald Koning van Wessex, ( ), overleden in juli 860, begraven te Sherborne. Ethelbald is getrouwd in het jaar 858 (Judith was stiefmoeder van Aethelbald) met zijn stiefmoeder Judith van West-Francië, geboren rond 844, zie Karel II 3. Ethelbert Koning van Wessex, ( ), begraven te Sherborne. 4. Ethelred I Koning van Wessex, ( ), overleden op 23 april 871 (aan zijn op het slagveld opgelopen verwondingen). 5. Athelstan van Wessex. 6. Ethelswith van Wessex, koning van Mercia. Ethelswith was gehuwd met Burghred. 7. Judith Zie aner\ /jan.2013 Side 42

44 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf %20Kings.htm#_Toc ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON & DANISH KINGS H. KINGS of WESSEX , KINGS of ENGLAND ECGBERHT ECGBERHT, son of EALHMUND Under-King of Kent & his wife --- ([769/80]-4 Feb or [Jun] 839, m ([789/92]) REDBURGA, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. King Ecgberht had two children: 1. ÆTHELWULF ([795/810]-13 Jan 858, bur Winchester). The Anglo- Saxon Chronicle names Æthelwulf as son of Ecgberht [1479]. He succeeded his father 839 as ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex. - see below. 2. EADGYTH (-Polesworth Abbey ----, bur Polesworth Abbey). A manuscript of Polesworth Monastery records that sancta Editha sorore regis Athulphi was a nun at the abbey [1480]. Another manuscript which narrates the foundation of Polesworth Monastery in more detail, but is stated in Dugdale s Monasticon to date from 1640, records that Egbrycht the king had on son Arnulfe and a dowhtur Edith, and that the latter was made abbess [1481]. ÆTHELWULF , ÆTHELBALD , ÆTHELBERHT , ÆTHELRED I ÆTHELWULF, son of ECGBERHT King of Wessex & his wife Redburga --- ([795/810]-13 Jan 858, bur Winchester Cathedral). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names Æthelwulf as son of Ecgberht [1482]. Kirby suggests [1483] that Æthelwulf could have been born as late as 810, although this would not be consistent with the supposed date of his father's marriage and is unlikely to be correct if Æthelstan (see below) was King Æthelwulf's son. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 825 "Egbert king of Wessex sent his son Æthelwulf and Wulfheard his ealdorman to Kent with a great force" where they expelled King Baldred [1484]. "Æthelwulfi regis filii mei" was co-grantor of land at Canterbury to "Ciaba clericus" with "Ægberhtus rex occidentalium Saxonum" by charter dated 836 [1485]. "Æthelwulf rex Cancie" was co-grantor of land in Kent with "Egberthus rex occident Saxonum pater meus" by charters dated [833/39] and 838 respectively [1486]. Under-King of Kent, Essex, Sussex and Surrey He succeeded his father in 839 as ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex, crowned [later in 839] at Kingston-upon- Thames. Danish raids intensified during his reign. Great damage was done in Lindsey, East Anglia and Kent in 841, and Southampton was plundered in 842. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 43

45 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf fortsat Before 850, King Æthelwulf had settled the ancient dispute with Mercia about the lands to the west of the middle Thames by transferring Berkshire from Mercia to Wessex [1487]. He defeated a large Danish army south of the Thames at Aclea in 851 after it had stormed Canterbury and London and driven Burghred King of Mercia to flight [1488]. King Æthelwulf made a pilgrimage to Rome in 855, leaving the government in the hands of his son Æthelbald. At the request of Pope Benedict III, he made a public distribution of gold and silver to the clergy, leading men of Rome and the people [1489]. William of Malmesbury records that Æthelbald rebelled against his father during his absence and, after returning, King Æthelwulf abdicated part of his realm in Wessex in favour of his son to avoid civil war, continuing to rule in the other part of Wessex, Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Essex [1490]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of King Æthelwulf two years after returning from Rome and his burial at Winchester [1491]. [m] [firstly] ([815/20]) ---. There is no direct proof of this supposed first marriage. However, the likely birth date of King Æthelwulf's son Æthelstan suggests a substantial age difference with his brothers, indicating that he was probably not born from the same mother. m [secondly] ([830/33]) OSBURGA, daughter of OSLAC Ealdorman of the Isle of Wight & his wife --- (-[852/55]). Asser names "Osburga daughter of Oslac the famous butler of King Æthelwulf a Goth by nation" as the mother of King Alfred, specifying that her father was descended from "the Goths and Jutes namely of Stuf and Whitgar two brothers who received possession of the Isle of Wight from their uncle King Cerdic" [1492]. She is named as mother of King Alfred by Roger of Hoveden, who also names her father, specifying that he was "pincerna regis" [1493]. m [thirdly] ([Verberie-sur-Oise] 1 Oct 856) as her first husband, JUDITH of the Franks, daughter of CHARLES II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks & his first wife Ermentrude [d Orléans] ([844]- after 870). The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal in Jul 856 of "Iudith filiam Karli regis" and "Edilvulf rex occidentalium Anglorum" after the latter returned from Rome and their marriage "Kal Oct in Vermaria palatio", during which "Ingmaro Durocortori Remorum episcopo" set a queen's diadem on her head [1494]. She and her father are named by Roger of Hoveden when he records her marriage to King Æthelwulf [1495]. Her husband placed her "by his own side on the regal throne", contrary to normal practice according to Asser, who also says that the subservient position previously given to the queen was adopted in Wessex after the reign of King Beorhtric because of the unpopular influence of his queen Eadburh of Mercia [1496]. Queen Judith married secondly ([858/59]) her stepson, Æthelbald King of Wessex. The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage of "Iudit reginam" and "Adalboldus filius eius [=Edilvulf regis]" in 858 after the death of her first husband [1497]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 44

46 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf fortsat She eloped with her future third husband, Baudouin I Count of Flanders, around Christmas 861 and married him at Auxerre end-863. The Annales Bertiniani record that Judith returned to her father after the death of her second husband, lived at Senlis "sub tuitione paterna", and from there was abducted by "Balduinum comitem" with the consent of her brother Louis, her father consenting to the marriage the following year [1498]. Flodoard names "Balduini comitis et Iudita Karoli regis filia, Edilvulfo regi Anglorum qui et Edelboldus in matrimonium" [1499]. [Mistress (1): ---. The uncertain nature of the precise relationship of King Æthelberht to the royal family is explained below, one of the possibilities being that he was an illegitimate son of King Æthelwulf by an unknown concubine.] King Æthelwulf & his [first wife] had one child: 1. ÆTHELSTAN ([820/26]-[851/53]). The sources are contradictory concerning the parentage of Æthelstan. One manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that Æthelstan was the second son of King Ecgberht, but another says "Æthelwulf, son of Ecgberht, succeeded to the kingdom of Wessex, and he gave his son Æthelstan the kingdom of Kent and Essex and of Surrey and of Sussex" [1500]. If Æthelstan was the son of King Æthelwulf, he must have been considerably older than his brothers, and therefore probably not born from the same mother. Æthelstan's birth date is estimated from his appointment as under king in 839, on the assumption that this was unlikely to have been before he was a teenager. Weir [1501] states that Æthelstan (whom she places as King Ecgberht's son) had a son named Ethelweard who was under-king of Kent and who died in 850, but the source on which this is based is not known. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Æthelstan was under-king of Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Essex in 839 [1502]. "Ethelstan/Æthelstan rex" subscribed three charters of King Æthelwulf granting lands in Kent dated 841, 842 and 845 [1503]. "Edelstan rex Kancie" granted land at Rochester, Kent to "Ealhere princeps", jointly with King Æthelwulf, by charter dated 850 [1504]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that he and his ealdorman Ealhere defeated a Danish force at sea off Sandwich [851] [1505]. Asser records that "king Athelstan, son of king Æthelwulf, and earl Ealhere slew a large army of pagans in Kent at Sandwich" in 851, and that "earl Ealhere with the men of Kent" fought more pagans "in the island Tenet" in 853 where Ælhere was killed [1506]. It is assumed that Æthelstan died before 853 as he is not named as having taken part in this second battle. Æthelstan had [one possible child]: a) [ÆTHELWEARD (-850). Weir [1507] states that Æthelstan (whom she places as King Ecgberht's son) had a son named Ethelweard who was under-king of Kent and who died in 850, but the primary source on which this is based is not known.] aner\ /jan.2013 Side 45

47 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf fortsat King Æthelwulf & his [second] wife had [five] children: 2. ÆTHELBALD ([835/40]-20 Dec 860, bur Sherborne Abbey, Dorset). "Edelbaldus filius suus" fought with King Æthelwulf at Temesmuthe, London and in Kent in 851 [1508]. He was appointed under-king in Wessex when his father left for Rome in 855. Asser records that "king Ethelbald and Ealstan bishop of Sherborne, with Eanwulf earl of the district of Somerton are said to have made a conspiracy together that king Ethelwulf, on his return from Rome, should never again be received into his kingdom" and that "many ascribe [the plot] solely to the insolence of the king, because the king was pertinacious in this matter, and in many other perversities as also was proved by the result of that which follows" [1509]. After his return, Æthelwulf abdicated part of his realm in favour of his son, who succeeded as ÆTHELBALD King of Wessex, while his father continued to rule in the other part of Wessex and in Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Essex. Stenton says that Æthelwulf did this "to avoid a civil war" after learning that "his eldest son and some of the leading men of Wessex were resolved that he should not be received as king" after returning to England [1510]. Presumably he bases this on the report by Asser. The new conclusions referred to below regarding the possible illegitimacy of King Æthelwulf's son Æthelberht suggest another possible explanation. Æthelberht, most likely older than his half-brother Æthelbald, may have been the ring-leader of the plot. King Æthelwulf may have wished to control Æthelberht's ambitions by installing his oldest legitimate son as king during his own lifetime. Asser's report blaming Æthelbald may have been due to the chronicler's evident disapproval of the king's marrying his stepmother after his father's death (see below). In fact, this rather surprising marriage may also have been motivated by the need to reinforce Æthelbald's possibly weak power-base in the face of a continuing threat from his more powerful older half-brother Æthelberht. "Adelbaldus ex occidentalium Saxonem" granted land at Teffont, Wiltshire to "Osmund minister" by charter dated 860, subscribed by (in order) "Iudith regis filius [sic]" and "Osric dux" [1511]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in 860 of King Æthelbald and his burial at Sherborne [1512]. m ([858/59], separated) as her second husband, his stepmother, JUDITH of the Franks, widow of ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex, daughter of CHARLES II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks & his first wife Ermentrude [d Orléans] ([844]-after 870). Asser records that when King Æthelwulf was dead, his son Æthelbald married Judith daughter of Charles king of the Franks "contrary to God's prohibition and the dignity of a Christian, contrary also to the custom of all the pagans and drew down much infamy upon himself" [1513]. The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage of "Iudit reginam" and "Adalboldus filius eius [=Edilvulf regis]" in 858 after the death of her first husband [1514]. Roger of Hoveden also records this second marriage of Judith [1515]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 46

48 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf fortsat Roger of Wendover records the marriage and adds that Æthelbald repudiated his wife in penitence for the marriage [1516]. "Iudith regis filius [sic]" subscribed a charter of King Æthelbald dated 860 [1517]. This presumably refers to Judith, Æthelbald's wife. Although it is not impossible that Queen Judith had a daughter by her first husband, her own date of birth indicates that it is unlikely that such a child could have been born before [858], in which case the daughter would probably not have been considered old enough to have subscribed a charter in 860. The "regis filius [=filia]" reference is nevertheless surprising (why not "regina"?), although one explanation is that it refers to her as daughter of the Frankish king rather than her relationship to the Wessex royal family. Another simpler explanation is that it was simply a copyist's error. The Annales Bertiniani record that Judith returned to her father after the death of her second husband, lived at Senlis "sub tuitione paterna", and from there was abducted by "Balduinum comitem" with the consent of her brother Louis, her father consenting to the marriage the following year [1518]. Judith eloped with her future third husband, Baudouin I Count of Flanders, around Christmas 861 and married him at Auxerre end-863. Flodoard names "Balduini comitis et Iudita Karoli regis filia, Edilvulfo regi Anglorum qui et Edelboldus in matrimonium" [1519]. 3. ÆTHELSWITH ([838/41]-in Italy 888, bur Pavia). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that King Æthelwulf gave his (unnamed) daughter in marriage to King Burghred [1520]. Asser records that in 853 after Easter King Æthelwulf "gave his daughter to Burhred king of the Mercians at the royal vill of Chippenham" [1521]. Her name is confirmed by the charter of "Burgred rex Mercensium" dated 855 subscribed by "Æthelswith regina" [1522]. It is assumed that Æthelswith was her father's legitimate daughter by his wife Osburga, but this is not certain. She was probably older than her brothers Æthelred and Alfred in view of her 853 marriage, although the possibility of an infant marriage cannot be excluded. Æthelswith had no known children from whose birth dates one could calculate their mother's age. "Æthelswith regina" was co-grantor with King Burgred in a grant of land at Upthrop to Wulflaf dated 869 [1523]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 888 "ealdorman Beocca and queen Æthelswith who was king Alfred's sister took the alms of the West Saxons and of king Alfred to Rome", one manuscript specifying that she "passed away on the way to Rome", another that she was buried in Pavia [1524]. Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records that she was buried "at Ticinum" [1525]. m (Chippenham after Easter 853) BURGHRED King of Mercia, son of --- (-Rome after 874). He turned to Æthelwulf King of Wessex in 853 for help against the Britons of Wales, and was given his daughter in marriage [1526]. "Burgred rex Mercensium" granted lands to bishop Alhhun under charter dated 855, and was co-grantor with his wife in a grant of land at Upthrop to Wulflaf dated 869 [1527]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 47

49 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf fortsat The 855 charter shows that the Danes were in Mercia around the Wrekin in that year [1528]. King Burghred, in alliance with his brothers-in-law King Æthelred and Alfred of Wessex, gathered near Nottingham in 868 to fight the Danes but bought peace from them without fighting. However, the Danish army moved on Repton in late 873, and Burghred was forced out in 874. He left for Rome where he spent the rest of his life. 4. ÆTHELRED ([844/47]-[15/22] Apr 871, bur Wimborne Minster, Dorset [1529]). Weir estimates that Æthelred must have been born in [840] [1530]. However, it is likely that he was no more than a young adolescent in 860, presumably not powerful enough to prevent his being displaced in the succession by his older half-brother Æthelberht. "Æthelred/Ethered filius regis" subscribed charters of King Æthelberht dated 860, 863 and 864 [1531]. He succeeded his brother in 866 as ÆTHELRED I King of Wessex, crowned soon after at Kingston-upon-Thames. Danish incursions increased during his reign, Asser recording that the invaders wintered for the first time in East Anglia [1532]. King Æthelred and his younger brother Alfred allied themselves with their brother-in-law Burghred King of Mercia to fight the Danes near Nottingham in Autumn 868, but Burghred bought peace without fighting. In 870, the Danes moved against Wessex, establishing winter quarters at Reading. Following an unsuccessful attack on Reading, Æthelred and Alfred defeated the Danes at Ashdown, but were themselves defeated at Basing in early 871. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in 871 "after Easter" (dated to 15 Apr in 871, according to Cheney [1533]) of King Æthelred and his burial at Wimborne [1534]. Florence of Worcester records the death "post Pascha" of "rex Ætheredus" and his burial "IX Kal Mai in Winburnan" [1535]. m (868) WULFTHRYTH, daughter of --- ([848/53]-). "Wulfthryth regina" subscribed one of the two charters of King Æthelred I dated 868 [1536], which suggests that she married during that year. Her birth date range is estimated from her having given birth to two known children before the death of her husband in 871. Her parentage is not known. However, the importance of Ealdorman Wulfhere's position at the court of King Æthelred I is shown by the position of his name among subscribers to the king's charters: he was first subscriber, even before the king's brother Alfred, in a charter dated 862, and second subscriber, after the queen, in a charter dated 868 [1537]. It is tempting therefore to speculate that Æthelred's queen was Wulfthryth, daughter of Wulfhere Ealdorman & his wife ---, especially with the common use of the root "Wulf-" in their names. King Æthelred I & [his wife] had two children: a) ÆTHELHELM ([868/70]-898). King Alfred, under his will probably dated to [879/88], bequeathed estates at Aldingbourne, Compton, Crondall, Beeding, Beddingham, Burnham, Thunderfield and Earhing to "my brother's son Æthelhelm" [1538]. He is named in the will before his brother Æthelwold, and received more extensive estates, suggesting that Æthelhelm was his father's older son. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 48

50 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf fortsat "Æthelhel[m] dux" subscribed the same undated charter of King Alfred as his brother Æthelwald, although curiously Æthelhelm is not given the epithet "filius regis" in the charter, in contrast to Æthelwald. Æthelhelm had [one possible child]: i) [ÆTHELFRITH (-904 or after). According to Anscombe [1539], Æthelfrith was the son of Æthelhelm, son of Æthelred I King of England. However, this is unlikely to be correct from a chronological point of view. Any grandsons of King Æthelred could not have been born before [890] at the earliest, while Ealdorman Æthelfrith was definitely active in 901, and even as early as 884 if the subscriptions of charters of that date refer to the same person. Kelly accepts that "the generations are too crowded" but does not analyse the impact of the chronology on the viability of the proposed descent [1540]. "Æthelferth ealdorman/dux/comes" and "Æthelfrith dux" subscribed two charters of Æthelred Ealdorman of Mercia in 884 and four charters of King Edward dated between 901 and 904 [1541]. "Æthelfrith dux" was also granted land at Wrington, Somerset by King Edward under a charter dated 903 [1542]. - ANGLO-SAXON NOBILITY.] b) ÆTHELWOLD ([869/71]-killed at the battle of the Holm [902/05]). King Alfred, under his will probably dated to [879/88], bequeathed residences at Godalming, Guildford and Steyning to "my brother's son Æthelwold" [1543]. He is named in the will after his brother Æthelhelm and received fewer estates than his brother, suggesting that Æthelwold was his father's younger son. "Athelwald filius regis" subscribed a charter of King Alfred [1544], undated, but the reference to his predecessor (King Æthelred I) as "regis" may indicate that it should be dated to the earliest years of King Alfred's reign, although after the birth of the king's son Edward [1545] whose name is listed among the subscribers immediately after Æthelwold. "Æthelwald dux/ealdorman" subscribed two charters of King Alfred dated 882 and 884, in the latter he was recorded first in the list of subscribers [1546]. An infant on the death of his father in 871, he was passed over for the succession in favour of his uncle Alfred. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 899 "Æthelwold son of his [King Eadward s] paternal uncle seized the manor at Wimborne and at Christchurch", that the king "encamped at Badbury Rings, near Wimborne" in which Æthelwold had barricaded himself but that the latter later escaped "to the host in Northumbria" [1547]. Florence of Worcester records that "regis Eadwardi patruelis, clito Æthelwoldus" seized "regiam villam Tweoxebeam Winburnan", that King Eadward assembled his troops "in loco Baddanbyrig prope Wiburnan" and forced Æthelwold to flee north where he allied himself with the Danes, and in a later passage his death in battle [1548]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 49

51 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf fortsat The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Æthelwold came hither from oversea to Essex with the fleet which was accompanying him" (manuscript A) or "with all the ships he could muster and which had given him allegiance" in 904, and that "he seduced the host in East Anglia harried across Mercia" in 905, but was killed in battle "between the dikes and the Wissey" with "king Eohric" [identified as the Danish king of East Anglia] killed at the battle of the Holm [902/05] [1549]. Stenton suggests that these events should more accurately be dated to 901 and 902 [1550]. m ([899]) ---. The name of Æthelwold's wife is not known. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 899 "was the lady arrested whom he [Æthelwold] had abducted without the king's consent because she had taken the vows of a nun" [1551]. According to Florence of Worcester, Æthelwold married a nun from Wimborne, without King Edward's permission, and was forced to return her to the convent [1552]. 5. ÆLFRED (Wantage, Berkshire Oct 899, bur Newminster Abbey, Winchester, transferred to Hyde Abbey, Winchester). Asser records the birth in 849 of Alfred, son of King Æthelwulf, at Wantage in Berkshire [1553]. He succeeded his brother in 871 as ALFRED King of Wessex. - see below. 6. [OSWEALD (-875 or after). "Oswald filius regis" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred I dated 868, listed immediately after "Ælfred filius regis" and before "Wulfthryth regina" [1554]. If he was the son of King Æthelred, he would probably have been named before his uncle Alfred in this charter. It is more likely that Osweald was another son of King Æthelwulf, listed in the document after his older brother Alfred, although it is also possible that he was the son of either of King Æthelred's older brothers, King Æthelbald or King Æthelberht. The root "Os-" in his name suggests a connection with Osburga, the mother of Alfred. "Oswealdus filius regis " subscribed a charter dated 875 under which Eardwulf granted property to Wighelm [1555]. It is interesting to note that this is not the only example where the son of a previous king continues to be referred to in charters as "filius regis" after the death of his father and succession of his brother [1556]. Presumably Osweald died soon after this date as no later record of him has been found.] [King Æthelwulf had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):] 7. [ÆTHELBERHT ([830/35]-[865/66], bur Sherborne Abbey, Dorset). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names Æthelberht as king Æthelbald's brother when recording his succession in 860 [1557], and as the brother of Æthelred when recording the latter's succession in [865/66] [1558]. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 50

52 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf fortsat King Æthelberht's more uncertain relationship with the royal family is deduced from the will of King Alfred, probably dated to [879/88], which refers to the inheritance "which my father King Æthelwulf bequeathed to us three brothers Æthelbald, Æthelred and myself" specifying that "Æthelred and I entrusted our share to our kinsman king Æthelberht on condition that he should return it to us fully and he then did so" [1559]. This certainly suggests that Æthelberht could not have been the full brother of Æthelbald, Æthelred and Ælfred. There appear to be four possibilities to explain this unexpected wording and the precise family relationship between King Æthelberht and King Æthelwulf: (1) He was Æthelwulf's illegitimate son by a concubine, although if this is correct it is not clear why Alfred would have used the imprecise word "kinsman" to refer to such a close relation as his halfbrother; (2) he was related by blood more remotely, maybe the king's nephew through the male line by birth, but adopted by the king as his son and treated as such at court, in which case "brother" in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle should be interpreted as "adopted brother"; (3) he was the son of Osburga, King Æthelwulf's wife, by an earlier marriage, and so was the uterine half-brother to Kings Æthelbald, Æthelred and Ælfred, although if this is correct it is unclear why he would have been appointed under-king in Kent in 855 (see below); (4) he was the legitimate son of King Æthelwulf by an earlier marriage, and therefore the king's oldest legitimate son, although if this is correct it is unclear why he would have been passed over when his father died in favour of King Æthelbald. None of these alternatives is obviously correct, although cases (1) and (2) appear somewhat more probable than (3), and (4) appears to be the least likely. Whatever the precise nature of Æthelberht's relationship to the family, it appears from King Alfred's will that the succession of Æthelberht as king was irregular in some way. Æthelberht's seniority, and probable position of power during the lifetime of King Æthelwulf, is demonstrated by "Æthelberht rex" subscribing Æthelwulf's charter dated 855 which granted land at Rochester, Kent to Dunn [1560]. From this, it has been concluded that he was appointed under-king in Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Essex around the time King Æthelwulf left for Rome in 855. However, this is puzzling, as it would imply that he was most senior of the potential heirs at the time, no mention being made in the records of any corresponding appointment for Æthelbald, despite the fact that, according to the will of Alfred, he was the oldest legitimate heir. Æthelberht's appointment in these territories must have been withdrawn at some stage, as King Æthelwulf himself governed Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Essex as part of the land which he allocated to himself under the arrangement for dividing the kingdom with his son Æthelbald after his return to England. A possible explanation for these difficulties is that Æthelberht was the ring-leader of the plot against King Æthelwulf during the latter's absence and therefore was disgraced after the king's return. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 51

53 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf fortsat The elevation of Æthelbald to the under-kingship at the time may therefore have been designed by King Æthelwulf to strengthen Æthelbald's position for eventual succession to the whole kingdom, at the expense of Æthelberht. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, after the death of Æthelwulf in 858, his "two sons succeeded to the kingdom: Æthelbald to Wessex and Æthelberht to Kent and to Essex and to Surrey and to Sussex" [1561]. This would imply that some rehabilitation had taken place, assuming it is correct that he had been disgraced earlier, or that Æthelberht's position remained strong enough after his father's death to force Æthelbald to share the realm with him. "Æthelbearht rex" granted land in Kent to "Wulflaf minister" by charter dated 858, subscribed by "Ethelmod dux" [1562]. After Æthelbald's death in 860, Æthelberht succeeded to the whole kingdom as ÆTHELBERHT King of Wessex [1563]. If it is correct that Æthelberht was not a full brother of Æthelbald, he presumably displaced the latter's less powerful brothers Æthelred and Alfred, who would have been the rightful successors but who were probably both still minors at the time. "Athelbert rex" granted land at Dinton, Wiltshire to "Osmund minister" by charter dated 860, subscribed only by "Athelred filius regis" [1564]. Danish incursions increased during the reign of Æthelberht, the largest Danish army yet landing in East Anglia in Autumn 865. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that King Æthelberht "reigned five years and his body lies at Sherborne" [1565], in a later passage that "Æthelred brother of Æthelberht" succeeded in 866 [1566].] [1478] Weir (2002), p. 4. She is not mentioned in Settipani (1993). [1479] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 855. [1480] Dugdale Monasticon II, Pollesworth Monastery, Warwickshire, I, De Rege West-Saxonum, Ethelwlpho, p [1481] Dugdale Monasticon II, Pollesworth Monastery, Warwickshire, II, Of the Foundation of the Nunnery of Pollesworth, p [1482] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 855. [1483] Kirby (2000), p [1484] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 823 [825]. [1485] S 279. [1486] S 323 and S 286. [1487] Stenton (2001), p [1488] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E 851. Asser, Book I. Stenton (2001), p. 245 says that the site of this battle is unknown, but that it is most unlikely to be Oakley in Surrey. [1489] Liber Pontificalis, [1490] Malmesbury II, 113, p. 95. [1491] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 855. [1492] Asser, p. 3. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 52

54 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf fortsat [1493] Roger of Hoveden I, pp [1494] Annales Bertiniani II 856. [1495] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 37. [1496] Asser, Part I. [1497] Annales Bertiniani II 858. [1498] Annales Bertiniani auct Hincmari Remensis 862 and 863, MGH SS I, pp. 456 and 462. [1499] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III.12, MGH SS XXXVI, p [1500] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 836 [839] (although the Garmonsway edition, p. 63 footnote, states that Æthelstan was the son of Æthelwulf) and Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 836 [839] respectively. [1501] Weir (2002), p. 4. [1502] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 836 [839]. [1503] S 289, S 291 and S 296. [1504] S 299. [1505] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 851 [850]. [1506] Asser, p. 4. [1507] Weir (2002), p. 4. [1508] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 32. [1509] Asser, p. 5. [1510] Stenton (2001), p [1511] S 326. [1512] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 860. [1513] Asser, p. 8. [1514] Annales Bertiniani II 858. [1515] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 37. [1516] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p [1517] S 326. [1518] Annales Bertiniani auct Hincmari Remensis 862 and 863, MGH SS I, pp. 456 and 462. [1519] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III.12, MGH SS XXXVI, p [1520] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 852 [853] and E, 852 [853]. [1521] Asser, p. 4. [1522] S 206. [1523] S 214. [1524] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 888, F, 888, and A, 888, respectively. [1525] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 53. [1526] Roger of Hoveden I, pp [1527] S 206 and S 214. [1528] According to a Mercian charter of that year, see Stenton (2001), p [1529] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 871. [1530] Estimated date in Weir (2002), p. 7. [1531] S 329, S 332 and S 333. [1532] Asser, Part I. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 53

55 Kildemateriale 3: MedLands/Familien Aethelwulf fortsat [1533] Cheney (2000), p [1534] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 871. [1535] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 85. [1536] S 340. [1537] S 334 and S 340, respectively. [1538] S 1507, and Whitelock, 96, pp [1539] This uncertain descent is traced by A. Anscombe, 'The pedigree of Earl Godwin', Trans. R. Hist. Soc., 3 rd ser., vii (1913), pp [1540] Kelly, D. H. 'The House of Æthelred', Brook, L. L. (ed.) (1989) Studies in Genealogy and Family History in tribute to Charles Evans on the occasion of his eightieth birthday (Utah), p. 68. [1541] S 219, S 220, S 362, S 367 and S 361. [1542] S 371. [1543] S 1507, and Whitelock, 96, pp [1544] S 356. [1545] Estimated birth date [872]. [1546] S 345 and S 219. [1547] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and D, 901 [899]. [1548] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, pp. 116 and 119. [1549] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A 904 [903] and 905 [904], and D 904 and 905. [1550] Stenton (2001), p. 321, and Florence of Worcester, 904 and 905, p. 87. [1551] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 897 [896]. [1552] Florence of Worcester, 901, p. 87. [1553] Asser, p. 2. [1554] S 340. [1555] S [1556] See below for examples involving the sons of King Alfred. [1557] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E 860, F 861. [1558] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 866 [865]. [1559] S 1507, and Whitelock, 96, pp [1560] S 315. [1561] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 855. [1562] S 328. [1563] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 860. [1564] S 329. [1565] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 860. [1566] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 866 [865]. [1567] Malmesbury II, 124, p aner\ /jan.2013 Side 54

56 Kildemateriale for ane nr / Kildemateriale 1: MedLands/Familien Egbert of Kent %20Kings.htm#_Toc ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON & DANISH KINGS Chapter 7. KINGS OF WESSEX. H. KINGS of WESSEX , KINGS of ENGLAND ECGBERHT ECGBERHT, son of EALHMUND Under-King of Kent & his wife --- ([769/80]-4 Feb or [Jun] 839, bur Winchester Cathedral). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Egbert succeeded to the kingdom of Wessex" after the death of Beorhtric in 802, in a later passage describing him as Ecgberht as son of Ealhmund, and in another passage which setting out his complete ancestry from his son Æthelwulf King of Wessex [1462]. According to the Chronicle, Ecgberht was expelled from England in 789 by King Beorhtric after he unsuccessfully challenged Beorhtric's succession [1463]. It may be significant that "England" rather than "Wessex" is specified in this passage of the Chronicle. Ecgberht's father was king of Kent around this time, and it is possible that the expulsion was from Kent, maybe a consequence of his father being deposed as Kentish king. According to William of Malmesbury, Beorhtric was allied with Offa King of Mercia at this time. He explains that Ecgberht had sought refuge with King Offa after his expulsion by King Beorhtric, but that the latter bribed Offa for Ecgberht's surrender and was offered Offa's daughter in marriage in return [1464]. Ecgberht sought refuge at the Frankish court until [792] [1465]. Under-King in Kent in [796] [1466]. On Beorhtric's death, he established himself in 802 as ECGBERHT King of Wessex, rebelling against Mercian overlordship. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that he ravaged the Britons of Dumnonia (Cornwall) 815 [1467]. He defeated Beornwulf King of Mercia in 825 at Ellendun [=Wroughton, Wiltshire], which marked the end of Mercian ascendancy. King Ecgberht immediately sent his son Æthelwulf with a large army into Kent, which submitted to him along with Surrey, Sussex and Essex. East Anglia, in revolt against Mercia, turned to Ecgberht for protection [1468]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Ecgberht conquered Mercia in 829 [1469], taking the title rex Merciorum, from evidence provided by a limited number of coins [1470], but lost control of Mercia again in 830. He exacted tribute from Eanred King of Northumbria in 829. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that the first Danish raiders landed at Sheppey in 835 and King Ecgberht was defeated by Viking invaders at Carhampton in 836 [1471], but defeated the Vikings at Hingston Down, Cornwall in 838 [1472], which is probably when Cornwall was integrated into Wessex. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 55

57 Kildemateriale 1: MedLands/Familien Egbert of Kent fortsat "Ægberhtus rex occidentalium Saxonum" granted land at Canterbury to "Ciaba clericus", jointly with "Æthelwulfi regis filii mei", by charter dated 836 [1473]. "Æthelwulf rex Cancie" was co-grantor of land in Kent with "Egberthus rex occident Saxonum pater meus" by charters dated [833/39] and 838 respectively [1474]. Despite his successes, he does not seem to have claimed overlordship over all the southern English or referred to himself as king of England. He is listed as eighth bretwalda in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle [1475], supplementing the original list given by Bede. William of Malmesbury records that King Ecgberht died "after a reign of thirty-seven years" and was buried at Winchester [1476]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Ecgberht died in 839 [1477]. m ([789/92]) REDBURGA, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. According to Weir, she is said to have been "sister of the king of the Franks", who at the time was Charles I, later Emperor "Charlemagne", but her identity is uncertain [1478]. The primary source on which this is based has not been identified. If her origin was Frankish, King Ecgberht presumably married her during his exile at the Frankish court between [789/792]. King Ecgberht had two children: 1. ÆTHELWULF ([795/810]-13 Jan 858, bur Winchester). The Anglo- Saxon Chronicle names Æthelwulf as son of Ecgberht [1479]. He succeeded his father 839 as ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex. - see below. 2. EADGYTH (-Polesworth Abbey ----, bur Polesworth Abbey). A manuscript of Polesworth Monastery records that sancta Editha sorore regis Athulphi was a nun at the abbey [1480]. Another manuscript which narrates the foundation of Polesworth Monastery in more detail, but is stated in Dugdale s Monasticon to date from 1640, records that Egbrycht the king had on son Arnulfe and a dowhtur Edith, and that the latter was made abbess [1481]. Noter: [1461] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 802, and A, 855. [1462] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 802, and A, 855. [1463] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 836 [839]. [1464] Malmesbury II, 106, p. 83. [1465] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 836 [839] [1466] Weir (2002), p. 4. [1467] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 813 [815]. [1468] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 823 [825]. [1469] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 827 [829]. [1470] Stenton (2001), p [1471] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 833 [836]. [1472] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 835 [838]. [1473] S 279. [1474] S 323 and S 286. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 56

58 Kildemateriale 1: MedLands/Familien Egbert of Kent fortsat [1475] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 827 [829]. [1476] William of Malmesbury II, pp [1477] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E. 836 (839). [1478] Weir (2002), p. 4. She is not mentioned in Settipani (1993). [1479] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 855. [1480] Dugdale Monasticon II, Pollesworth Monastery, Warwickshire, I, De Rege West-Saxonum, Ethelwlpho, p [1481] Dugdale Monasticon II, Pollesworth Monastery, Warwickshire, II, Of the Foundation of the Nunnery of Pollesworth, p [1482] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 855. aner\ /jan.2013 Side 57

59 Kildemateriale 2: Wissenburg/Familien Egbert of Kent Egbert van WESSEX Familienaam Index Vader Moeder Geboren ca 772 Overleden (4-2-) 839 Koning van Wessex (802), Kent (823) en Engeland (827). Egbert werd in zijn jeugd in ballingschap gedreven door koning Beothtric van Wessex. Hij vluchtte eerst naar Mercia en toen naar het hof van Karel de Grote. Bij zijn terugkeer werd hij koning (802). Hij behaalde in 825 een beslissende zege op Mercia te Ellendun (bij Swindon) en vestigde ook zijn heerschappij over Kent, Essex, Surrey en Sussex. Huwt Redburga van FRANKEN Familienaam Index Vader onbekend Moeder onbekend Kinderen: Aethelwulf Zie aner\ /jan.2013 Side 58

60 Kildemateriale 3: Wikipedia/Familien Egbert of Kent Ecgberht, or Egbert (died July 4, 673) was a King of Kent who ruled from 664 to 673, succeeding his father Eorcenberht [1]. He may have still been a child when he became king following his father's death on July 14, 664, because his mother Seaxburh was recorded as having been regent. Ecgberht's court seems to have had many diplomatic and ecclesiastic contacts. He hosted Wilfrid and Benedict Biscop, and provided escorts to Theodore and Hadrian for their travels in Gaul. The Mildrith legend reports that he had his cousins Aethelred and Aethelberht (sons of his uncle Eormenred) killed; this may reflect a dynastic struggle that ended in the success of Eorcenberht's line. A charter records his patronage of the monastery at Chertsey. Ecgberht was succeeded by Hlothhere, who was in turn succeeded by Eadric and still later by Wihtred. References Bede, The Ecclesiastical History of the English People D. P. Kirby, The Earliest English Kings (London: Unwin Hyman, 1991), pp aner\ /jan.2013 Side 59

61 Kildemateriale 4: ancestry.com/familien Egbert of Kent _King_Egbert.html The Life of King Egbert The Early Years of King Egbert ( ). Egbert was born sometime between AD 770 and 775, different sources giving different dates, the most probable date being 775. He was the son of Ealhmund (born about 758 in Wessex) and his wife the queen of Kent, whose name or dates are not known. Because of his parent s position in Kent, and his father s family in Wessex, Egbert s birth could have been in either place, but Kent is the more likely. It is highly probable that Egbert of Wessex was named after his ancestor on the mother s side, the Kentish side. He united the claims of the Kentish and West Saxon houses and this was illustrated with his name. The Wessex kingship had left Egbert s family when Ine was succeeded by his kinsman Aethelheard. Egbert had one sister named Alburga. Whether she was an older or a younger sibling is unknown. Alburga married Earl Wulstan of Wiltshire, later to join a convent, become abbess, and after her death was named a saint. (More about Alburga in Important People to King Egbert.) aner\ /jan.2013 Side 60