2 Economic hard times Overproduction of goods, bank failures, and a stock market crash caused the Great Depression People were optimistic in the 1920 s and borrowed money. There was so much business on credit, that the stock market crashed in The economy went downhill, banks closed, business couldn t borrow money, factories cutback, jobs were lost people were unemployed. Unemployed people couldn t spend money- rough cycle.
4 The Market Crash of 1929
5 Banks make money by charging interest on loans and investing money people put in savings. When companies/or people could not pay back loans the banks had to stop giving out more loans People had to withdraw their money to live on and therefore the bank had no income and had to shut down.
6 What is a bank run? People with savings accounts took their money out of the bank to live on because they didn t trust it in the banks.
7 A Bank Run in 1933
8 A jobless man sells apples on the streets of New York City in More than 15 million people, nearly one quarter of the United States work force, were unemployed by 1932, three years after the stock market crash that signaled the beginning of the Great Depression.
9 Native Americans- more dependent on the federal government indian reorganization Act allowed Native Americans to choose their own leaders and make their own laws. Hispanics 4,000 Mexicans living in Utah first loose their jobs- went back to Mexico. African Americans- Worse than ever some lived in holes Other groups Chinese, Italians, and others struggled to get jobs.
10 Utah was one of the hardest hit states in the Great Depression! Had a high unemployment rate Farmers did not make as much money on crops
11 Images of the Great Depression As we look at the following slides, prepare to write your interpretation of what the Great Depression felt like to the people who lived it! Watch the faces and look at the towns, buildings.
13 A bank run Chicago Hooverville Hoover and FDR in 1932 Wall Street
15 A soup kitchen Free Food for the Homeless!
18 A Vagrant Hobo Bum Homeless and Hopeless in the 30 s!
20 Shantytowns formed in cities across the United States in the 1930s, built by people made homeless by the Great Depression. The areas, like this one in Seattle, were nicknamed Hoovervilles because their inhabitants blamed President Herbert Hoover for their plight.
22 Thousands of farmers and their families left the southern Great Plains region of the United States during the Great Depression, after severe wind erosion earned it the label Dust Bowl. Many of these refugees sought work and a better life in California. John Steinbach's classics: The Grapes of Wrath or Of Mice and Men.
29 Foreclosure by Auction
30 Sharecroppers evicted from their homes camp along a highway in rural Missouri in the 1930s. The Great Depression left many Americans urban and rural, black and white without homes, jobs, and hope.
31 The Great Depression forced many Americans to go hungry or depend on charities for food, clothing, and other necessities. Here, people wait in a breadline to receive free food.
34 Who is the coal miner and bread winner in this family?
37 Mom is 18 years old. Does she look 18?
38 In 1934 rainfall was only 51% normal. Utah Lake was 1/3 its usual amount. Sheep, cattle, and farms were desperate Governor Blood asked for financial help from the Federal Emergency Relief Administration(FERA) President Roosevelt responded within 36 hours of being asked for help. The federal government sent thousands of dollars to dig wells, irrigation ditches, develop springs, and lay pipeline to carry water.
39 The Great Dust Bowl Today in America we practice soil maintenance and land management. These programs are born in the 1930 s in the Era of the Great Dust Bowl!
41 Black Sunday April 14, 1935, dawned clear across the plains. After weeks of dust storms, one near the end of March destroying five million acres of wheat, people grateful to see the sun went outside to do chores, go to church or to picnic and sun themselves under the blue skies. In mid-afternoon the temperature dropped and the birds began chattering nervously. Suddenly a huge black cloud appeared on the horizon, approaching fast. When the storm hit, those on the road had to try to beat the storm home or stop and seek shelter. The storm on Black Sunday was the last major dust storm of that year. Coming on the heels of a stormy season, the April 14 storm hit as many others had, only harder. "The impact is like a shovelful of fine sand flung against the face," Avis D. Carlson wrote in a "New Republic" article. "People caught in their own yards grope for the doorstep. Cars come to a standstill, for no light in the world can penetrate that swirling murk.... The nightmare is deepest during the storms."
47 The New Deal was a Government solution to the Great Depression President Roosevelt believed the common people had been dealt with unfairly he wanted to give them a new deal of cards. It provided new jobs for out of work Americans. CCC: Young men built roads and trails in the forests, planted trees, built campgrounds, recreation spots etc. WPA: Musicians and writers and artists were hired
48 Franklin Delano Roosevelt March 1933 President Hoover and President Roosevelt The fundamental business of America is on a sound and even footing! Herbert Hoover 1929 The only thing we have to fear is fear itself!
50 New Deal Programs: TVA, AAA, CCC, SEC, FDIC, FHA, FSLIC, WPA, PWA, REC, NRA.. With so many alphabetic agencies created by Roosevelt s New Deal even the President became known as just FDR!
53 The Beginnings of the Modern Presidency FDR s Fireside Chats
54 Federal Emergency Relief Administration A government agency which helped Utah during the 1934 drought, by sending thousands of dollars to dig wells, develop springs, line irrigation ditches, and lay pipeline to carry water. Civilian Conservation Corps employed young men, placing them in camps where they lived under Army discipline, building roads, trails and retaining walls in the forests. They planted trees and built bridges, campgrounds, and recreation spots in canyons.
55 Government Jobs Programs CCC WPA PWA
56 Works Progress Administration Started the Utah Symphony during the Great Depression! paid men to build highways, roads, streets, new buildings, schools, parks, athletic fields, pools, sewers, water lines, airports and runways. It set up programs of artists, musicians and writers to make records and works of art, Utah symphony was one of its projects, as well as typing pioneer journals, interviewing pioneer residents, and preserving pioneer photographs
57 Social Security Act of 1935 Set up a system of pensions for the elderly and for people with disabilities, and programs to provide unemployment benefits to workers who lost their jobs. Farm Security Administration Moved farmers to better land, funded camps for immigrant farm workers, extended loans at low interest rates to small farmers, sent photographs to make a record of farm life. LDS Church Security Plan (renamed Welfare Plan)-started by the Mormons included community farms, canning factories, and bishops storehouses.
80 Many Solutions to the Depression were possible!
81 America s Choice: The New Deal FDR s Plan for economic recovery Experimental in nature The New Deal begins the era of big government and the belief that government can and should solve people s problems!!!
82 American entering World War 2! How? Provided jobs to millions of Americans
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