The Sauk, Fox, and the Black Hawk War of 1832

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1 The Sauk, Fox, and the Black Hawk War of 1832

2 Sauk Beginning Migration Originally located in Eastern Ontario Driven out of (eastern Ontario) Canada by rival tribes (Iroquois) who want more land to capture fur to trade to Europeans. Settle in Lower Michigan Then later settled in Wisconsin/Illinois (joined by fox) to escape European influence.

3 Saukenuk (Near Illinois/Iowa border) Political, cultural, religious, and social capital of the Sauk people Allied with French, changed after Seven Years War to British Black Hawk is born here in 1767

4 Louisiana Purchase (1803) Northwest Territory

5 1804 Changes (Cont d) Jefferson hoped to peacefully assimilate all Indians into American society, or if they wanted their traditional life, then they should go west of the Mississippi River Treaty to formally surrender all Sauk lands east of the Mississippi (Delegation not able to agree to this, and tribesmen likely did not understand American intentions)

6 Sauk Involvement While BH fights alongside British in War of 1812, Clark & the USA move about 1500 Sauk west along the Missouri River (Missouri Branch), now forever divided Zachary Taylor, destroys Saukenuk as punishment for British and Indian attack on fort at Prairie du Chien, destroying it during War of 1812.

7 Illinois Statehood 3 December 1818 Illinois truly opens up to settlement by white Americans Tense peace begins

8 Keokuk Black Hawk s life-long political rival. Never truly a chief Tension Keokuk was more willing to work with the Americans

9 Trouble begins! July Federal government allows for public sale of land around Saukenuk Spring 1830, Black Hawk returns to Saukenuk; not persuaded to leave Spring 1831, Black Hawk, warriors, women, and children return to Saukenuk Governor Reynolds has militia evicts him

10 Articles of Capitulation Black Hawk told by USA: Remain away from Saukenuk Cease contact with the British & to submit to Keokuk s authority Keokuk to report to US if this not followed Treaty was illegal Neither Governor Reynolds nor General Gaines authorized to negotiate Congress never ratified the treaty

11 1832 Black Hawk living peacefully in Iowa, with no intention of returning to Illinois Stirred to life by Napope and rivalry with Keokuk Ranks swell to between 1,200 and 2,000 people including warriors on return to Illinois By the time Black Hawk realizes that he was sucked into a conflict, it was too late President Jackson was also up for re-election

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13 Black Hawk War (1832) 5 April- Black Hawk and band cross Mississippi and begin journey up Sinnissippi (Rock River) 23 April- Black Hawk and band stop at Prophetstown, where Black Hawk was urged to return to Iowa

14 Black Hawk War (1832) 14 May- Battle of Stillman s Run Militia attacks Sauk truce delegates Sauk counter-attack American Militia panics & retreats One militiaman actually pleads for his life from a stump 12 are militiamen are killed Governor Reynolds calls for 2,000 more volunteers

15 July Battles July 21st- Wisconsin Heights (MI Ter.) Dodge and men head to Ft. Blue Mounds Women, children starving to death. Others attacked and killed as they approached Ft. Crawford (Prairie du Chien) Black Hawk makes his escape & Horses slaughtered for food 24- General Atkinson begins final pursuit

16 Bad Axe Massacre 1 August, 1832 Black Hawk attempts to surrender to Americans Americans open fire on Sauk crossing the Mississippi River, even using cannon fire River turns red with blood At least 260 Sauk killed Survivors on west bank hunted down by Sioux, under Wabesha, and massacred Only 10-15% of overall band will survive to this point

17 Indian Agent Joseph M. Street to Superintendent William Clark, August 3, 1832: The Indians were pushed literally into the Mississippi, the current of which was at one time perceptibly tinged with the blood of the Indians who were shot on its margin & in its stream It is impossible to say how many Indians. have been killed, as most of them were shot in the water or drowned in attempting to cross the Mississippi.

18 John Wakefield, who served as a private, published a book on the war in 1834: During the engagement we killed some of the squaws through mistake. It was a great misfortune to those miserable squaws and children, that they did not carry into execution [the plan] they had formed on the morning of the battle--that was, to come and meet us, and surrender themselves prisoners of war. It was a horrid sight to witness little children, wounded and suffering the most excruciating pain, although they were of the savage enemy, and the common enemy of the country. It was enough to make the heart of the most hardened being on earth to ache. We took about fifty prisoners, principally women and children. They during the engagement, had concealed themselves in the high weeds and grass, and amongst old logs and brush, which lay very thick on the bottom, and some had buried themselves in the mud and sand in the bank of the, river, just leaving enough of their heads out to breathe the breath of life.

19 Black Hawk Purchase Following the Black Hawk War in 1832, the U.S. Government established the Black Hawk Purchase, an area extending 50 miles west of the Mississippi River along the eastern border of the Territory of Iowa. Under this arrangement, resident Sac and Meskwaki were forced to relinquish 2.5 million hectares of land which was then opened to Euro- American settlement.

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