THE RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMUNITY. The United Church of Christ in Keene

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1 THE RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMUNITY by John C. Perry Keene was first settled by people from "Ye Godly, God fearing and God serving Province of Massachusetts"; therefore, the settlement of a minister and the location and erection of a meetinghouse were of prime importance to the inhabitants. Grants and charters to the several townships required that the proprietors "support an orthodox minister" by assessment from time to time on themselves. The early church and community affairs were somewhat interlocked as the church building was also used as the central meeting place for town affairs and special events. All inhabitants who desired to attend religious services worshiped in the one church. Today in the city of Keene the worshiper has a choice of some 19 churches, representing most of the leading denominations in the United States. The United Church of Christ in Keene When Keene was first settled in 1736 and the land divided among the proprietors, a lot was set aside for a future meetinghouse. The location of the meetinghouse and the accompanying cemetery was on the rise of ground just north of the Branch River, at the south end of the Town Street, about where the house of Howard B. Lane now 412

2 stands. When only one dwelling house had been erected the settlers were resolved to record God's name among them; therefore, on September 30, 1736, it was voted that they build a meetinghouse 40 feet long, 20 feet stud and 35 feet wide; to underpin, cover and inclose the same, and lay down boards for the lower floor; and to set the same at the south end of the Town Street at the place appointed by the General Courts Committee. The meetinghouse was to be finished by June 26, Records indicate that it was a very crude building. On May 12, 1737, it was voted to assess 60 pounds on the proprietors The United Church of Christ 's 413

3 in order to support a minister. Again on February 7, 1738, it was voted to raise 240 pounds to support the preaching of the gospel. A call to Jacob Bacon to be the first minister was given in May 1738, and he accepted on August 5, The first church was formally organized with 19 male members on October 19, 1738, and Rev. Jacob Bacon, a graduate of Harvard College, ordained as minister. Apparently the meetinghouse was not finished on schedule, for it was voted on December 4 of that year to finish the meetinghouse, and in 1742 another vote was taken to shingle the meetinghouse and to install glass in wood frames. The Indians attacked and burned Keene in In March or April of that year, "on the common, in the haste of their departure," the inhabitants passed an informal vote for the release of Rev. Bacon as the minister of the town. When the settlers returned after 1750 they soon turned their attention to the "affairs of religion." They found that their first meetinghouse had been burned by the Indians, as were most of the dwellings in the village. In 1753 a second meetinghouse, a temporary affair of slabs with a dirt floor, was built on Main Street, nearly opposite Marlboro Street. That same year the town was incorporated, and Rev. Ezra Carpenter, a Harvard graduate of 1720, was called to be the minister over the united parishes of Keene and Swanzey. Although the membership list of this period has been lost, it is recorded that Rev. Carpenter officiated at 52 baptisms. In 1754 the third meetinghouse, a more substantial structure, was started farther north, on what is now Central Square, in the area of the present Soldiers' Monument. However, as a result of Indian difficulties it was not finished until some years later. In 1760 the Keene church voted not to join with the people of Swanzey in maintaining and carrying on worship, and Rev. Carpenter became the minister in Swanzey. Rev. Clement Sumner, a Yale graduate in 1758, was called as the minister of the Keene church. He was ordained on June 11, 1761, and arrangements for his salary included payments in wheat, pork, beef, corn, and other supplies at stated prices. He remained at the church until his dismissal, by his own consent, on April 30, He remained in Keene, however, where he died in For the next six years the church had no settled minister. On February 18, 1778, Rev. Aaron Hall, who became the "beloved and popular minister of Keene," was ordained and spent almost 37 years in service to this church. A graduate of both Yale and Dartmouth, he died in Keene in 1814 at the age of 62. There were 211 members received and 871 baptisms recorded during his pastorate. 414

4 In 1786 work was begun on the present (fourth) meetinghouse. The third church building was sold to the county and moved to the northwest corner of the Common, where it served as the first court house in Keene. In 1771 Keene had been made the shire town of Cheshire County, and sessions of both the Inferior and Superior Courts were held in the building while it was still a place of worship. In 1788 the "center pews and seats were moved and a bench and table, called a bar, substituted for the use of the judges and lawyers." The building was continued as a court house until 1796, when it was moved to 256 Washington Street and used as a two tenement house. Years later this building was cut in half by John Fuller and one half was moved to Railroad Square, where it was used by J. Cushing Co. as a retail grain store. The other half is a house now located at 26 Maple Street. The fourth church building, like the third, was on the south side of the Square. The steeple, some feet high, faced west. The church was handsomely built with box pews, a wine glass pulpit, and galleries on three sides. It had a belfry, and the exterior of the building was painted white and yellow; the large outside door was painted green, and faced south, with a flat stone for a doorstep. It was dedicated in October 1788, 50 years after the church had been organized. In 1792 the town voted to purchase its first bell, and 80 pounds was raised for the purpose. Two years later the town voted 90 pounds to purchase a larger bell weighing 1,000 pounds, and records indicate that this bell and a clock were installed in the Meetinghouse. In 1797 Dr. Ziba Hall refused to be taxed for the support of the gospel, and sued the town to recover back taxes, paid under protest. Rev. Hall was succeeded by Rev. David Oliphant, who remained until his dismissal in He was a graduate of Union College in 1809 and Andover Seminary in 1814, and was ordained on May 24, He received 91 persons into the church and baptised 129. He was dismissed because his beliefs were somewhat anti-temperance. The townfolk voted in 1815 "not to suffer a stove to be put into the meetinghouse." Rev. Zedekiah Smith Barstow, a graduate of Yale in 1812, came to Keene in February 1818 and was ordained and installed on July 1, He was the active minister for 50 years, and the last one to be settled by the town. When he arrived in Keene the population of the town was less than 2,000, and there was but one church, supported by assessments upon the citizens. He lived to see the population increase to 6,000, and five other churches organized on a self-sustaining 415

5 basis, each one drawing members from his church. In the first decade of Dr. Barstow's ministry the controversy with the Unitarians was bitter, affecting the affairs of the whole town. Though a doctrinal controversy, it entered into practical aspects in the use of the Meetinghouse. In 1826 the town voted the Keene Congregational (Unitarian) Society use of the Meetinghouse 13 Sundays a year. Beginning on June 1, 1827, the town delegated the selectmen to choose 83 Sundays of the next four years for similar use. However, the next year the town voted to convey all the right, title and interest to the First Congregational Society. The town reserved the right to use the bell and belfry except on the Sabbath. The First Congregational Society agreed to pay the Keene Congregational (Unitarian) Society $750, and procured a release to the town from that society of its claims to the Meetinghouse. A movement to enlarge and improve the Common was begun in In or 1829 the Meetinghouse was moved from its location on the south side of the Square, turned so that the spire faced south instead of west, and placed almost exactly where it now stands. The First Congregational Church late 19th century 416

6 land on which the Meetinghouse was placed had been owned by Abijah and Azel Wilder and deeded by them in 1830 to the First Congregational Society, which had been organized in At this time members paid for their pews with cattle. When the market price of cattle fell, a hardship resulted for the church. Prior to the opening of the Cheshire Railroad in 1848 the bell in the First Church tower was rung at 12 Noon and 9 P.M. each day. In 1860 the building was remodeled to its present form, and the renovated church was rededicated in January When Rev. Barstow had been minister for 43 years, Rev. John A. Hamilton was called as assistant pastor in Part of Rev. Hamilton's term of service was spent away from Keene as chaplain in the army. Dr. Hamilton was dismissed in , and Rev. Joseph A. Leach became Dr. Barstow's assistant. Dr. Barstow retired from the ministry at the end of 50 years and was made pastor emeritus. On July 1, 1868, he delivered a semicentennial discourse in Town Hall, and this event was followed by a well-attended public dinner. Dr. Barstow died the first Sunday in March 1873, age 83, just 55 years from the day he preached his first sermon in Keene. As a result of a disagreement among some of the church members a meeting had been held in October 1867 and the following resolution was voted: "Resolved that it is expedient for this church to colonize and form a second orthodox Congregational Church in Keene." Immediately 121 members withdrew to form the new church, and Rev. Joseph A. Leach became its first pastor. The old town bell on the First Congregational Church having cracked, an effort was made to procure a new one. At the annual meeting in 1873 the town voted, as it had in 1840, to relinquish all its rights in the bell and belfry of the church. The First Congregational Society purchased a new bell, which was used for the first time in June The bell was tuned in the key of A and, when rung with the Unitarian bell keyed in F sharp and the Episcopal in D. produced a perfect major chord. A minor chord resulted when the Baptist bell, keyed in C sharp, was rung with the Congregational and Unitarian bells. In April 1901 Nelson P. Coffin became choir master and was the leader of a large chorus for over 20 years. The church was also fortunate at this time in having the services of Edward F. Holbrook as organist; from 1897 he gave freely of his time and talent for over 45 years. 417

7 During Rev. Rodney W. Roundy's pastorate the church observed its 175th anniversary on October 18, In the period when Rev. Edward H. Newcomb was pastor, the First Congregational Church expanded its physical plant and built a two-story parish house which was dedicated on December 6, Rev. Willis E. Smith was called to the church in 1931 and remained until During this period the church building suffered a major disaster from the hurricane of The steeple was tossed upside down and driven through the roof, barely missing the organ. Under the leadership of Rev. Smith and others funds were collected to repair the damage. The work was completed on November 8, 1939, and a new steeple, an exact duplicate of the one destroyed, lifted its white beauty to the sky. Rev. Edward W. Meury preached his first sermon as pastor on January 7, He remained until June 1956, and during his pastorate the work of the church was greatly increased, which necessitated an assistant pastor. Rev. Roy B. Chamberlain Jr. was called as associate pastor with special responsibility for the work of the church school and youth program. Rev. Chamberlain resigned in Rev. Robert W. Little was called in 1957 and remained as pastor until June 26, 1963, when the First Church merged with the Court Street Congregational Church to form the United Church of Christ in Keene. During the ministry of Rev. Little, Rev. Philip Kelsey served as associate pastor until the end of In this period the physical plant of the church was remodeled. A third story was built on the parish house, the old vestry was changed to include a chapel in the center with offices and conference rooms on either side, and a room for the day nursery school was added to the northeast side. For an interim period of six months after the merger both Rev. Robert W. Little and Rev. William A. Hartman remained as co-pastors. In January 1964 Rev. Hartman left to accept a position in the New York State Conference. Rev. Little remained until December 1964, when he accepted a call to a church in Holden, Mass. The Court Street property was sold and the new owners demolished the building. In January 1965 Rev. Stephen V. Weaver was called as the first pastor of the United Church of Christ. Rev. Edward E. Pettis, called in the summer of 1967, is the present associate pastor. In 1967 a new organ replaced the one installed in However, a part of the past has been preserved in the use of a few pipes from two older organs owned by the First Congregational 418

8 and Court Street Congregational Churches before the merger. The essentially new instrument has been described as the only one of its kind in this area, with 2,346 pipes of wooden and metal composition. Among the exclusive features, the organ has a rueck-positiv division, a group of pipes placed to the back of the organist. This arrangement, traditionally German, is popular among European instruments but rare in the United States. Exposed pipes allow the tones to "speak out to the room." The "Ministry Lot" In 1787 the proprietors of the undivided lands in Keene voted to lay out, from these lands, 50 acres to be kept for a wood lot for firewood for the minister of the town. To be used for no other purpose, it was to be kept under the care of the selectmen. The "Ministry Lot," still intact, is located about two miles north of Central Square and west of Beaver Brook. In 1854 a large part of the heavy growth of wood and timber was blown down, and the selectmen were authorized to sell the marketable timber. Later the proceeds were deposited in a special fund known as the "Ministry Fund," the income from which is divided each year among the settled ministers in Keene in lieu of firewood. Rev. James F. Quimby, pastor of Grace Methodist Church, , is the last known minister to have cut his firewood from this lot. First Baptist Church The parent of Keene's Baptist Church, the one at Westmoreland, was established in the eastern part of that town about 1771 by Baptist settlers from Middleboro, Mass. By 1815 the Westmoreland Church had almost 100 members. Their influence soon extended to Keene, where meetings were held in the western part of town, known as Ash Swamp. Under the guidance of Rev. Charles Cummings of Sullivan and assisted by lay preachers, the meetings led to the formation of a Baptist Church in Keene on September 9, There were 13 members. The church was received into the Dublin Baptist Association in October of that same year. Rev. Charles Cummings continued to serve the congregation, the second religious denomination established in the community, until about A small meetinghouse was built in Ash Swamp in It must 419

9 have been an austere meetinghouse, for it is described as having unpainted box pews, with plain board seats on three sides, and a gallery. The pew doors were paneled, carrying an oval piece of tin with yellow numerals. The pulpit was high, with a stairway leading up to it on the south side. The window panes were of clear glass in large frames. The Ash Swamp Meetinghouse was little used after the reorganization of the church in the village, and was moved about 1854 or 1855 by John J. Albce, who made of its parts both a steam mill and a dwelling. (The house is located at 37 Middle Street at the east corner of Summer Street. The mill, a two-story building which was located off Portland and Woodburn Streets near the Ashuelot River, burned on December 17, 1856.) The Baptist bell remained in the old church until 1852, when it was moved to the church on Winter Street. It was later installed in the Court Street building, and is one of two Revere bells in the city, the other being in the Unitarian Church on Washington Street. The first preacher called by the Keene Baptists was Ferris (or Forris) Moore who served from December 30, 1819, through March Membership remained at about 30 through the life of the Ash Swamp church organization, of which no written records have been preserved beyond brief notes in the annual Dublin Baptist Association minutes. For the greater part of this period there was no settled minister, and the church labored under discouragement and difficulties, held together only by the loyalty and will of a small band who maintained services to keep alive the Baptist faith in Keene. As early as 1825 societies were organized to contribute to Indian mission work and to aid heathen children. On May 13, 1829, Rev. Edward Hale was ordained pastor of the Baptist Church in Keene and remained until He later founded the Baptist Church in Richmond in On July 22, 1832, the members reorganized as the Union Baptist Church. A Bible class of 21, as well as a Sabbath School of 25, was organized in In 1838 Rev. John Peacock was called to help revive the faltering church. Under his vigorous leadership the membership grew to over 100, the largest in the Dublin Association. Subscriptions to build a new brick church on Winter Street were honored, and the new edifice was dedicated in September The name was changed on July 27, 1839, at which time "Union" was struck out, and the organization thereafter was known as the Keene Baptist Church. The new Baptist Society was organized in March 1839, its constitution signed by 29 persons. 420

10 Baptist Church Building erected 1874, demolished 1968 During the pastorate of Rev. Gilbert Robbins ( ) the Baptist Society acquired its first parsonage, a house and small barn (now at 228 Court Street), purchased in The society began negotiations for the bell from the former Ash Swamp Meetinghouse in 1848, for which payments appear on the records as late as In 1861 Joseph Foster, a deacon and strong Baptist layman, offered to install in the church a large pipe organ of his own manufacture, and the congregation voted to lower the gallery to accommodate the instrument. Deacon Foster and Charles Felt, another active church member, were in the reed organ and melodeon business, located at the rear of the church property, where they had purchased land from the society in Costs for the proposed alterations were met by subscription. The church annual accounts, begun after this date, list payments to choir director, organist, and a boy who pumped the organ. The Foster pipe organ was replaced in 1868 by an instrument which served the church until 1909, when the Eaton Memorial Organ was installed. Upon taking the Keene pastorate, Dr. William H. Eaton ( ) agreed to lead in a much-needed building and expansion program. 421

11 The vote to build a new church was passed on October 17, The site selected was the Abijah Wilder homestead, where stood a house, built about 1820 and long used as a Baptist parsonage. The church, constructed under the supervision of J. M. Buzzell, was of Keenemade brick, and the woodwork of ash and black walnut was finished by Felix Snow, a local carpenter, who also made the porches and framed the spire, which rose 167 feet and was topped by a 5-foot gilt weathervane. The auditorium on the second floor seated 700 and had a balcony capable of an additional 50 seats. Acoustics in it were excellent, and it was the largest auditorium in Keene for many years. The final service in the Winter Street building was held on May 9, 1875, and the new building on Court Street was dedicated on May 12, Rev. William H. Eaton resigned as minister on March 31, 1889, after nearly 17 years in Keene. During the pastorate of Rev. Ralph A. Sherwood ( ) a new Hook and Hastings pipe organ, named in honor of Dr. Eaton, was installed and became one of the most popular concert instruments in the region. Extensive repairs were made to the church building during the pastorate of Rev. C. Raymond Chappell ( ). During the pastorate of Rev. Lewis M. Blackmer Jr. ( ) a new parsonage at 315 Washington Street was acquired, and the old Sally Kingsbury parsonage at 25 Court Street became the Sally Kingsbury Parish House. In September 1955 the First Baptist Church in Keene became the first of its denomination in the state to add a full-time director of religious education to its staff. The present pastor, Rev. Hugh Q. Morton, came to Keene in September 1960, and an assistant pastor, Rev. Richard E. Chorley, was added to the staff in the fall of Plans for a modern worship and educational facility at a different location were approved in This building was designed by the architectural firm of Carter & Woodruff of Nashua, N. H. The organ was removed, rebuilt, and installed in the new building on Maple Avenue. Formal dedication of the new Baptist Church was held on January 12-16, Keene Unitarian Universalist Church In March 1824 seceders from the orthodox church met and formed the Unitarian Society, consisting of 12 active members and 70 associates. That summer Rev. Samuel Barrett was called to become their minister but he declined. Nearly two years later, in January 1826, 422

12 Unitarian Church, corner Church and Main Built Rev. Thomas R. Sullivan preached his first sermon as the first minister of the society. It was during his ministry that the society erected its first meetinghouse, which was ready for occupancy in April 1830 at what is now the southeast corner of Main and Church Streets. Money for the church was raised by a donation of $1,500 from William Lamson, subscriptions, and sale of pews. The society started not only free from debt but with sufficient funds to purchase an organ, the first church organ in town. It was built by Henry Pratt of Winchester, N. H. A bell of 1,500 pounds was cast by Paul Revere & Son and dedicated with the church on April 28, It is still in use in the tower of the Unitarian-Universalist Church on Washington Street. A few years later a large clock (made by a Mr. Holbrook of East Medway, Mass.), a gift of John Elliot, was placed in the church steeple. During the pastorate of Rev. William Orne White the demands of the society made it necessary to enlarge the church and by 1868 extensive additions and alterations were completed. Deemed unsafe, the spire was lowered in In the fall of 1893 the lot where the church stood was sold to Elisha F. Lane, and the building was torn down in Land on 423

13 Unitarian Church remodeled Washington Street, together with the house that later was used as a parsonage, was purchased and plans for a new church were drawn by Edwin J. Lewis Jr. of Boston. The cornerstone of the new church was laid on July 11, 1894, and dedication services were held on January 24, Rev. Charles B. Elder was the minister at this time. ( As the organ was not ready for use, music was furnished by Beedle's String Quintet and the choir.) In June 1900 the organ console was moved and new choir seats were installed. In the parish house the kitchen was enlarged, new wash rooms installed, a new recreation room built, a children's chapel constructed, and a new church office equipped. In 1945 the church acquired the property next door, known as the Gleason house, which was torn down to make a larger lawn. Early in 1958 plans were made for a religious education building with offices for the minister, the superintendent of the church school, and the church secretary, and a church parlor for use of the Woman's Alliance and other organizations. This building was dedicated on October 16, A new parsonage, at 17 Wilder Street, had been purchased in 1957, and in 1960 it was decided to tear down the old parsonage on the corner of Washington and Taylor Streets. The church name for many years had been First Congregational Society (Unitarian). When the Unitarians and Universalists decided, at the May meetings in Chicago in 1963, to join together, the name of the society was legally changed to Keene Unitarian-Universalist Church. 424

14 Throughout the years the Woman's Alliance has taken an active part in the maintenance of the church. In 1856 they bought a new organ. When the work of enlarging the church edifice was in progress in 1867, the society paid for the carpet and furnishings of the minister's study and library, Their interest in the church school has continued since its organization. The first May Festival was held in Under the auspices of the Unitarian Society, it was one of the most successful affairs of its kind ever held in Keene. According to a local newspaper, "During the afternoon a goodly number were in attendance and in the evening, although the weather was very rainy and unfavorable, the hall was crowded. Some forty people from Winchendon, Massachusetts were present. The Keene Brass Band, while the storm pelted, helped to keep up the spirits. The net receipts amounted to $ It was gratifying to notice all the religious societies in town were represented and a truly social spirit prevailed." On May 1, 1873, a festival was held by the ladies of the Unitarian Sabbath Society, who for two years had been at work for the purpose of raising a fund for the establishment of an invalids' home in Keene. A booklet called the "May Flower" was published by the ladies of the Unitarian Society to aid the cause. A bequest from Charles F. Wilson, a farmer who had moved to Keene from Sullivan, was largely instrumental in organizing this project. A house on Beaver Street was purchased and the Invalid's Home was established. Mrs. Margaret E. White, wife of the minister, William Orne White, became the first president in It is thought that during these years the proceeds of the May Festival went for the benefit of the Invalid's Home. For many years the first Wednesday in May was the date for the Annual May Festival, and after a period of 94 years, the last one was held on May 6, The first laymen's club of any church in the city was founded in 1889 under the name of the Unitarian Club, largely through the initiative of Rev. Charles B. Elder. Throughout the 34 years of its existence the club maintained a large membership and a sustained interest among the men not only of this church but of other denominations. Commencing with Rev. Dr. Edward Everett Hale, speakers at the monthly suppers included a long list of noted lecturers, embracing the leading Unitarian ministers of this period, as well as representative business and professional men from New England and New York. In April 1923 the club was merged with the local chapter of the Unitarian Laymen's League under the name of the Unitarian Club Chapter. The league became inactive locally in

15 Grace Methodist Church The earliest available records show that in 1803 Keene was included with Chesterfield and eight other towns in the Ashburnham Circuit of the Methodist Church. Daniel Ostrander was the presiding elder, and John Gove and Luther Bishop were the preachers in charge. In 1804 the Ashburnham Circuit included Ashburnham, Rindge, Marlborough, Keene, Winchester, Westmoreland, Winchendon, Orange, Athol, and Fitchburg. From Keene was included in the Winchester Circuit. From it was connected with different towns such as Westmoreland, Chesterfield, Marlow, and Gilsum. In 1835 the Keene group organized as Grace Methodist Episcopal Church with 30 members. In 1851 Keene became a "station" and Jonathan Hall was appointed to the "Keene Mission." A frame church building was dedicated in the pastorate of Rev. Silas Quimby in July 1852 with Bishop Baker preaching the sermon. The next year the building, located on the west side of Court Street where the present building now stands, was enlarged and a vestry placed underneath. Rev. William Butler, then of Westfield, Mass., and later founder of the mission in India, preached at the reopening service on November 9, In 1867 or 1868 this frame building was sold and moved. The present brick structure was begun in 1868 under the leadership of Rev. Cadford Dinsmore. The cornerstone was laid on July 17, The cost of this new building was greater than the people were able to pay, but the work was carried through to completion and the house was dedicated on November 23, The debt at that time remained a crushing burden until June 28, 1896, when the indebtedness was finally lifted. Heroic efforts had been made over the years to reduce this financial load, and several men mortgaged their homes to help the cause. The organ was built in 1869 in Westfield, Mass., and though old-fashioned in some respects, it has a splendid quality of tone and a reliable mechanical "tracker" action that is capable of serving the church for at least another century. The organ, originally installed in the balcony, was moved to the chancel in A large cast bell, the gift of several members of the church, was installed in the belfry, and for many years its heavy tone was struck in unison with the other church bells in the downtown area; however, some 35 years ago it lost its "temper" and has not been heard on a regular schedule since that time. 426

16 Shortly after the turn of the century ( ) the Norris Brotherhood sponsored a successful "Mission Endeavor" meeting which was set up in a tent on a vacant lot (just west of the old YMCA building on West Street) with guest speakers from the Northfield Bible School. In 1939 the Methodist Church, the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Methodist Church, South, united after many years of separation due to differences over the Civil War. At this time Grace Methodist Episcopal Church dropped the word "Episcopal" from its name. On May 27, 1951, a set of chime bells was installed in the Keene church as a result of an original gift from Mrs. Elizabeth Harper, a member of the church, and with proceeds from the John Symonds Fund, held by the City of Keene. For many years these bells have been heard throughout the city of 6:45 P.M. each day. They are the first and only chime bells in the city. Organizations within the church have been the Church School, the Epworth League, the Wesleyan Club, the Woman's Society of Christian Service, and the Men's Club. In 1878 Mrs. Fanny Trip gave her property at 34 Elm Street to the church for a parsonage, and this remained the minister's home and study until 1954, when a new parsonage was purchased at 333 Washington Street. Rev. Philip A. Crane is the present minister. The Millerites History records that on December 25, 1842, a small group of people known as "The Millerites" closed a ten-day meeting here in Keene. These people, some of them substantial citizens, were the followers of William Miller who interpreted the scriptures as forecasting a certain day when the world would come to an end. It is told that on this certain day a few of his followers disposed of some of their worldly goods, clothed themselves in white robes, and gathered at "Sun Set Rock" on Beech Hill and waited patiently for this great event to occur. The following morning at daybreak, it is said, "they humbly and quietly walked back to their respective homes much dismayed." William Miller's followers were scattered throughout New England. Saint Bernard's Roman Catholic Church Rev. John Day offered the first local Mass in 1845 in the house of Patrick Burns, about four miles outside Keene. Mass was not offered within the town limits until 1852, when it was offered at the 427

17 First Catholic Church Marlboro Street home of Michael Riley on Marlboro Street. Services were then held in the Keene Town Hall, and Catholic marriages were performed in the front parlor of the Eagle Hotel. Rev. John Brady of Claremont, N. H., purchased a frame building on Marlboro Street in 1856, which was converted into the first church of Saint Bernard's Parish. Father Brady became the first resident pastor in In 1866 Rev. William Hebert was appointed pastor and built an addition to the church. Rev. John R. Power was appointed pastor in December His first enterprise was to purchase a lot on Main Street on which a school was built in Later adjacent land was purchased and work on the present church building was begun. Dedication exercises for the new church were held on November 20, Around 1900 a Steinert & Co. pipe organ was installed and a peal of bells was consecrated in The parish grounds consist of the church building, a rectory, a convent, and Saint Joseph's Parochial Grammar School. A mission church was established in Gilsum in The present parish boundaries include the townships of Roxbury, Sullivan, Marlow, and Gilsum. The present pastor of Saint Bernard's Parish is the Right Rev. Monsignor John J. Belluscio, and his assistants are Rev. Edward Duval and Rev. Joseph Sands. 428

18 St. James Episcopal Church In Keene's charter Governor Benning Wentworth stipulated that "One Sixty-fourth Part" (3941/2 acres) be set aside for a glebe for the Church of England. There is no record that this tract was ever claimed and Keene's Episcopal parish was not established until more than a century later. However, the town contained citizens with Anglican or Episcopal backgrounds, and as early as 1800 occasional services were held by visiting clergymen in private homes, the Court House, and in the Congregational Church. During the first half of the 19th century one Episcopal clergyman who held several services in an effort to establish a permanent congregation was Rev. Nathaniel Sprague, who before his ordination had been one of the owners of the local flint glass factory. In the summer of 1858 The Rt. Rev. Carlton Chase, Bishop of the Diocese, visited Keene and, encouraged by local interest, decided that a parish of the Episcopal Church could be established. He invited Rev. Dr. Edward A. Renouf, a Boston clergyman, to Keene for that purpose. Dr. Renouf accepted the call, and on May 7, 1859, a congregation was officially organized as St. James Parish. Ground was broken for a church building on May 14, 1863, and the first service was held in the present stone building at West and St. James Streets on August 21, The steeple was not erected until Dr. Renouf resigned in May 1868 and 14 other clergymen have served as rector in the century since, the present rector being Rev. Chandler H. McCarty. In 1899 during Rev. Wheeler's rectorship a parish house was added to the church edifice. This was made possible by a bequest from Miss Julia Hall, granddaughter of Rev. Aaron Hall. Miss Hall, who conducted a private school in Keene, had become an Episcopalian, and at her death in 1877 St. James Church was made residuary legatee of her estate. The altar, presented by Mrs. Susan King Perkins for the new building, was consecrated in February In the early 1960's the parish house was renovated through a bequest by Mrs. Elizabeth Griffin Bergh in memory of her grandparents, General and Mrs. Simon G. Griffin. Julius N. Morse, editor and proprietor of the Cheshire Republican in the latter part of the 19th century, served St. James for many years as vestryman, treasurer, and junior warden. Upon his death in 1896 he left the church his home at 147 Washington Street to be used as a rectory, and this building has been the residence of the clergy of St. James throughout the present century. 429

19 During Rev. Pike's rectorship, , the parish purchased the Nims Plumbing building on St. James Street. The property was renovated and for several years was used for church school classes. In 1966 this building was sold, and the parish purchased a three-story brick building on Lamson Street for church school and parish activities. This building was renovated for church use, and in May 1966 was dedicated by The Rt. Rev. Charles F. Hall, Bishop of New Hampshire, in memory of Jonathan M. Daniels, a young candidate for the ministry from St. James, who was shot and killed while engaged in civil rights work in Alabama. Court Street Congregational Church The Second Orthodox Congregational Church was organized on October 15, 1867, with 122 members and 4 deacons, who were all dismissed by letter, at their own request, from the First Congregational Church. One member from. Marlborough united with them, making a total of 123 members. Meetings were held for nearly two years in the old Methodist Church on the southeast corner of Court and Vernon Streets while a new church edifice was being erected on the northeast corner. Rev. Joseph A. Leach, assistant pastor of the First Church, became acting pastor while the new church was being built and until its dedication on September 16, 1869, at which time he was installed Court Street Congregational Church 430

20 as pastor. Rev. Leach remained for 15 years, during 13 of which he was the settled minister. During Rev. Willis A. Hadley's pastorate ( ) the Second Congregational Church was incorporated as the Court Street Congregational Church. In 1911 the 10 cathedral glass windows were dedicated. During the pastorate of Rev. William 0. Conrad the church suffered a serious fire on November 10, 1912, resulting in extensive damage that required major repairs. The pipe organ, badly damaged in the blaze, was rebuilt by Emmons Howard, and the building was reopened in In the early 1920's the spire was removed, as it was found to be in a weakened condition. Rev. William A. Hartman was the last pastor to serve the Court Street Congregational Church before it merged on June 26, 1963, with the First Congregational Church, from which it had separated 96 years earlier. The church building was considered unsafe for use by large groups and extensive repairs became necessary, and in 1965 the church property was sold and the building torn down. A bell, which had been purchased, hung, and dedicated in May 1883, was recently donated to Tunghai University in Taichung, Taiwan (Formosa) through the efforts of church members led by Miss Elsie M. Priest, a former foreign missionary and university official. Miss Priest had returned to Keene when driven from mainland China by the Communist government. The bell was dedicated in her honor at its new location in Advent Christian Church It is believed that this small group was somewhat in agreement with the Millerites of an earlier time (1842. ), although they did not establish a particular day on which the world was to come to an end. They organized in Keene on April 29, 1872, and held meetings in Gerould's Block. Second Advent Church Another small group was that organized as the Second Advent Church. Its members met on the east side of Central Square around , and their pastor was the Rev. Marshall A. Potter. Later a group of similar name was meeting in Central Hall. 431

21 Universalists Church As early as 1860 Rev. Isaac Case Knowlton was preaching to Universalists in Keene, and a Universalists Church was organized on March 12, The pastor at this time was Rev. William W. 14ayward. They held their meetings in the Town Hall, in the old Baptist Church on Winter Street, and in a hall on Roxbury Street. About nine years later they were holding their meetings in Universalists Hall at 17 Roxbury Street. This group was probably also known as the Universalists Society. Keene Church of the Nazarene In 1888 Frank L. Sprague of Keene attended the Methodist Camp Meetings at Claremont Junction and heard a Methodist evangelist, Hiram H. Reynolds, preach on holiness. That fall saw the beginning of a work known as "Bethany Mission," which was organized as a church in February 1890, with Frank Sprague as the pastor. This mission joined with the Association of Pentecostal Churches in April This building was originally the Methodist Church, then the Nazarene Church later partially destroyed by fire and rebuilt for use as a store 432

22 1897, which in turn affiliated with the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene organized at Pilot Point, Tex., in October The first place of worship in Keene was a building at the corner of Vernon and Elm Streets, which Sprague owned. (Later it was used as the first high school gymnasium.) A disastrous fire in December 1945 resulted in the transfer of the church to 388 Court Street, its present location. The new church building was formally dedicated on May 15, In 1962 a parsonage was purchased at 327 Water Street. The present pastor is Rev. Alan D. Smith. Sturtevant Chapel More than 70 years ago cottage prayer meetings had been conducted for some time on Rule Street by William C. Hall. The call of God to establish a permanent work came to Mrs. Julia Reed Rugg. Although a special committee of the Christian Endeavor Society of the First Congregational Church was nominally in charge of missionary work, the responsibility fell mainly on Mrs. Rugg. After some difficulty in securing a location, the cottage house at 101 George Street was hired, and Mrs. Rugg, one of the prime movers, devoted much time to the furnishings of the mission. The first meeting held in the rooms was a service of consecration for the workers on March 10, The first session of the Sunday School was held the following day and was attended by 51 pupils and 8 teachers. In the summer of 1897 the group moved to a more central location on Washington Street. After remodeling, these quarters were dedicated on August 8, Charles C. Sturtevant served as superintendent of the Sunday School for 29 years, from On June 1, 1905, the conduct of the chapel work was passed from the charge of the Barstow Memorial Christian Endeavor Society of the First Church to the George Street Chapel, duly incorporated under the laws of New Hampshire on March 14, The original incorporators were Henry W. Lane, Austin A. Ellis, William F. Holbrook, Lewis H. Dodge, and Charles C. Sturtevant. A new chapel building was erected in Later Rev. Edwin Meyers made improvements to the building, and inaugurated an evening service in addition to the morning sessions. In 1962 Rev. Kenneth Batchelder of North Reading, Mass., was settled as pastor. A year later the entire main auditorium was renovated, a new electronic organ was purchased, the parking lot adjoining the church was acquired, and general improvements to the church and parsonage (located at 15 Washington Avenue) were completed. 433

23 The Salvation Army On May 7, 1900, the Salvation Army came to Keene under the leadership of Captain Jennie Bradbury, at 69 Dover Street. Over the years there were varying locations used as headquarters. In 1914 the Salvation Army moved to its present address, 63 Church Street, and at the same location a new building replacing the old one was dedicated in Many Salvation Army officers have been assigned to Keene for anywhere from one month to several years. Mrs. Cora Besaw, the oldest living soldier, tells of the many street meetings around the Common held to promote Christ as a means to a better life. These were climaxed by a parade back to the chapel. During World War II, through the generous contributions of many individuals in Keene, a section of the building was made into a USO center with a shower, wash rooms, and a room for lounging, with facilities for serving food. Mrs. Besaw recalls that many times she and others went to the railroad station with little gift packages and coffee and doughnuts for servicemen. The Salvation Army has for years held family programs and promoted the Home League, a men's club; girl's guards; Sunbeam programs for girls ages 6-21; a Boy Scout troop; Sunday School for all ages; a young people's Christian Service, and a weekly Bible study and prayer meeting, as well as Sunday services and street meetings. In 1965, during the All-America City parade, the Salvation Army inaugurated its Timbre! Brigade, a musical group. The Army today maintains extensive relief services and distributes hundreds of gift baskets at Christmas time. Captain and Mrs. Harry J. Michaels are currently in charge of the local headquarters. Seventh Day Adventist Church The Keene Seventh Day Adventist Church was or g anized on August 17, 1901, with 12 members. In 1908 a church building was erected at 10 Fairview Street. Dedication was held on January 17, 1909, with 38 members. In 1908 an elementary church school, taught by Edith Chamberlain Atwood, was conducted in a room off the main church. The school continued intermittently from 1908 to 1959, when it became a permanent unit of the church. In 1964 the church purchased a schoolhouse in East Westmoreland which offered more adequate space for classrooms and playground facilities. 434

24 The church conducts a young people's Missionary Volunteer Society, which was organized on March 14, An active Health and Welfare Society meets regularly to mend and press clothing for the needy and for families burned out. The Sabbath School, which meets prior to the church services, is called "the church at study," as Adventists the world over study the same Bible lesson during a given week. In 1964 the church was redecorated. The Northern New England Conference of Seventh Day Adventists purchased a home at 42 Shady Lane in September 1966 to serve as the parsonage. The present pastor is Rev. Raymond 0. Richardson. Cottage Prayer Meetings Shortly after the turn of the century ( ) the Grace Methodist Episcopal Church, the First Baptist Church, and the George Street Chapel were holding cottage prayer meetings in the homes of their respective members. The evening meetings were in addition to regular church services, and were most successful over a period of several years. The Gospel Mission The Full Gospel Mission, ministering to the unchurched, which met in private homes and even in the jail on upper Washington Street, was organized in 1907 under the leadership of Oscar H. Thayer. Assembly of God In 1907 during the pastorate of Rev. Willis A. Hadley of the Court Street Congregational Church Oscar H. Thayer was disturbed to find that his minister was not a "fundamentalist preacher." As a result Thayer withdrew from the Court Street Church and organized the Assembly of God Church, which was founded as a mission in 1907 to serve those who were not members of a formal religion. After meeting in the homes of interested persons for Sunday gospel services, the small group began meeting in Thayer's office building on Cypress Street. Later the group moved to larger quarters in the Buffum Block. Upon the death of Thayer in 1931 Mrs. Elizabeth H. Britton assumed leadership of the mission and continued in that capacity until 435

25 Rev. Howard B. Hawkes came to Keene as pastor in At this time Sunday School services were introduced under his direction. About 1940 the need for larger quarters necessitated moving to the old Eagle Hall on Roxbury Street. During the pastorate of Rev. Almon M. Bartholomew the local assembly joined the national organization of the Assemblies of God. In the same year (1950) the present location of the church on Park Avenue was purchased, and the basement of the present building was used for church services until the building was completed and dedicated in June A parsonage next to the church was completed in The present pastor is Rev. Keith E. Terry. First Church of Christ Scientist Christian Science was brought to Keene by a member of the Mother Church, First Church of Christ Scientist in Boston, who came here as a visitor and later became a resident. Around 1898 this Christian Scientist and a member of her family began to read together each Sunday the lesson-sermon given in the Christian Science Quarterly. Another interested person soon joined them and attendance increased during the next 10 years. The first public service was held in Wildey Hall in the summer of The Sunday School held its first session in July 1909, and continues to function as an important part of the church activity. A lending library was established in 1909, and the first Thanksgiving service was held in November of that year. For some years testimonial meetings were held in the homes of the various members. In 1913 the Christian Science Society of Keene rented a room in the Keene Gas & Electric Co. Building in Central Square, where all the services were held and the reading room activities were carried on. Two years later a change was made to larger quarters in the same building. In 1926 the society voted to purchase a house located at 105 West Street. The Christian Science Society was then incorporated under the laws of New Hampshire. A Christian Science Church can be publicly consecrated to God only when it is free of debt. This church building was dedicated on Sunday, June 27, 1943, with services in the morning and in the afternoon. The matter of changing from a society to a church was brought up for consideration in 1935, but no decision was reached until October 1940, when a unanimous vote signified the readiness of the members to take this step. The card of the First Church of Christ Scientist 436

26 of Keene appeared in the Christian Science Journal in March The first Christian Science lecture was given in Wildey Hall in Occasional lectures were given during the years from 1915 to After that a lecture was given each year, and since 1945 two lectures have been given annually. Needing more adequate quarters, in 1945 the members purchased the present property at 74 Washington Street. The building was remodeled and the first service was held in February In addition to the service room, a reading room and two study rooms are maintained on the ground floor of the building. The Sunday School occupies the entire second floor. The dedication services were held on June 28, Chapman-Alexander Meetings In a large frame tabernacle erected on the southeast corner of Roxbury Street and Norway Avenue were held the Chapman-Alexander meetings which drew people from every walk of life, from May 21 to June 18, The seating capacity was 2,300. These were union evangelistic meetings under the leadership of the noted evangelists, J. Wilbur Chapman and Charles Alexander, whose general theme was "Evangelism Is the Hope of the Church." Delegations attended from area Protestant churches, and music was furnished locally. During the revival sessions most of the regular services of participating churches were omitted except for Sunday School sessions. Congregation Ahavas Achim One of the first settlers of the Jewish faith in Keene was Samuel Finkelstein who resided with his family at Ellis Court. Their home was the first place of worship for the Jewish people in Keene, with services of the old orthodox religion. It was also a haven for others of their faith who found in Keene hospitality, advice, money, and merchandise before going on to settle in other New Hampshire communities. In 1907 Rabbi Novich was settled in Keene and services organized in the Bon Ton building, and on January 16, 1916, a charter was granted to the Keene Hebrew Community, incorporating a synagogue which was located on the third floor over Lord's Candy Store at the head of the Square. Later the congregation moved to the Elliot Block at the corner of Main and West Streets, and then to a hall on the ground floor at 18 Center Street. 437

27 At the time the charter was issued the name assigned was Ahavas Achim, meaning brotherly love. In the 1940's the congregation had increased to approximately 30 families. In March 1947 the large house at 91 Court Street, then owned by the American Red Cross, was purchased for use as a synagogue. This building was remodeled for a place of worship, with meeting rooms and a Hebrew study with classes for children, on the first floor. The second floor was renovated as a residence for the rabbi. Dr. Arthur Cohen is currently president of the congregation. St. George Greek Orthodox Church According to the Keene city directory, the St. George Greek Church was organized on November 24, 1910, and held meetings in the Grand Army Hall in Ball's Block at the head of Central Square. Present-day members of the congregation do not recall this early organization but refer to the year 1926 when formal organization occurred. Meetings were held in the St. James Episcopal Church for a number of years and later in several other locations, including the Bon Ton Hall and St. John's Hall. In 1941 the church purchased property on West Street, and two years later an annex was erected in the rear of the church building. The present pastor is Rev. George L. Papaloucas. An active auxiliary of the church is the Philoptohos Society, Elpis, a woman's organization devoted to helping those less fortunate. Keene Council of Churches For many years prior to the organization of the Cheshire County Council of Churches, there was an organization known as the Keene Council of Churches, composed of the pastor and two laymen from participating churches. They met several times a year in the member churches to discuss common projects, such as local broadcasts of morning devotions, planning for union church services, hospital calls, and special religious events. Upon establishment of the county group the local organization was dissolved. First Church of Christ About the year 1937 Rev. Thomas Dance, pastor of the Surry Congregational Church, held open-air meetings in a wooded area at 438

28 the corner of Park Avenue and Pinehurst Street. Services were held here during the summer months for a year or two. Newman Club For the past 25 years a priest from Saint Bernard's Church has been assigned to care for the spiritual needs of Catholic students at Keene State College in an organization known as the Newman Club. On April 27, 1965, property at 232 Main Street was purchased by the Bishop of Manchester to serve as the Newman Center, and it was dedicated by Bishop Ernest Primeau on March 12, On June 12 Rev. Gerard J.Vallee was appointed the first full-time chaplain and resident of the Newman Center, which was officially opened on September 11, 1966, for the students. Father Vallee had been the parttime chaplain at the college for three years prior to this appointment by the bishop. The Newman Apostolate, independent of the Department of Christian Campus Ministry and the administration of the college, serves the intellectual and spiritual needs of the Catholic students. Radio Broadcasts For more than 25 years many of the Keene churches have broadcast Sunday morning services over local radio station WKNE. For a number of years there was a regular program, "Morning Devotions," conducted by the local ministry under the sponsorship of the Keene and Cheshire County Council of Churches. Jehovah's Witnesses The Keene Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses was first organized in the summer of 1944, although meetings had been held in private homes as far back as the early 1900's. Due to the large territory it covered, including a part of Vermont, the congre g ation established headquarters in Hinsdale. Later increases in membership made it necessary to divide the group. A new congregation was formed in Brattleboro, Vt., and the remainder was reorganized in Keene in 1953, with J. Wallace Barford as the presiding minister. The Kingdom Hall, the meeting place of Jehovah's Witnesses, was first located at 17 Roxbury Street, then at the GAR Hall on Mechanic Street. As the congregation continued to expand, new accommodations became necessary. The old Hopkins School, an historical 439

29 landmark on the Old Homestead Highway, was purchased in Although the building is in North Swanzey, the congregation has always been identified as the Keene Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses. In February 1958 Earl L. Fielders, who had been associated with the local congregation since 1953, was appointed presiding minister. Although Jehovah's Witnesses have a presiding minister, the Witnesses are an organization of ministers. Each of the five meetings held weekly is designed to train and educate individuals for the ministry, endeavoring to follow the example set by Jesus and His apostles. This is done by calling at the homes of people in Keene and surrounding towns. The Open Door, Inc. The Open Door, Inc. is a non-denominational, evangelical organization, incorporated as a non-profit body, whose purpose is to teach the Bible and further the word of God. The Open Door Sunday School held its first session on June 1, 1952, at 314 Elm Street, in a house then owned by Charles Medvidofsky. The name chosen was "The Open Door Sunday School," and this name was used until November 1959, when the organization was incorporated and changed its name to "The Open Door, Inc." Shortly after the incorporation the property at 314 Elm Street was presented to the organization by the Medvidofsky family. Elmer S. Hildreth served as superintendent of the school from its start until 1956, at which time Morris Medvidofsky became superintendent and continued until 1958, when Charles Medvidofsky was selected. In 1952 an evening service was held the first Sunday of each month, with a guest speaker at each service. These were continued until 1964, when a weekly prayer meeting was held. This was later discontinued in favor of a monthly meeting. The Bible School, held each Sunday afternoon, has classes for people of all ages. Extensive remodeling has been accomplished in recent years to provide an auditorium, needed classrooms, and more adequate facilities. Trinity Lutheran Church The Trinity Lutheran Church was founded in December 1952, following a church census by a board of the Lutheran Church in Missouri, which had revealed a large number of persons with no active 440

30 church connection in the Keene area. Further study indicated that the need for a new church was particularly great in West Keene. A church was founded under the name of West Keene Chapel-Lutheran, so designated until 1966, and the first service was held in the auditorium of the Symonds School on December 7, Rev. William Jensen was the first minister of the chapel. The dedication of the church building at 28 Arch Street was held on May 15, 1955, coming less than three years after the first mission service was held in the area. Since 1955 the church has offered a day nursery for children, ranging in age from 3 to 5 years. During the pastorate of Rev. Lester Boehm ( ) the name of the church was changed to Trinity Lutheran. Rev. Robert Luoma is presently serving as minister. Saint Margaret Mary Roman Catholic Church Saint Margaret Mary Roman Catholic Church was established in Previously all Catholics living in the Keene area were served by Saint Bernard's Church. Rev. Francis L. Curran was appointed the first pastor and resided at Saint Bernard's rectory until he was able to purchase a temporary rectory on Bradford Road. In organizing the parish, Father Curran obtained the use of the Keene Junior High School on Arch Street for Mass until the new church was built. The first Mass in the new parish was offered on November 13, The first service in the present church was held on Ash Wednesday The new parish serves the mission of Chesterfield, including Spofford, Westmoreland, and Surry. The present pastor is Father Samuel J. Hewitt. He undertook the building of a new rectory on land adjoining the church at 35 Arch Street, and moved in on April 5, In June Rev. Nicholas P. Rogers was assigned as his assistant. The Keene Church of Christ The Church of Christ in Keene was established on April 22, 1956, with Charles S. Chandler as the first minister. The church began meeting in a classroom in what was then the Junior High School on Arch Street in West Keene. A Sunday morning radio program had been conducted for two years on station WKNE in Keene by E. H. Masters prior to the beginning of the new church, and the program was continued for the following eight years. 441

31 Churches of Christ have no central headquarters. Each congregation is separate and independent. The church in Keene began as a "Mission Project" of the Church of Christ in Marlow, Okla., assisted financially by other Churches of Christ, which purchased the property at the corner of Arch and Blossom Streets. Rev. Chandler served as minister under the supervision of the elders of the Marlow church for the first year. After this the elders of the Geraldine Street Church of Christ in Oklahoma City assumed the oversight of Rev. Chandler's work. In 1956 the Chandlers constructed a minister's residence on land adjoining the church property at 69 Blossom Street. A large room was provided in the basement as a chapel, with other rooms doubling as living quarters, classrooms, and an office. The church moved from the Junior High School to its new quarters, where it continued to meet for the next two years. Later the minister's home was deeded to the church. In 1958 a house of worship was built at Arch and Blossom Streets. The building is of contemporary design, faced with light buff brick, and includes a sanctuary seating 225, eight classrooms, an office, nursery, rest rooms, and a baptismal pool for immersion. Dedication services were conducted on August 24. The first annual Bible school was held in July The present minister is Rev. John O'Brien, who moved here from Philadelphia in July The Mormon Church Prior to formal organization on June 8, 1958, two elders from the Mother Church in Salt Lake City were making visits to homes in the Keene area. However, missionary efforts had been started as early as the 1830's by the father and brother of the church's founder, Joseph Smith. In the late 1950's cottage meetings were held with two or three families present. Following the cottage meetings, services were held in the Odd Fellows Hall on Roxbury Street and in the GAR Hall on Mechanic Street. The group, although very small, purchased land on the Summit Road to erect a church building. On September 26, 1963, ground was broken for the new church, where the first service was held on the first Sunday after Easter in This church is also known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Campus Ministry A small student Christian Association, with a charter from the 442

32 YMCA and the YWCA, was organized at Keene Normal School many years ago. Faculty members acted as advisers. Later local ministers took turns in counseling for two hours each week during the school year but eventually found that a full-time campus minister was needed. A Protestant Campus Ministry was set up in 1963 with Rev. Fay L. Gemmell, formerly pastor of Grace Methodist Church, as the first full-time campus minister. The Keene State College Campus Ministry is now incorporated under an independent board of trustees. "Gun Shop," Keene Academy and the old Baptist Church on opposite side of street, where now stands the Keene Public Library, is a vacant lot, Rev. Hall's house having been removed circa 1860's 443

33 SCHOOLS by Laurence O. Thompson Committee members who laid out the "2 townships on the Ashuelot River above Northfield" in 1734 reserved Lot N. 28 for school purposes. There is no record of the erection of a schoolhouse at this time, although in 1743 a committee was chosen to "let out the school lot to be cleared and brought into grass and under good improvement." The settlement was abandoned in 1747, so not until after the resettlement could school affairs advance. At the town meeting in 1764 "six pounds sterling" was voted to defray expenses. This is the first record of money appropriated by the town for education. Three years later, at the annual town meeting it was "Voted to pay unto Priscilla Ellis the sum of Three Pounds Thirteen Shillings and One Penny Lawful Money for her Service in keeping the School." On October 29, 1770, the town was divided into four school districts, each of which was required to build a schoolhouse, and 15 pounds was raised for the four schools. The first school committees of which there is a record were chosen in 1774, two members in each district. By now the total number of districts was seven. In 1775 the management of the schools was assigned to the selectmen. By 1783 the town voted 60 pounds for schools, the districts to provide their own masters and regulate their own affairs. Several private schools were established around this time. Mrs. 444

34 Ruth Kidder opened a school on May 1, 1791, by subscription. On September 5 another school was opened by Mrs. Kidder upon the same terms, except that "the school should be limited to 27 scholars." In March 1792 Mrs. Kidder reopened a school she had taught the previous year in the basement of "Watson's shop" which stood on the west side of Main Street, where the Cheshire National Bank now stands. The subscribers "promised Mrs. Ruth Kidder the sum of five shillings a week for her services and five shillings for her board, and to furnish the necessary wood." Prior to 1793 Judge Daniel Newcomb, chief judge of the Inferior Court of Cheshire County, had realized the need for a better curriculum than that already existing and, at his own expense, he established a private grammar school. This school was to be kept by a man of liberal education and to be supported by the tuition of the scholars. The school carried on for a few years under several masters. It can be said that up to 1800 the schools were primitive, poorly financed, and staffed by incompetent teachers. Sometimes school kept only a few weeks out of the entire year. Textbooks were crude or entirely lacking. The curriculum was limited to instruction in the "three R's"; schoolhouses were poorly heated and inadequately vend tilated. However, the increase in the number of children eventually 445

35 necessitated the building of better schools, staffed by more competent teachers. The early textbooks included the Testament, New England Primer, spelling books; later Morse's geography and Pike's arithmetic were added, and still later the Scholar's Arithmetic by Dr. Daniel Adams of Leominster, Mass., and afterwards of Keene, where he published his Adams' New Arithmetic. Hon. Salma Hale of Alstead and Keene wrote a grammar and a history of the United States. For the latter he received a prize of $400 and a medal in A map of Keene in 1800 indicates three schoolhouses; one on Main Street just north of the old Boston road, now Baker Street; another on the west side of Main Street, near where Spaulding Gymnasium is now located; the third on Prison Street, now Washington Street opposite the present Junior High School. In 1801 the town "Voted that the grammar school master shall keep a school in each district in proportion to the value of each school district." The first evening school in Keene was taught in the autumn of 1802 in the hall of "Well's Inn," previously Bullard's Coffee House. On May 1, 1814, Miss Catherine Fiske opened a Young Ladies' Seminary, reported to be the first such boarding school in the state. According to the school's first advertisement, instruction was given in reading; writing; English grammar; composition; arithmetic; history; geography, with the use of maps and globes; drawing and painting; and plain and ornamental needlework. Also, "strict attention will be paid to the improvement of the young ladies and to their manners and morals... A Mantua-maker and Milliner will be provided for those pupils who may wish to employ them." Miss Fiske's school achieved an outstanding reputation due to the caliber of its principal. Gentlemen from the village were invited to give special courses in science. The first piano in Keene was used by the school, and the town's first pipe organ was built for the school by William Willson of Keene. In 1824 Miss Fiske moved her seminary into the Main Street house which is presently the residence of the president of Keene State College. Miss Fiske began her teaching career at the age of 15 in Dover, Vt., and devoted 38 years to the education of young people. Born in 1784, she came to Keene in 1811 at the age of 27. She was a remarkable woman in every way, and one of Keene's outstanding citizens. When she died at the age of 53 on May 19, 1837, her funeral became a civic affair, attended by the whole town, and businesses closed down in respect. 446

36 The school was continued several years by her staff under the management of Miss Eliza P. Withington, Miss Fiske's chief assistant. During the 31 years of the school's existence it was attended by more than 2,500 girls from all sections of the country. Thomas Hardy came to Keene in 1816 to open a private school. He also taught an evening school, but after two years he left to take charge of the Chesterfield Academy. In 1820 Nathaniel Sprague, at one time a partner in the Flint Glass Co. on Marlboro Street, and later an ordained minister, opened a private school in a brick building a little to the southwest of the site of the present Tilden School. The next year he was assisted by his sister Elizabeth, who had taught music and French at Miss Fiske's School. The building was then taken for the public school of that district, and Sprague transferred his classes to the hall over Dan Hough's store. The town changed its bylaws relative to schools in 1824 and now chose a committee of five to examine the teachers, in addition to the seven visitors and inspectors (one principal visitor, the Rev. Zedekiah Smith Barstow, the village minister, and six others, all chosen at the annual town meeting). In 1827 this committee on examination of teachers advised the use of the following textbooks: Lee's Spelling Book, Easy Lessons in Reading, History of the United States, English Reader, the Scriptures, Scientific Class Book, Murray's and Putnam's grammars, Worcester's and Woodbridge's geographies, Adams' arithmetic, old and new, and Pike's arithmetic. Also in 1827 a school was opened for instruction "in the several branches usually taught in our academies," which continued for several terms with up to 100 pupils. In December 1828 the Keene High School was established by the citizens of the three central districts of the town. Keene's first experiment in secondary education was housed in the east end of Wilder's building, presently the Ball Block at the head of Central Square. The top floor containing the room where the school first met was removed in 1939, but the building, dating from 1828, still stands. Edward Cushing Eells, a graduate of Middlebury College class of 1828, was the first teacher. Born at Middlebury, he later attended Andover Theological Seminary. He died at Orwell, Vt., in Succeeding Eells was A. H. Bennett, who later became a lawyer at Winchester. Pupils desiring admission to the high school were examined by a committee made up of two local ministers and Phineas Fiske, a leading citizen. This school, however, did not continue long, 447

37 and it was 23 years before there was another public high school in Keene. In 1832 concern was expressed by many parents that "their children received too much religious instruction in the schools, some of it, as they alleged, of a sectarian character; that teachers and others distributed religious tracts among the pupils and spent too much time in devotions and exhortations during school hours; and at the annual meeting this year the town voted its disapproval of those practices and directed that the teachers confine themselves to reading the Scriptures as prescribed by the committee, with one short prayer each day and instruction in those 'moral virtues which are the ornaments of human society.' The vote was recorded in full." In the spring of 1837 the "Academy in Keene" was opened to the public by a committee of the First Congregational Church Society. A private institution charging tuition, its classes were held in a twostory brick building which had been erected with funds raised by subscription chiefly through the efforts of Rev. Barstow and William Lamson on land given by Abijah and Azel Wilder. The site is now occupied by the Winter Street parking lot. The Academy was essentially a Congregational institution, deeded to 15 trustees, 5 of them ministers, and the board was to be self-perpetuating. The deed of the land was given "in consideration of the promises and the sum of one dollar." One of the promises was that "the said trustees shall not elect or employ any person as principal of said Academy who is not a professor of religion in an Orthodox Congregational or Presbyterian Church, and who does not hold in substance the faith now held and maintained by the First Congregational Society in Keene." Subscriptions came chiefly from members of the Congregational Church. Breed Batcheller, grandson of the well-known Loyalist, and successful teacher of an academy in Boscawen, became the first principal. His assistants were Miss Sarah M. Leverett and Miss Mary M. Parker. (Two years later Batcheller married Miss Leverett and gave up his position.) The name of the school was changed to "Keene Academy," and instruction was given in vocal music and on the piano and organ, in addition to the regular academic subjects. There were about 200 pupils enrolled. Abijah Wilder built the brick house on the corner of Court and Summer Streets for a boarding house for the Academy. Eliphalet Briggs presented a set of globes which cost $100; the bell Timothy Hale donated was later used at the high school. In 1850 William Torrance became principal of the Academy. 448

38 The school was not a financial success and the trustees found it difficult to maintain a proper standard. In 1853, chiefly through the efforts of Torrance, the building was leased to the "Associated Districts" for a term of 10 years to serve as a high school, of which Torrance became the first principal. He was a successful and popular teacher and highly respected in social life. He died in February 1855, aged 39. After two more principals who served short terms, A. J. Burbank, aided by his wife, took over the work of the school and remained until 1867, bringing order out of chaos and establishing a high school of much merit. There were then about 80 pupils. As the school system grew and enrollments increased there developed a dual system: the Union School District, with its Board of Education, controlling the urban schools, and the Town District, comprised of 10 rural school districts under the administration of a school board of three members, each of the 10 rural districts controlled by Keene Academy when in use as the Keene High School 449

39 a Prudential Committee, usually a single member. The rural districts and their locations were No. 2, South Keene; No. 3, Beech Hill; No. 4, North Beech Hill; No. 5, East Surry Road; No. 6, Four Corners; No. 7, Summit Road; No. 8, Westmoreland Road; No. 9, Hurricane Road; No. 10, West Keene; No. 11, Old Chesterfield Road. District No. 1, the urban district, included seven grammar schools, five "secondary schools," and six primary schools; usually more than one of these "schools" being housed in each building. In 1866 the "Union School District of Keene" (formed in 1865) attempted without success to purchase from the trustees the building housing Keene Academy. The property was finally taken by law for school purposes, and the trustees were awarded $6,100. This created some bitter feelings. The proceeds from this sale were invested by the trustees and over the years increased to a very substantial amount. Teachers' institutes for the county were held in Keene more frequently than in any other place and the towns appropriated money for their support. In 1845 a four weeks' session was held in April, presided over by Salma Hale, and another was held the following October. In the New Hampshire General Court had enacted legislation granting to the Town of Somersworth the authority to empower one of its school districts to elect district officers, and to raise and appropriate funds for the support of schools. Subsequently this power was extended to the Union School District of Concord, and in 1866 to any school district voting to adopt the Act. On the formation in Keene of the city government organization, it is evident that the Somersworth Act was adopted by the Keene Union School District, as the basis of control of the schools, a situation which has continued to the present time. In the school report of appears the following: "The question that has agitated the District for many years has at length been settled by the following vote of the District May 11, 1875: `Voted that the sum of $50,000 be, and the same is hereby appropriated for the erection and completion of a High School building on the present High School lot [now the Winter Street parking area], and for the purchase of the necessary fixtures and furniture for the same....' The plans and specifications of the house were made by S. S. Woodcock, of Boston." The new high school was dedicated on December 4, 1876, and Franklin Hooper chosen principal. The building was 92' x 62', 5 stories, 128' to the top of the tower in which was hung the old Acad- 450

40 The "new" high school, later Central Junior High (site of present Winter Street parking lot) emy bell (now preserved by the Historical Society of Cheshire County and set in a standard made from timbers of the old school). On April 1, 1878, Keene High School Alumni Association was organized. The next year on.march 11 women had their first opportunity to vote in school district affairs, and Mrs. Abby Bickford was elected a member of the Board of Education. By 1885 there was need for a school superintendent, as the members of the board could not give the necessary time for the supervision of the growing school system. On March 29, 1886, the first school meeting of the new town district was held at the West Keene schoolhouse. This same year the Elliot School was erected, and on August 30 the Parochial School opened, with about 300 pupils. In 1888 Keene was expending the most money per pupil for schooling of any town in the county. Around 1890 a Normal Training course was established to prepare teachers for successful work in all grades. The course was open to high school graduates and others qualified by "scholarship or experience." At this same time free textbooks were first supplied to pupils. Much attention continued to be paid to the erection of new school buildings. In 1892 money was appropriated for the erection of 451

41 the Tilden School and in 1895 the school district voted to purchase the Wheeler property and build the Washington Street School. The following March it was voted to build a schoolhouse on Greenlawn and Page Streets. The district voted in 1900 to build a new Lincoln School; the old Lincoln schoolhouse was ordered sold at public auction. On July 13, 1903, the Board voted to establish two kindergarten schools, one at the Tilden and one at the Elliot building. Previous to this there were two private kindergartens which operated over a period of time. Miss Ellen R. Perry, who had been a successful teacher in the Union School District for many years, had opened a private kindergarten at her residence on Water Street, which she conducted for several years. Soon after Miss Perry opened her school Miss Ellen Hills had a private kindergarten school for several terms. The Keene Normal School was established in The legislation authorizing the Normal School stated: "No money shall be expended under the provisions of this act until the Union School District... shall have agreed in writing... to cooperate... with the said Normal School in the maintenance of model and practice schools, for a term of years." As of July 7, 1909, a contract was executed between the trustees of the State Normal Schools and the School Board of the Union School District of Keene, transferring to this "Board of Trustees the entire management and control of such schools as the Trustees shall from time to time" need "for the purposes of model and training schools." The trustees were to provide teachers, scholastic equipment (not including schoolroom furniture), fuel and lights, and janitor service; the school district to supply the buildings, pay water rates and repairs, and provide transportation of pupils and insurance. The first contract was for a term of five years, then renewed for another five years. At first the Normal School used only the Elliot and Lincoln Schools, but was eventually assigned all of the grade schools. The new high school, built on the Coolidge lot on Washington Street, cost approximately $100,000. Grades were housed in this building; grades 8 and 9 in the former high school, later known as the Central Junior High School. The first principal of the new high school was W. Harry Watson, who had served for two years as an instructor in the high school and six years as principal before occupation of the new building. He resigned in 1914, and the next year was elected a member of the school 452

42 Class in mental arithmetic board, a position he held for 20 years, the last three of which he served as chairman. In the board secured a temporary lease of the Dinsmoor estate north of the high school property for practical arts and domestic science courses. One of the barns was altered and equipped for woodworking, with plans to add forges and machine shop equipment. The first floor of the house was equipped for cooking and sewing classes; the upstairs rooms were rented to women teachers at a nominal charge. In the old Elliot School was rebuilt and expanded and renamed the Wheelock School in honor of Keene's well-known naturalist. Roosevelt School was built in 1922, and in 1923 the superintendent's report indicated the establishment of a new junior high school at Franklin, thus relieving congestion at Central Junior High. In 1924 the high school purchased the Country Club grounds of 30 acres on Arch Street, with the club house, lockers, etc., for use by the high school as an athletic field (popularly known as Alumni Field). The next year the Board of Education purchased two tracts of land adjoining the high school to provide a gymnasium and additional classrooms and laboratories, as well as an office for the superintendent. In 1929 the Great Depression began, and by 1933 its impact was felt on the schools. Salaries of teachers and other employees of the school district were reduced, and to provide employment for teachers and others, various federal projects were initiated. "As a part of the Emergency Educational Program of Federal Emergency Relief 453

43 Administration, classes for adults were held each night of the school week in the high school," with an enrollment of over 300, and employing as many as six instructors. A nursery school, sponsored by federal funds, enrolled 25 children, and employed two teachers and a nurse. A grant of $12,000 was received from the CWA to pay for labor in the improvement of Alumni Field. The report of Headmaster Willis 0. Smith states: "the entire field this side of the club house was levelled to grade, and the... baseball and football fields, the four new tennis courts, the fine quarter mile cinder track... were constructed." The new Fuller School was opened in The need for expansion of the high school facilities again began to be felt, and a comprehensive survey of the entire school system was conducted by staff members of the Boston University School of Education, directed by Dean Jesse B. Davis. The school district voted at its 1939 meeting to raise $200,000 to construct and equip an addition to the senior high school, and $35,000 to construct a new elementary school in the Cleveland district. These buildings were completed and occupied in the fall of To supplement the appropriation of the district, the trustees of the Keene Academy Fund appropriated money for equipping and furnishing a library for the high school, to employ a librarian, and to purchase books and equipment. In 1939, for the first time since 1879, the annual convention of the New Hampshire State Teachers' Association was held in Keene, with more than 2,000 teachers in attendance. The 1940 report of the chairman of the school board recorded the receipt of the Fuller-Bartlett Fund, and quoted the article in the school district warrant which referred to it: "To see if the District will authorize the School Board to use the income 'to be expended for the promotion of higher education within the scope of its lawful corporate purposes' as provided in the will of Helen Bartlett Bridgman." For a number of years a portion of this income was used to finance an "Educational Institute," thus bringing to students and general public outstanding programs, such as those of Cornelia Otis Skinner, Charles Laughton, Robert Frost, Father Hubbard (the Glacier Priest), the Chekhov Theatre Players, Burton Holmes, the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, the Westminster Choir, and the Don Cossack Chorus. In 1952 a portion of the fund was used to finance a program of adult education. Still later, in 1962, an appropriation was made from the fund to provide scholarship aid for students. 454

44 In anticipation of the nation's involvement in World War II, there had been organized, under the National Defense Training Program, refresher and preemployment courses in machine shop practice. Two of these were held at the high school, a third at Keene Teachers College. Expenses for these courses were paid through federal funds. Later, teachers enrolled in courses for air raid wardens and first aid, while both teachers and students served as volunteers at observation posts and local report and warning centers. Pupils gathered and bundled newspapers, magazines, and waste paper, and collected scrap metal. Defense stamps and bonds were sold in the schools. Teachers Keene High School 's were given the responsibility of issuing war ration books. With the termination of the war in 1945, consideration was again given to problems which had been postponed for the past few years. A full-time position of director of Guidance and Placement was established, and Frank Glazier became the first appointee to the post. Study was given to the problem of increased school population, and a survey was conducted by the Center for Field Studies of Harvard University Graduate School of Education. In 1947 Mrs. Howard Kirk became the first woman school board chairman. Additions were made 455

45 to two existing schools, and in September 1953 the new Junior High School was completed. At the district meeting of 1953 it was voted to sell the former Central Junior High School lot and building, which was eventually purchased by the City of Keene, demolished, and the land converted to a parking lot. Several of the elementary schools were still crowded. In 1956 there was constructed and occupied a six-room addition to the Symonds School and an eight-room addition at Franklin. In 1956, also, after only three years of occupancy, the facilities of the new Junior High School were again becoming inadequate, and plans were again discussed for another expansion at the secondary level. For the third time in 20 years the advice of an outside group was sought, and the Visiting Committee of the New England School Development Council was invited to confer with the school board and representatives of the school administration. At the annual meeting of 1959 it was voted to convert the junior high school to a senior high school. These facilities were occupied in September On April 9, 1964, the next step in the expansion program of the senior high school was taken when the district voted to appropriate $855,000 for "classrooms, auxiliary rooms, utility rooms, a shop, offices, health room"; $440,000 for the addition of a music room, lockers, and a gymnasium; "and $45,000 for the purchase of properties adjoining the High School lot." These expanded facilities became available in September By 1966 land had been purchased in the Maple Avenue area for location of additional elementary school facilities and of other construction as needed in the future. 456

46 BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY by A. Harold Kendall Early settlers, because of necessity, were mostly self-sufficient, making their own wooden dishes, pounding out their iron nails, making candles, spinning and weaving fabrics for their clothing, dyeing the same with vegetable dyes from the trees and flowers. Rivers and brooks supplied the water power for mills which were the early factories, and the 60 proprietors of Upper Ashuelot (Keene) in September of 1735 voted to give 100 acres of "middling good land" and 25 pounds to any party who would build a sawmill. In 1736 such a mill was constructed by John Corbet and Jesse Root on Beaver Brook, near what is now Giffin Street, and in this same year it was voted to build a gristmill. These were the first industries in Upper Ashuelot. In 1738 the proprietors named a committee of Joseph Ellis, Nathan Blake, and Isaac Clark to procure tools for the establishment of a blacksmith shop. In 1760 a sawmill was built by Amos Partridge off the Old Surry Road on Mill Brook near the outlet of Goose Pond. In the next year Jesse Clark built the first saw and gristmills on Willson's Pond in West Keene. The first merchant in Keene was Ichabod Fisher, who in 1764 used to ride to Wrentham, Mass., once a year and bring back saddlebags filled with calico, ribbons, pins, and needles, which he sold from a store in his house on the southerly side of Poverty Lane (now West Street) in a location nearly opposite what is now School Street. 457

47 Dial of tall case clock In 1775 Elisha Briggs built a sawmill and a gristmill (on what later became the Faulkner & Colony site), which he sold in 1778 to Nathan Blake, and for some time they were known as Blake's Mills. These were the first mills on what is now West Street, and were later purchased from Blake by Luther Smith. After two other changes in ownership Josiah Colony and Francis Faulkner bought them in Briggs also operated the mills on Beaver Brook, which were later known as Giffin's mills. When they were destroyed by fire on July 12, 1902, the loss was valued at $15,000. In 1776 the Dwinell mill (later known as Willson's mill) was erected on Willson's Pond. In May of 1787 young William Lamson arrived in Keene on foot with his belongings slung over his shoulder on a cane, bought a quarterof-an-acre of land, and established a tannery in the rear of what is now the Lamson Block. At this same time Adin Holbrook built a gristmill on the Old Surry Road, and later a mill to crush oil from flaxseed was established nearby. Within the original boundaries of Keene there are sites of over 25 mills, mostly sawmills, established from the 1730's on. 458

48 In 1788 Samuel Cook erected a building for stores on Main Street near the present Eagle Hotel, and the area from this location to Water Street was known as Federal Row, containing several shops and other places of business. In 1789 Benjamin Balch was operating a fulling mill and clothiers' works on White Brook. Captain John Warner ran similar mills near where Ellis Bros. & Co. is now located at 203 Winchester Street. These mills finished the cloth handwoven at home. In the 1790's Dr. Jonas Dix kept a medicinal store on a site somewhere between the present Eagle Hotel and Water Street. He died in Also in 1790 Thomas Smith Webb became the first bookbinder in town, plying his trade in a shop in Federal Row until Homer & Goodale ran a store and concurrently operated a potash establishment. William Briggs operated a shoemaker shop, and Moses Johnson manufactured shoe buckles. Luther Smith designed clocks in a shop in Federal Row. Born at Colrain, Mass., around 1767, Smith had come to Keene by 1793, Tall case clock by Luther Smith Banjo clock by Luther Smith 459

49 where he bought land on Main Street from Alexander Ralston. Although interested in a number of business enterprises, he is remembered today for his work as a clockmaker. He built grandfather, banjo, and shelf (or "New Hampshire mirror") clocks. Few specimens of his work are extant, but those that are reveal excellent workmanship and are highly prized as examples of early craftsmanship. Smith made a town clock to put on the Meetinghouse at a cost of 36 pounds sterling and warranted for 10 years. The subscription to purchase this first town clock was started in February Unfortunately the clock was lost when the Meetinghouse was moved to a new location in Smith married Sarah Eveleth at Bolton, Mass., in 1798, at which time he was living in Keene. He died in 1839 at the age of 73 and is buried in the Washington Street Cemetery. The first barber of whom there is a record was Michael Bird, who opened a shop in He sold false hair for both ladies and gentlemen, and powder, powder-bags, puffs, etc. He also bought human hair. In 1794 Abijah Wilder, Luther Ames, and associates formed a company to build aqueducts, and two years later water was brought from Beaver Brook to the village. Their company a little later erected the first Jamaica Pond aqueduct in Massachusetts, thus bringing fresh water to the town of Boston. In January 1800 Abijah Wilder informed readers of The New Hampshire Sentinel that he had invented "a new and useful improvement in making sleighs and sleigh runners and has a patent from the President of the United States for it." His patent was secured for the invention of bending sleigh runners by steaming the wood. During this period Allen & Dorr (Joseph Dorr, son-in-law of Captain Josiah Richardson, and Amasa Allen) ran a general merchandise store, advertising groceries, hardware, crockery, and "fall and winter goods," competing with Moses Johnson (Johnson & Mann), their next-door neighbor. Peter Wilder, on Federal Row, made rakes, scythe snaths (handles), chairs, and wheels. In the same general location Josiah Willard and his son Josiah Jr. ran a saddler's shop, and on Pleasant Street (now West Street) John Draper operated a bakery. Abijah Wilder was a cabinetmaker, who also made screw cheese presses. Later he and his son Abijah Jr. made sleighs, cabinet ware, spinning wheels, and wheelheads in a shop on what is now Court Street. Dr. Thaddeus Maccarty kept an apothecary store on Prison 460

50 Street (now Washington Street) and was the first to advertise and sell patent medicines. Around 1800 Elisha Briggs was making cider mills and other machinery at his place on the North Branch (Beech Hill), since known as "Peg Factory." In 1797 his saw and gristmill burned but was soon rebuilt. After his death in 1803, the "factory" went to Stephen Griswold. Over the years the site changed hands, as did the products. By 1858 Abijah Woodward was making shoe pegs and shingles, and continuing operation of the gristmill. After his death his widow sold the mills in 1885 to Fred W. Davis, who used them until 1913, when the dam was carried away. All grocers at this time sold spirituous liquors, amon g which was cherry rum. In 1800 in the town there were several variety shops, three taverns, a distillery, a tannery, two sawmills, two gristmills, a potash mill, a fulling mill, a bakery, a cabinetmaker, a jewelry store, a blacksmith shop, and a printing office, which also contained a bookstore. The latter advertised "a handsome assortment of books" to be sold "as Old Holbrook gristmill built

51 cheap as can be purchased in Boston." Among the novels on sale were Torn Jones, Robinson Crusoe, and Evelina. In the early 1800's Moses Johnson and Aaron Seamans advertised to buy rye and barley for malt and the manufacture of "ginn." They were partners in a "ginn distillery." Seamans, one of early Keene's active businessmen, who also had a partnership with Moses Johnson in a pot and pearlash works, joined Ebenezer Daniels in running a tannery in the rear of the present Eagle Hotel, and owned with Daniels a large shoe manufactory on Main Street. Moses H. Hale and Zebadiah Kise (Keyes) came from Chelmsford, Mass., and about 1806 bought Luther Smith's mills (later the Faulkner & Colony mills) on the Ashuelot River, adding machinery for the picking and carding of wool. In 1806 Dr. James Bradford, physician and surgeon, kept an apothecary shop on the corner of Main and West Streets. He married a daughter of Alexander Ralston, owner of the Ralston Tavern. Daniel Webster, a relative of the great Daniel, had a small foundry on Main Street near the Eagle Hotel, where he made sleigh bells, copper kettles, and other metallic utensils, and as the official sealer supplied the town with its sealed weights and measures. Major Josiah Willard and Silas Ames conducted a saddlers' and carriage trimming business, and Samuel Evers established a business of coach and chaise making. In December of 1803, Keene's first bank, the Cheshire (National) Bank, received its charter and was estab- Cheshire (National) Keene's first bank 462

52 fished the next year in a 30 x 24 foot building, just south of the present Tilden's stationery store on the west side of Main Street, on a site now occupied by the railroad tracks. When the land and building were sold to the railroad in 1846, the bank moved into quarters at 15 Main Street, where, after a number of enlargements and alterations, it is still doing business. The first president was Daniel Newcomb, with Elijah Dunbar as cashier. In 1847 the "New Bank," under a charter of 1844, took over the assets and business of the "Old Bank." During its long financial history the following men have followed Newcomb as president: Jonathan Robinson, Samuel Grant, Salma Hale, Levi Chamberlain, John Elliot, William Henry Elliot, Frederic Faulkner, Frank Huntress, John J. Colony, John 0. Talbot, and the current president, J. Eugene Felch III. Two of the bank's cashiers, Royal H. Porter and his son, Walter R. Porter, served over a combined period of 90 years. For a few years Abijah and Azel Wilder, half-brothers, worked in their father's cabinet shop, making chairs, looms, and cheese presses at a site on lower Court Street, but around 1814 dissolved their partnership. Abijah Jr. continued the cabinet and sleigh-making work at their old shop, while Azel moved the wheelhead and wheelwright business to new quarters. However, they combined their talents in the operation of a real estate business, gradually increasing their holdings. In 1828, to enlarge and improve the Common, they bought and removed the old horsesheds which had been built in They gave this lot to the town, though for many years afterward the Common remained an unimproved space, crossed by roads, and lacking trees. Adolphus Wright, wig-maker and ornamental hair dresser, conducted a barber shop, and Henry and Thomas Lyman a hat store, which they established in 1811 on Main Street. Wright was in business 463

53 Spinning wheel marked "A&A Wilder" circa 1812 many years and, as he also sold candies, toys, small wares, and homemade beer on the premises, his one-room shop knew many happy customers. Adolphus Wright became the first deacon of the Keene Congregational Society (Unitarian) and was known to have the best garden in town. In 1814 Aaron Appleton, from Dublin, and John Elliot formed a partnership for the sale of hardware, dry goods, and grocery supplies, and for $2,000 purchased the wooden building on the south corner of Main and West Streets, later replaced by a brick structure. The general mercantile business of Appleton & Elliot became John Elliot & Co. in By the middle of the century Elliot's son, John Henry, headed the business and took in as a partner, Barrett Ripley. In 1864, when Ripley left to head the Troy Blanket Mills, Isaac Spencer took his place. On Elliot's retirement around 1867 the hardware store became Spencer & Co. Later George Litchfield bought into the firm, his share later being purchased by Herbert Woodward. In 1893 William O. Hutchins became a partner. In 1901 the firm moved into the E. F. Lane Block, which it occupied for 55 years and was known as Spencer Hardware Co. In 1937 Walter Goodnow, an employee for many years, became general manager. The business was 464

54 purchased in 1952 by Churchill Stafford, who liquidated the firm in In 1813 John Wood and Captain Aaron Hall took in Timothy Hall, a relative of the captain's from Connecticut, to form the firm of A. & T. Nall. This apothecary store was on the site of the present Cheshire National Bank on Main Street and sold English and West Indian goods, as well as druggists' supplies. Though the name of John Wood did not appear in the firm's nomenclature, he was "the financial and substantial member of the concern." The business was the first, in 1822, to sell flour in a store, as previously it had been sold, along with meal and grain, only at the gristmills. After nearly four decades this business landmark was forced to close in 1850, a combined result of expansion and business difficulties. In 1815 Francis Faulkner and Josiah Colony purchased the fulling, saw, and gristmills on the Ashuelot River, which for several years Colony had been managing. This was the beginning of the business that was to continue for 139 years as Faulkner & Colony Manufacturing Co. In 1823 a brick mill was built after the wooden structure had burned. By 1830 they were finishing cloth and carding wool for families to spin and weave. In 1836, after another fire, a brick building was erected separate from the saw and gristmills. This is supposed to have been the first building heated by steam in Keene. The company produced red flannel cloth, some of which was made into shirts for the "Forty-Niners" going to California. In 1840 blue flannels were made for the navy. During the Civil War blankets were made for the Union Army, as well as many of the blue blouses worn by the soldiers. Abijah Foster's store, West Keene built before

55 Faulkner & Colony mill built 1838 During the two World Wars cloth was made for both the army and the navy. The sawmill was in existence until 1900, though the gristmill had been discontinued earlier. The first dozen or so years of the company's existence it carded wool for the local farmers' wives, which they spun and wove themselves and then returned to the mill for fulling (shrinking) and finishing. From 1825 to 1895 the principal product was red, yellow, blue, and white flannel. Their product was known to the trade as F. & C. flannels. It has been said that at one time enough wool was spun in a single day to stretch from Keene to Buenos Aires, Argentina, and back again. In 1889 the business was incorporated under the name of Faulkner & Colony Manufacturing Co., the stock held by descendants of the original owners. During the Second World War the firm received war contracts, including one for wool facing cloth for the Quartermaster Corps. The business had sales offices in New York City for many years. When it closed its doors in 1954 it was the second oldest woolen mill in the country run by the same family at the same location and was widely known for its flannel coat and suit materials for men and women. During the latter years of its existence John Faulkner Jr., John Faulkner III, and Winthrop Faulkner were the active officers. In 1954 the buildings were purchased by the Barker Realty Co. Today the following firms are located there: Keene Electric & Plumbing Supply, a branch of Dalbolt, Inc., Tolman-Shea Laboratories, Mill End Store, Douglas Co., and Bergeron Machine Co. In the year 1819 there were six stores in the town handling dry goods, groceries, drugs, or hardware. 466

56 Faulkner & Colony's Woolen Factory The first mills in South Keene were established about 1820 by Aaron Davis, a blacksmith who built a forge and iron foundry and proceeded to manufacture agricultural implements. At that time the area was called Furnace Village. Jehiel Wilson built a shop to manufacture pails, the first turned pails in the vicinity. About 1837 both Davis and Wilson sold their plants and homes to Edward Joslin and Jemb A. Fay, who under the name of J. A. Fay & Co. began the manufacture of woodworking machinery and were among the first in the United States to make such machinery. In 1847 they opened branch factories at Norwich, Conn., and Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1851 the company was awarded a prize medal at the World's Fair in London. The owners erected a brick mill at South Keene in The branches grew, and the one at Cincinnati became the largest of its kind in the world at that time. In 1862 Fay closed the factory at South Keene (for many years called Branchville), and transferred all manufacturing to Norwich and Cincinnati. Stephen D. Osborne and Samuel W. Hale later purchased the idle plant from Fay and manufactured furniture there. After Aaron Davis sold to Fay, he and his son established an iron foundry on Davis Street. In 1817 George Tilden was apprenticed to publisher John Prentiss to learn the art of bookbinding until he reached the age of 21. At that age, in 1823, young Tilden and John Prentiss formed a partnership under the name of G. Tilden & Co. to do bookbinding and to sell books and stationery (in a building where the Cheshire National Bank 467

57

58 is now located). In 1824 they started a circulating library which merged with the Keene Book Society for a total of 1,000 volumes, and which continued in the store for many years. In 1827 Tilden purchased Prentiss' interest and changed the name to George Tilden. Three years later he began publishing school books, including North American Spelling Book, Intellectual Arithmetic, and The Blackboard, many of which were continued until The company also manufactured ruled and bound blank books until In 1835 Tilden moved into a new building at 42 Central Square. In 1848 the owner took his son, also named George, into partnership, the firm becoming G. & G. H. Tilden. This firm continued until 1867, when John W. Sturtevant, who had clerked in the store for a number of years, bought a third interest in the business, and the elder George Tilden retired. It now became G. H. Tilden & Co. Sturtevant died in 1892 and George H. Tilden became the sole owner. In 1893 Robert Tilden Kingsbury, grandson of the founder, started in the business as a clerk, later becoming proprietor. In 1905 the firm moved to 39 Central Square, where. it remained for 61 years. In 1939 George Tilden Kingsbury entered his father's store following his graduation from Dartmouth. After service in World War II, in 1946 he returned to the store and, on the death of Robert T. Kingsbury, became the sole owner. In 1966 the firm moved into new quarters in the old Sentinel Building on the corner of Main Street and Railroad Square. Tilden's has the distinction of being Keene's oldest store directed by the same family for 144 years. In 1825 a book and stationery store was started by John Prentiss. He was succeeded as proprietor in 1853 by John H. Spalter, who was followed in 1871 by Wilton H. Spalter. The business was located at the head of the Square. In 1920 Karl R. Beedle purchased the store, selling it in 1921 to Albert H. Chase. In 1931 the firm became Chase's Book Store and was located at 18 West Street and later at 22 West Street, on the corner of West and Federal Streets. In 1946 the "Book Store" part of the name was deleted. It became known as it is today as Chase's Inc. Albert H. Chase is president and his son, A. Richard Chase, is the treasurer. In 1825 George Page made wooden pumps in a factory on the North Branch. In 1823 Abijah Wilder Jr. built a new shop on lower Court Street, where the Museum Block now stands, for the manufacturing of cabinets, chairs, and sleighs. In 1825 the Cheshire County Mutual Insurance Co. was chartered in Walpole for the area. In 1828 the Wilders, Abijah and Azel, built a block on the corner of Central Square and Court Street, now the Ball Block. 469

59 Also in 1828 Elbridge Keyes and Joshua D. Colony started a grocery store at the head of Central Square. In 1832 they erected a three-story building at the corner of West Street and Central Square, where for the next 63 years the store flourished, though changing hands occasionally. But throughout its long history a Keyes was connected with the business. In 1895 it moved to the Cheshire House Block, at which time it took the name F. E. Keyes and Co. In 1830 Luther Smith was still making tall clocks, Abijah Wilder was making chairs and sleighs, and Jennings & Perkins had a carriage factory on the corner of Washington and Mechanic Streets. Thomas F. Ames was a chaise, saddle, and harness maker, and Daniel Watson was also making saddles and harnesses. Both businesses were located on Main Street. George Page and Alvan Holman, at their factory on Beech Hill, were making pumps. Jeduthan Strickland had a distillery just beyond Sawyer Tavern's present Arch Street location. John C. Mason was a gunsmith on Winter Street. Among the industries listed in the 1831 directory were a brick maker, two pail makers, a potash manufacturer, a shingle maker, a carding mill, two glass factories, two chaise and sleigh makers, and two tanners. In 1833 the Cheshire Provident Institution for Savings was founded with George Tilden as treasurer. Located in the present Bank Block at the corner of Roxbury Street and Central Square, it was one of the early mutual savings banks in New Hampshire. The following served as presidents until the company's assets were taken over by the Cheshire County Savings Bank in 1898: Dr. Amos Twitchell, Salma Hale, Levi Chamberlain, Samuel Dinsmoor, William P. Wheeler, Francis Faulkner, George Tilden, Edward C. Thayer, George A. Wheelock, and Alfred T. Batchelder. The first meeting of the Cheshire County Savings Bank was held in early 1898, with Francis C. Faulkner as president and Herbert B. Vial' as treasurer. Succeeding presidents were George E. Holbrook, Daniel Cole, Orville E. Cain, Robert T. Kingsbury, Ray E. Tenney, and today's president Fred Hickock, with Paul E. Whitcomb as treasurer. In 1966 a new computer system went into effect whereby a deposit transaction is computed in less than a second. The bank was the first in New Hampshire to "go on live," using new equipment from the National Cash Register Co. with dataphone communication by New England Telephone. In 1833 the screw gimlet invented by Gideon Newcomb of Roxbury was being made by Everett Newcomb and George Page at the latter's mill. In 1835 Edward Poole's jewelry store was the first to ad- 470

60 vertise and sell "Loco Foco (friction) matches for families." As a term "Loco Foco" came into existence around It meant "friction," although "self-lighting" has been offered as a better definition. Poole's highly advertised matches were imported because the first American patent for friction matches was not issued until In 1836 George W. Tilden represented several insurance companies. In 1853 he formed the Ashuelot Fire Insurance Co. In 1890 the firm was taken over by Daniel Sawyer and William Goodnow, with offices in the Bank Block. In 1892 Andrew Mason and his son, Wallace L. Mason, formed a partnership with Sawyer, under the name of Sawyer & Mason. In 1900 this became the Mason Insurance Agency, and in the following years Carl and Herbert Beverstock, Louis Pierre, and Alpheus White joined the firm. Today Robert F. Babcock is president, and Malcolm G. Beverstock is treasurer. In 1840 there were 25 retail stores, 7 sawmills, and 3 gristmills in the town, and out of a population of 2,610, there were 267 in trade and manufacturing. In 1840 Dr. John Bixby started a drug store (known then as an apothecary shop) and was succeeded by Dr. Dudley Smith. In 1875 Edward H. Bullard became identified with the firm, and for a time it was known as Hills & Bullard. Later the business became Bullard & Foster. In 1884, when Gale Shedd entered the firm, it became Bullard & Shedd, and on the death of Bullard, Shedd became the sole owner. He was active politically, becoming mayor of the city and a state senator. At his death his son Paul ran the store. Today the business is run by owners Helen Shedd and Orlando Dostilio. Once known J. F. & F. H. Whitcomb circa

61 as "the old corner drug store," it is the oldest drug store in Keene and one of the oldest in the state. In 1843 John D. Dunbar and Elbridge G. Whitcomb established a men's clothing store under the name Whitcomb & Dunbar at 45 Central Square in the building erected in 1825 and used by John Prentiss as his Sentinel office. Later known as J. F. & F. H. Whitcomb (Jonas Fred Whitcomb and his brother, Frank H. Whitcomb), Merchant Tailors and Dealers in Clothing and Dry Goods, it was also agent for Butterick's Patterns. Later Jonas Fred Whitcomb became sole owner. After his death in 1929 Fay M. Smith purchased the firm and changed the name to the Fay M. Smith Store. He had entered the retail business as a clerk in the summer of 1908 at the J. F. Whitcomb Men's Store. Smith bought the store block in 1945 and had it completely remodeled and redecorated. In 1947 his son, Robert M. Smith, joined him in business. The store (in 1967) has the distinction of operating continuously as a men's clothing store at the same location for 124 years. In 1843 the sale of pianos was first introduced in Keene by Eliphalet Briggs. These were the product of Lemuel Gilbert of Boston. In 1845 Charles Bridgman started his own wholesale and retail grocery store with Alfred Hebard. When Bridgman retired in 1890 he was the oldest merchant in the city, having been active in business since A native of Massachusetts, he had come to Keene from New York State at the age of 25, having been advised that Keene's climate would agree with his malarial fever. He entered the store of Joseph Willard and soon became the junior member of the firm of Freeman & Bridgman. A few years later he bought out the general store of Denney & Briggs, establishing the firm of Bridgman & Hebard. In the course of a few years he bought the entire business. He next moved to a large and handsome store fitted up especially for him, one of the largest in the state at that time. It was carried on by the firm of Bridgman, Sprague, & Mason, handling groceries, carpets, paints, paper hangings, and the like. Afterwards it was divided into two stores, and Bridgman pursued the grocery business in the south store until In he erected Bridgman's Block and moved into his new store in January of In 1890, upon completion of 50 years of business life in Keene, he sold the store to his son, Charles H. The firm went out of business at the latter's death in Around 1848 two young men began operations in a small building on Mechanic Street. Their power was a twelve horsepower steam engine, something of a wonder in that day, and they sold, in 1850, to 472

62 Lanmon Nims, a contractor, miller, and wheelwright from Sullivan, who first took Nelson N. Sawyer and Sawyer Porter as partners, and then Daniel Buss. The plant was enlarged and manufactured sash, doors, and blinds. Cyrus Woodward replaced Lanmon Nims, who left for White River Junction to make shoe pegs, but was burned out and returned to Keene to manufacture shoe pegs at Chase & Fairbanks Mill on Ralston Street. After a short time he sold out, and in 1863 returned to Mechanic Street and, with Samuel B. Crossfield, as Nims & Crossfield, leased power and continued his power business. In 1860 Stephen D. Osborne, long the proprietor of a furniture store in Keene, and Samuel Whitney Hale, newly arrived in Keene from Dublin, N.H., and with previous experience in the operation of mills, had formed a partnership and begun manufacturing cane-seat chairs on Mechanic Street. Lumber, labor, and transportation were all readily available, and the company prospered. Women and children were engaged to "seat" and "back" the chairs (with cane) at their homes. The partners also purchased the sash, door, and blind shop formerly owned by Daniel Buss and Cyrus Woodward. Later they leased this shop to Nims & Crossfield. On March 26, 1864, the explosion of a boiler at Osborne & Hale's steam mill caused heavy damage, personal injury, and the loss of two lives. The partners purchased the property of the J. A. Fay Co. in South Keene and began business there as the Keene Chair Co. (also referred to as the South Keene Chair Co.). Both production and profit increased at this larger plant, and the firm was soon valued at $150,000. During the recession that began in 1873 the Keene Chair Co. lost money but continued in business, and the upward swing came around In the 1870's Hale grew interested in a branch furniture factory in San Francisco, to which the Keene Chair Co. had been shipping its products. After he became a principal stockholder, the ties between the two businesses increased until Hale sold his stock in the California firm in Hale was elected governor of New Hampshire in 1882, and at the end of his term of office in 1885 faced financial collapse in his personal fortune. Stock in the Keene Chair Co. was signed over to several individuals who had loaned him money. Business slumped, and by 1890 creditors had taken over, and the next year the Keene Chair Co. was sold to the Boston Furniture Co. Mills were erected on Mechanic Street in for the manufacture of sashes and blinds and owned at one time by Lanmon Nims. Albert E. Fish later operated a section of these mills. Fish went into 473

63 Gerould's Block-1868 business for himself in 1881 and shipped his wares throughout New England. as well as to points south and west. In 1854 two brothers, Jason and Francis French, formerly of Brattleboro and Walpole, moved their family carriage-making business to Keene and formed a partnership under the name of J. & F. French. They originated the Keene sleigh so popular throughout New England, and in 1860 produced over 400 of these. By the 1880's the company was turning out carriages a year. After his brother's death in 1884, Francis continued the work until his own demise in 1888, when he was succeeded by his son-in-law, Charles A. Jones, who had been connected with the firm. The products of this company were sold throughout the United States and Canada. With its five buildings and a blacksmith shop, this firm continued until about 1910, when the popularity of the motor car changed transportation habits. The first photography work in Keene is credited to Edward Poole, a jeweler and watchmaker by trade, who worked on daguerreotypes as a hobby. Among the early professionals in the field was Chester Allen, who established himself in Gerould's Block on Central Square as a daguerrean artist in the 1840's and continued in the photography business until about The jeweler, Norman Wilson, was the first local professional photographer, although his work was of short dura- 474

64 tion. There were other photographers in Keene and, perhaps because business was limited, one of them was also listed as the agent for first class sewing machines. Joseph Foster, born in 1805, was a talented mechanic with a love of music. As a boy he pumped the bellows for his father, a blacksmith. His concentration on the workings of the bellows led to the construction of his first reed organ in 1829 (this is still in existence in Concord). Foster and his wife moved to Keene, where he set up shop in 1845, continuing it until his death in Perhaps persons were at one time employed in the various departments of his musical instrument business. For a number of years he was in partnership with Charles Felt as Foster & Felt, until Felt's death in After 1866 Ephraim, brother of Joseph, entered the firm which then became J. & E. Foster. Ephraim Foster carried on the business on Roxbury Street after Joseph's death until he died in George W. Foster, a nephew of Joseph Foster, was long a music dealer in Keene, but not a builder, as far as is known. Joseph Foster invented a combination melodeon and piano that only he could keep in repair, and he enjoyed musical evenings with his friends at his home at 39 Elm Street. He built at least one pipe organ, an instrument eventually acquired by the New Hampshire Historical Society in Concord. The pioneer pipe organ builder of Keene, however, was William Willson, who framed the spire of the First Congregational Church in 1829, and is reported to have constructed a pipe organ, the first in Keene, intended for Miss Catherine Fiske's private school, which had had the first piano in Keene a few years earlier. By 1849 there were 3 apothecaries, a baker, a bonnet manufacturer and dealer, a bookbinder, a book jobber and printer, a bookseller and publisher, 2 boot and shoe manufacturers, a carriage maker, 2 daguerrean artists, a dentist, 2 chair manufacturers, 2 door, sash, and blind makers, a gunsmith, a hairdresser, 2 livery stables, 3 newspapers, an organ builder, a pail manufacturer, a sleigh manufacturer, 2 saddle, harness, and truck makers, 2 stove manufacturers, a woolen goods manufacturer, an insurance agent, 3 banks, a mortise and tenoning machine company, a tannery, 3 restaurants, 4 hotels, 2 tin plate and sheet iron workers, and a number of stores. Mechanical power then in use came from rivers, brooks, and horses. In 1851 the American Telegraph Co. completed its line from Boston to Rutland, Vt., and an office was opened in Keene in December of that year. The first operator is believed to have been a man named Converse. The New Hampshire Sentinel printed on Christmas 475

65 Day 1851 its first telegraphic news which had been received earlier over the wires from the editor of the Boston Journal. The major portion of the message contained word of the activities of Louis Napoleon of France. Later the American Telegraph Co. merged with Western Union Telegraph, which was organized in 1856, and managed to regulate the many small companies that had emerged to speed news from place to place. Today the manager of the Western Union Telegraph Co. in Keene is Cecile M. Montagne. In 1850 a drug store was started by Obed G. Dort, a captain and later a major in the Sixth Regiment of the New Hampshire Volunteers during the Civil War. In the 1870's Clark N. Chandler joined the firm, and from about 1879 to 1886 it was known as Dort & Chandler. Frank G. Dort was admitted to the business in 1879, and by 1888 it became Frank G. Dort & Co., the firm continuing for about another 10 years. In the 1840's Gilman Woodward was making guns, one of four gunsmiths in all of New Hampshire at that time. In 1859 his business was taken over by George 0. Leonard, formerly of A. Leonard & Son, rifle makers of Saxton's River, Vt., who purchased the building in At one time Leonard occupied the south half of the lower story as a gun shop, with Sewall Rugg in the north half conducting a store and tinware business, and Joseph Foster upstairs in the organ business. Leonard's rifles were of such quality that many were purchased Central Square and Roxbury Street before

66 during the Civil War by the Union Army for sharpshooters, Berdan's regiment in particular. Three Keene men, Albert H. Kingman, Reuel H. Kingsbury, and Charles H. Nye, joined this regiment, and undoubtedly they carried Leonard rifles. Leonard sold the gun shop to Dauphin W. Buckminster in 1869, and it eventually became part of a dwelling that was recently demolished to make way for a parking lot. George 0. Leonard migrated to California, where he died, aged 59, in In 1851 George H. Richards established a watch and jewelry business at the corner of Central Square and Roxbury Street. In 1855 the Cheshire County Bank was organized with Zebina Newell as president and George W. Tilden as cashier. It was located on the west side of Main Street. In 1865 it was rechartered as the Keene National Bank. In 1895 the bank moved to the E.F.L. Block and in 1927 to its present location in the Keene National Bank Building at the head of Central Square. After Newell, the presidents in succession were Frederick Vose, Edward Joslin, Elisha Lane, George A. Litchfield, Clement J. Wood, Wallace L. Mason, associated with the bank for over 70 years, Harold I. Chandler and the current president, Robert G. Calef. In the 1850's Warren H. Wilkinson began making harnesses and trunks. During the Civil War he made 84 sets of harness and furnished 2,000 equipments for the New Hampshire 5th and 7th Regiments, and for two years was the quartermaster general of the state under Governor Hale. He was joined in business by Leonard Wright, and the firm became Wright & Wilkinson before Under the guidance of Solon S. Wilkinson, it became S. S. Wilkinson & Co. Daniel McGregor, a native of Prince Edward Island, who had gone into the leather business in Boston, joined the firm in It eventually became Wilkinson & McGregor. The company made the well-known "Keene harness." McGregor went into business as a harness manufacturer and dealer on his own and was last listed in the 1913 city directory. Wilkinson Co. was last mentioned in the 1916 directory. In 1856 Dauphin W. Buckminster, later register of probate from 1871 to 1880, ran a clothing store in Wilder's Building on the north side of Central Square (now the Ball Block), and he was succeeded by Parker & Beal. When Joseph R. Beal took over the business in 1860, it became J. R. Beal & Co., merchant tailors. In 1879 Beal was elected cashier of the Keene National Bank. After his death in 1895 the firm continued under the management of William Holt Beal and James W. Russell. In 1900 Henry E. Swan became sole proprie- 477

67 tor, and the store became H. E. Swan & Co. In 1914 it was taken over by Miller Brothers-Newton, with William Newton as manager. Later he became sole owner. In 1947 William J. Wichland purchased the business and still manages it today. In 1857 Joseph Berry Knowlton established a hardware store which, at his death in 1866, was taken over by his brother, William H. Knowlton, and Charles H. Stone and given its present name. Over the years it changed ownership, and in 1930 John P. Wright purchased the business, selling it in 1944 to John W. Robb Jr. In 1957 C. Mitchell Wenigmann became owner. When the concern was enlarged in 1964, the new address became Dunbar Street. In 1859 Norris G. Gurnsey, 33-year-old native of Whitefield, N. H., came to Keene from Winchester, N. H., where he had operated a gristmill. He purchased restaurant privileges in the depot, and before long was operating three eating establishments. By 1871 he had taken his sons, Edward, Charles, and Frank, into partnership. Charles died in In 1884 Gurnsey and his remaining sons branched out, purchasing a bakery that had been established by Samuel Wood Jr. in 1816 on the north corner of Main and Church Streets. In 1857 Wood sold the property to Asa Duren and Peter Baxter Hayward. Four years later Duren sold his share to his partner, and in 1882 the heirs of Peter Hayward conveyed the property to George 0. Hayward, who sold it to N. G. Gurnsey & Sons. The bakery busi- N. G. Gurnsey & Co. Restaurant late 1890's 478

68 ness was called Gurnsey Bros. & Co. and became well-known as makers of the celebrated Keene (common) cracker. The company also made ginger snaps, soda crackers, tea biscuits, and graham crackers, and was a wholesale dealer in cigars and confectionery. After Edward died in 1892 and Frank in 1895, the firm of Gurnsey &Son, the restaurant establishment, became N. G. Gurnsey & Co. In 1895 Gurnsey built the brick Gurnsey Block (later called the Newberry Block), and a year later the restaurant business was moved into the new building. Hotel accommodations were also available, as rooms on the upper /loors were reached by elevator and were available to guests. In 1900 Gurnsey, who had survived his three sons, built a four-story block at 16 Church Street, and the firm of Gurnsey Bros. moved into it. In 1901 Sidney A. Nims, who had married Annie G. Gurnsey, daughter of Norris, purchased a half interest in the company and became its manager for 58 years. The founder's grandson, Robert Frank Gurnsey, was also connected with the firm for nearly half a century. By the early J 880's N. G. Gurnsey & Co. (then N. G. Gurnsey & Sons) had started the bottling of soft drinks, along with the restaurant business. Eventually this included Coca-Cola. By 1910 the eating establishment had been abandoned in favor of the bottling business and wholesale and retail handling of tobacco and horse and carriage furnishings. In the 1930's the business was largely concerned with the distribution of beer, and in 1938 a new bottling plant was located on lower Main Street. Over the years three firms emerged, Gurnsey Bros. & Co., bakers; N. G. Gurnsey & Co., bottlers; and the Coca-Cola Bottling Works of Keene. In 1960 John E. Gurnsey, then owner of N. G. Gurnsey & Co., bought Gurnsey Bros. & Co., and four years later sold it to Perry Kiritsy. He also sold the Coca-Cola Bottling plant to Karl F. Goulet and Richard R. Allard. Today N. G. Gurnsey Co., Inc. is the wholesale distributor for beer and ale, Canada Dry products. tobacco, and candy. In 1859 the Keene Soap Manufacturing Co. was established with an office on the corner of Armory and Spruce Streets. They manufactured and sold soap and candles, becoming noted for their "Triumph" and "Keene Laundry" soap. The firm was last mentioned in the Keene directory of 1874;75. The Keene Gas Light Co. was organized. pipes laid, and the first gas lights of Keene were turned on December 19, In 1886 a Thompson-Houston electric generator was installed on Emerald Street for street and commercial lighting. That August electric lights of the open arc pattern were installed in Tilden & Co., Whitcomb's, 479

69 Mason & Wheeler's, Bullard & Foster's, C. N. Chandler & Co., Fisher & Jackson's, and the Cheshire House. The first electric street light was installed on Roxbury Street that same month. On August 2, 1898, the first commercial incandescent lights were installed in Nims Brothers Market on West Street. In 1905 the Citizens Electric Co. was formed with Leon Willard as manager. In 1908 the Keene Gas Light Co. bought out the Citizens Electric, changing the name to the Keene Gas and Electric Co. In the next few years the concern took over several companies in the surrounding towns. On August 16, 1926, the Public Service Co. of N. H. was formed by acquiring the Keene Gas and Electric Co., together with other companies in the state. George M. Rossman served as manager from 1889 until his death in After Rossman the following served as district managers: Ralph D. Smith, Edward L. Gay, Merton T. Carter, Elliot Priest, Roger Hunt and, currently, Trevor Price. In 1945 the Public Service Co. sold its gas business to Gas Service. Inc., whose office is at 40 Washington Street. Samuel C. McLaughlin is the present manager. In 1861 Jotham A. French and Daniel W. Sawyer started a photography business in the old Richards Block. After a fire destroyed the gallery in 1865, they moved to the new Bridgman Block (1866), and in 1871 French bought out his partner, becoming, sole owner. By 1874 he was advertising for sale 2,000 stereoscopic views. In 1890 he published a souvenir booklet on Keene containing 60 scenes. His business was last listed in the Keene city directory. In 1861 John Humphrey established a woodworking machinery firm; in 1873 he invented the IXL turbine waterwheel. The business became the Humphrey Machine Co. and was known for its manufacture of turbine waterwheels; shafting, boilers, and mill work of all kinds; steam engines and boilers, hydrants, and woodworking machinery. Humphrey also published a monthly paper called The Investigator, which dealt with mechanical matters. In 1907 J. C. Black & Co. became the proprietor, making and installing any power wheel. The company was last listed in the 1920 Keene city directory. Also by the 1860's Chase and Madison Fairbanks had set up on Ralston Street their steam mills, which were used for saw and gristmills and the manufacture of sash, doors, blinds, pails, and other articles. On January 15, 1869, these mills were destroyed by fire, and the financial loss exceeded the insurance coverage by approximately $28,000. In this same decade the principal photographers of Keene were Chester Allen, Samuel C. Dustin, and Jotham A. French. 480

70 In 1865 Calvin Bryant, who had served in the Civil War as a musician and afterwards toured Massachusetts with Bryant's Band, began the manufacture of round hoops (for buckets) and small woodenware. He also invented a cross-cutting band saw for cutting logs to facilitate work in his factory, known as the Keene Hoop Co., located on Mechanic Street in the 1880's. The company was reestablished in 1893, and Samuel B. Crossfield became a member of the firm. It was last listed in the city directory. In 1738 the proprietors of Upper Ashuelot had designated Joseph Ellis, Nathan Blake, and Isaac Clark to procure tools for the establishment of a blacksmith shop. By the time the town directory of 1831 was published. there were six blacksmith shops listed. In 1910 the total had increased to 10, but from that time on, the number of such establishments decreased. The last regular listing of a blacksmith in the city directory was Frank J. Avery in 1949, although an occasional listing has occurred since that date. In 1849 there were two livery stables. As Keene was noted for her excellent roads and beautiful drives, the number of livery stables continued to grow. Laton Martin's establishment, opened in 1853, was a landmark by the 1880's, one of the largest and best equipped of its kind in the state, with from 16 to 25 horses and a corresponding number of carriages and light wagons of every variety in regular service, and with hearses and hacks furnished for funerals. By 1874 there were four livery stables; in 1890, six; and in 1905, eight. With the advent of the automobile, their number began to decrease until in 1920 there were only two. The last operator of such a stable was William H. Gilpin, on Roxbury Street, who ceased business around Eagle Hotel and livery stable 481

71 In 1865 Calvin Bryant, who had served in the Civil War as a musician and afterwards toured Massachusetts with Bryant's Band, began the manufacture of round hoops (for buckets) and small woodenware. He also invented a cross-cutting band saw for cutting logs to facilitate work in his factory, known as the Keene Hoop Co., located on Mechanic Street in the 1880's. The company was reestablished in 1893, and Samuel B. Crossfield became a member of the firm. It was last listed in the city directory. In 1738 the proprietors of Upper Ashuelot had designated Joseph Ellis, Nathan Blake, and Isaac Clark to procure tools for the establishment of a blacksmith shop. By the time the town directory of 1831 was published. there were six blacksmith shops listed. In 1910 the total had increased to 10, but from that time on, the number of such establishments decreased. The last regular listing of a blacksmith in the city directory was Frank J. Avery in 1949, although an occasional listing has occurred since that date. In 1849 there were two livery stables. As Keene was noted for her excellent roads and beautiful drives, the number of livery stables `continued to grow. Laton Martin's establishment, opened in 1853, was a landmark by the 1880's, one of the largest and best equipped of its kind in the state, with from 16 to 25 horses and a corresponding number of carriages and light wagons of every variety in regular service, and with hearses and hacks furnished for funerals. By 1874 there were four livery stables; in 1890, six; and in 1905, eight. With the advent of the automobile, their number began to decrease until in 1920 there were only two. The last operator of such a stable was William H. Gilpin, on Roxbury Street, who ceased business around Eagle Hotel and livery stable 481

72 In 1863 the first hack line was started by Edward Loiselle. Over the years the succeeding hack businesses gave service at any hour of the day or night and furnished carriages for parties, balls, and receptions. In time, when the motor car took over, the terminology changed from hack to taxicab. John H. Pender was the first to purchase the horseless hack (motor car) in In 1910 there were five establishments offering this transportation service and 10 years later, only three. Currently there are two companies offering taxicab service, Ideal Taxi Service, Inc. and Callahan's Taxi Service, both under the same ownership. For almost a century the making of chairs was one of Keene's chief industries. Before 1800 Peter Wilder had set up shop as a chair maker, and his nephews, Abijah and Azel, carried on the chair making business in the early 19th century, first in their father's shop and then each in his own. The New England Mercantile Union Directory for 1849 listed two chair manufacturers in Keene, E. & W. S. Briggs, and Kidder & Winchester (which concern had succeeded Abijah Wilder in the business). By the latter half of that century the chair companies began to multiply. Stephen D. Osborne and Samuel Whitney Hale established the Keene Chair Co. in 1860, and in 1868 the Cheshire Chair Co. was organized in Keene by Edward Joslin, with George W. McDuffee as the firm's first manager. Oak and maple cane-seated chairs, as well as splint and reed-seated chairs and chestnut wood seats, found popular favor, and two warerooms were opened up in Philadelphia, Pa. Located in the Hope Steam Mill Co.'s building, in the 1880's the firm was turning out 6,000 to 10,000 chairs a month, mostly for Philadelphia and western markets. The company went out of business around The Burdett Chair Manufacturing Co., manufacturers of basketseat chairs filled in splint and rattan, was founded in 1850 at Nelson and sold to George L. Burden, who moved it to Keene in From that year until 1881, he operated a mill on the corner of George Street. Then he erected a plant of five large buildings and in 1888 incorporated the business under the name of the Burdett Chair Mfg. Co., which became well-known for its "basket seat" chairs. George Burdett originated the manufacture of rattan and splint filled chairs in New England. About 1905 Fred E. Lane bought the business and, after rebuilding the factory, continued the manufacture of porch chairs until 1933, when the machinery was sold to the Carey Chair Co. and the land to Earl Davis. Today the New England Explosives Corp., which handles blasting supplies, and the Franklin Chemical Co., Inc., 482

73 chemical manufacturers, occupy the remaining one-story building. In 1868 the Keene Furniture Co. had been organized, with Edward Joslin as principal owner and Frank L. Sprague as manager. In the 1880's the company was manufacturing about 200 ash and walnut chamber suites per month, but by 1897 or 1898 the business closed down. Another new business institution in 1868 was the Keene Five Cents Savings Bank. Incorporated in that year, it. was ready to begin operations in January of Its first president was John H. Fuller, a noted wool buyer. For over 20 years the hank nourished, until the financial panic of 1893 compelled it to close its doors in In 1870 Albert E. Fish began making screens and went into business for himself in He located in a factory on the corner of Vernon and Elm Streets, under the name of A. E. Fish & Co. His factory produced door and window screens of sycamore, white wood, pine, oak, cherry, and walnut, and he shipped these throughout New England and to the south and west. The founder was succeeded by his son, Frank A. Fish, and the company continued in operation until A contemplated manufacturing establishment, later to be called Beaver Mills Co. and incorporated as such in 1881, received a 10- year exemption from taxes at the town meeting in When the buildings had been completed the following year both the Cheshire Chair Co. and the Keene Furniture Co. moved in. In 1889 Beaver Beaver Mills 483

74 Mills was the scene of a $15,000 fire. In 1893 there was a boiler explosion which killed three, Lewis W. Starkey, John F. Drolette, and Herbert G. Holton. Five boilers were wrecked. Later that same year the Beaver Mills pail shop and sawmill burned, causing another $15,- 000 loss. In 1891 an incandescent lighting plant was installed there, and in 1899 the Diamond Match Shop also took occupancy. Other tenants of the Beaver Mills factory buildings over the years included the Humphrey Machine Co., manufacturers of the X-L-C-R waterwheel; J. Mason Reed, a manufacturer of locked-corner boxes, who brought his company from Westport, N. H., to Keene in 1881; Charles M. Norwood, also a maker of packing boxes; the Keene Hoop Co., and its successor, the Oscar D. Beverstock Co., also hoop manufacturers; Sprague & Carleton, chair makers; and Norwood Calef and Co., chair manufacturers. In 1871 George W. Holbrook and his nephew, George E. Holbrook, started a grocery business on the corner of Main and Railroad Streets. After the retirement of the elder Holbrook, George E. bought into the firm of Pollard & Co. and moved the business to a location opposite the Cheshire House on Main Street in The company was now called Pollard & Holbrook. In 1879, when Dallas M. Pollard left to establish his own wholesale grocery, George E. Holbrook became sole owner, carrying on both a wholesale and retail business, known as George E. Holbrook and Co. In 1894 he took in a son, William F. Holbrook, who became treasurer. During this decade it had become the largest wholesale grocery establishment in New Hampshire. The wholesale branch had grown so steadily that in 1894 it was deemed advisable to separate the wholesale and retail branches, and the wholesale business was sold to a newly organized corporation, with George E. Holbrook as president and his son, William F., as treasurer. It was incorporated as the Holbrook Grocery Co., with a capital stock of $40,000. The new company proceeded to erect a three-story warehouse on St. James Street, near Railroad Square. The goods carried included a full line of staple and fancy groceries, flour, produce, and fruit, with a specialty in coffee. Their roasting plant handled 5,000 pounds of coffee a day. Richard L. Holbrook, son of William, followed his father as president and manager, which position he holds today. In 1959 the firm moved to a new warehouse on Holbrook Street. It is currently the only wholesale grocery in the city. The old company, which continued as retail grocers under the name of George E. Holbrook & Co., was last mentioned in the 1934 Keene city directory. 484

75 Hampshire Pottery 485

76 Though tradition locates a pottery earlier than 1794 in what is now West Keene, it was not until 1871 that the craft became important business here. James Scollay Taft founded "Hampshire Pottery" in 1871 starting its manufacture in the Milestone Mills, a former clothespin factory on lower Main Street. The site was ideal for the manufacture of pottery as the land around contained rich blue clay deposits and white silicas, while at nearby Troy were feldspar and clay suitable for ceramics. Later clay was obtained in Whitehall, N. Y., kaolin in New Jersey, and later special clay was imported from Europe. The 27-year-old Taft, a native of Nelson, N. H., and his uncle, James Burnap of Marlow, N. H., bought the property in July and by October had the first lot of clay flower pots ready for firing. But when the kiln was fired, the building went up in flames, a total loss. Undiscouraged, they rebuilt and only nine weeks later commenced the manufacture of earthenware. At first they made stone jars and jugs, flower pots, soap dishes, large pitchers, and milkpans. These were in a dark brown or grey color. Taft had more trials and difficulties, including other disastrous fires. Despite these troubles he gradually began to enlarge the scope of the business, making many new products. The year 1871 marked the beginning of a second pottery business in Keene. This firm, under the proprietorship of John W. Starkey and Oscar J. Howard, actually predated Taft. The New Hampshire Sentinel of February 2, 1871, states that "Messrs. Starkey and Howard of this town have engaged in the manufacture of stone and earthenware, and propose to do a The pottery factory in its later years 486

77 large business in both branches the coming season. They have erected a building, south of Water Street, 140 feet long by 36 feet wide, oneand-one-half and two-and-one-half stories high, where they will employ about 40 hands in making the common earthen and stoneware. At present they are manufacturing only earthenware, from clay procured in this town. The difficulty of procuring the kaolin from New Jersey will prevent their making the stoneware until spring. Then our farmers can have these jars and jugs made to any pattern they desire." They later advertised as manufacturers of all kinds of earthenware with Rockingham glaze, but it seems this venture was not too successful and was over by the following June. In 1874 Taft bought their plant at auction. In 1878 he started a line of majolica ware, producing articles in green, brown, yellow, and blue, with raised figures and decorations. The ear of corn pattern was popular, with colors of green and yellow. The crackled effect was also used, as well as a tea set pattern called the "Nantucket" because Taft copied it from a piece he had obtained on that island. Marmalade dishes the color and shape of oranges sold well. Pottery in the Greek and Italian style also found favor with the customers. In 1883 a new kiln for finishing decorative pottery was added, and Wallace L. King, a portrait and landscape painter originally from Windsor, Vt., but who had worked as a painter at J. & F. French Co. and was also listed in the city directory as a portrait and landscape painter, was hired to run this new department. The company now began to manufacture art specialties in new and graceful patterns, including fancy jars, pitchers, vases, rose bowls, trays, and tea sets. They all consisted of a white opaque body covered with flowers and other decorations, mostly painted by girls trained by King. Some pieces were marked with the initials of the decorator, such as E. A., the initials of Eliza Adams. The finish given these decorative pieces was known as Royal Worcester finish, and some required as many as five separate firings. The pottery also had the services of an old British potter, Tom Stanley, who had brought from England a number of new ideas. He made many unusual pieces, shaping them by hand on a potter's wheel. At this time souvenir ware, decorated with local views of the vicinity in which they were to be sold, were ordered by resorts throughout many states. A famous design was the "Witch Jug," a souvenir designed for sale by Daniel Low, a silversmith of Salem, Mass. The picture of a 487

78 witch, with broom in hand and chasing bats against a background of clouds plus the gold lettering "Salem 1692," brought to mind the colonial witchcraft delusion of 200 years ago. In 1907 the old Boston store of C. F. Hovey advertised Hampshire Pottery as excellent for Christmas gifts. In the early 1900's Cadmon Robertson, brother-in-law of Taft, entered the business as superintendent, and soon developed original patterns, including the famous mat glaze for which the firm became so well known. Robertson took extreme pleasure in working out over 900 different formulae. He developed variously shaped bowls, vases, lamps, candle holders, and dozens of other articles in beautiful shades of brown, red, blue, and green. Although many of the earliest pieces of the pottery were unmarked, in later years several different trade marks were used. The most common were James S. Taft & Co., Keene, N.H.; J.S.T. & Co., Keene, N.H.; Hampshire Pottery; and in some cases just plain Hampshire. Also many of the pieces designed by Robertson were marked with an M inside an 0, designating Emmo his wife. She assisted a great deal, especially in the local showroom where the pottery was sold at retail. King retired in 1908 after 25 years in the art branch of the company, and went to Massachusetts to live with relatives. In 1914 Robertson died suddenly, and his death was a great blow to the business. In 1916 Taft sold the business to George Morton of Boston, who had been employed for some time by the Grueby Co. of Boston, a concern famous in the world of decorative faience and wall and floor tiling. In May of that year Morton fired a kiln containing over 1,000 pieces, which included most of the former popular shapes and standard colors, with two or three new styles. The records Robertson left were complete, and Morton's firing was successful. The showroom was soon filled, and for two years Hampshire Pottery again found favor with gift shops. Then disaster, in the wake of World War I, hit the new owner. The demand for pottery reached an all-time low, and it was deemed advisable to close the factory. Morton returned to the Grueby Co., which had transferred to wartime production. With the approach of the war's end, Morton returned to Keene and began making pottery again, adding machinery for the manufacture of common white china, which was sold to hotels and restaurants. Later he added presses for mosaic floor tile, and from 1919 to 1922 the factory was busy on these new lines. In 1923, because of the intense competition from pottery plants in New Jersey and Ohio and the cost of importing fuel and clay, the 488

79 Keene factory closed its doors forever. In that year the plaster molds were either destroyed or scattered. Hampshire pottery has now become a collector's item. In 1871 the Keene Glue Co. was established by Edward E. Lyman. A few years later it was known as the Cheshire Glue Co., and the new president was Cyrus W. Sawyer, the office and factory being located on upper Court Street, about a mile from the Square. In 1883 the company was bought by Edwin a Upham, a native of Massachusetts, and incorporated that year with its old name as the Keene Glue Co. The new owner enlarged and improved the concern, adding streamlined business methods. The plant now covered about four acres of ground and manufactured medium and high grade glues, which were sold directly to manufacturers and consumers. During the final phase of its existence, some 50 years later, Ernest F. Russ was president. Operations ceased about Around 1871 William P. Chamberlain established a dry goods store on Roxbury Street. Over the years the business prospered and the owner branched out, setting up the Chamberlain Syndicate, composed of dry goods stores in Nashua, N. H., Fitchburg, Mass., and Vergennes and Rutland, Vt., as well as the local store. In 1894 the Keene business moved to the new Lane Block under the firm name of W. P. Chamberlain & Co., the company being Frank Huntress and Carl H. Adams. In 1904 the firm purchased the Gerould Block on the west side of Central Square, reconstructing it for a department store. Not long after Chamberlain's death in 1914 his son-in-law, The railroad played a vital role in developing Keene's business and industry 489

80 Frank Huntress, who had been in the dry goods trade in Boston, became manager and treasurer. After he died in 1930 his son, Frank C. Huntress, became manager and treasurer. In 1933 the business was sold to Sears, Roebuck & Co., which continues to occupy the building to the present day. Ellis Bros., florists and seedsmen, first opened for business on Winchester Street in In 1889 Marcus Ellis, born in Royalton, Vt., but who came to Keene in 1865 on the day of Lincoln's assassination, became sole proprietor, and when Frank Chapman joined him in 1906, the firm became Ellis Bros. & Co. Since 1956 this firm, the oldest florists in this section of the state, has been owned by Wright V. Carter and Bruce L. Borden. Nearly a century ago (in 1873) John A. Wright, inventor, businessman, and co-proprietor of the Eagle Hotel, was driving his horse and buggy in Troy, when he came upon a cow stuck in a roadside bog. He stopped to pull the animal out, with the help of a farmer he called upon for help. As bits of mud dried on the cow, its body turned an extraordinary white. Deeply interested, Wright bogan experimenting with the mud. Noticing a cleansing effect on the silver spoon with which Keene's' truckmen circa 1875 north of old bandstand was the headquarters of the truckmen and teamsters 490

81 he was mixing it, he realized the mud was a fine grade of diatomaceous earth, a substance famed since ancient times for its cleansing powers. With this discovery, he produced a silver cleaner which he first used in his own hotel. Word about the new polish spread to surrounding towns, and he soon found himself in business making Wright's Silver Cream. The first factory was in a remodeled house on Cypress Street. The business was incorporated as J. A. Wright & Co. in After the death of John A. Wright in 1896, Arthur L. and Frank A. Wright, sons of the founder, carried on the business. Once the company had found the materials suitable for its polish, the formula was never changed. However, deposits in New England are no longer used. Diatomaceous earth, mined in California, is purchased from Johns-Manville, Inc. John P. Wright, the founder's grandson, entered the firm in 1927, and after the death of his father in 1928 and his uncle in 1929, became chief executive officer. In 1940 the company built a factory on Dunbar Street, which it now occupies. John M. and Thomas P. Wright, sons of John P., came into the business in These three are the executive officers of the company today. The 1831 Keene directory listed one brickmaker, Thomas M. Edwards, who was also listed as an attorney. Over 40 years later the directory still listed only one brick manufacturer; this time it was W. A. Barrett & Co. on Main Street. William A. Barrett formed a partnership with Luther P. Alden in 1882, but the business was dissolved by the end of the 1880's. Later in the 1870's other brickyards were owned by George W. Ball, on Main Street, and Cyrus H. Bemis and John R. Russell, whose yard was on Water Street. George F. and Emmons Ball succeeded their father, and the firm became George W. Ball's Sons. This was sold in 1909 to the Keene Brick Co., with George O'Donnell as president and Jerry E. Barry as treasurer and agent. At that time, and until its close in 1920, it was the sole brick manufacturer in the city. In 1874 George Kelly opened a drug store which was taken over three years later by George J. Appleton. Situated at 4 Colony's Block, it was known as G. J. Appleton & Co., druggists and apothecaries, dealers in patent medicines, chemicals, and dye stuffs, choice brands of cigars, soda and mineral waters, and physicians' prescriptions carefully prepared. George G. Sawyer, who had been associated in the firm with Appleton, became proprietor by 1881, changing its name to. G. G. Sawyer & Co. When Elmer M. Flint, assumed ownership, the name was changed to Central Pharmacy. In 1910 Horatio W. Colony and George Colony took over the store, selling it in 1918 to Ernest A. 491

82 Johnson, who ran it until 1950 under his own name. After his death in 1950, the business was run for the estate by Carl W. Hopkins until Today Alfred Johnson is president of the firm. Back in the 1860's Francis E. Allen established himself as a jeweler, later merging with Samuel Wadsworth to form Allen & Wadsworth, watchmakers, jewelers, and opticians. By 1874 Allen's name had disappeared from the firm, and it became S. Wadsworth & Co. When William Ellery Wright took an interest in the store the name was changed to Wadsworth & Wright. In 1888 William Ellery Wright became sole proprietor, selling jewelry, precious stones, watches, clocks, and solid and plated silver ware, as well as a full line of glasses and spectacles, for which eye examinations were given. Wright also was an assistant inspector of watches on the Boston & Maine Railroad. By 1929 he had dropped the jewelry and watchmaking part of the business, continuing as an optometrist until Wadsworth left the company, became a surveyor, city engineer of Keene, and eventually made the maps of the city which are reproduced elsewhere in this book. He also compiled a vast amount of historical data on Keene and Cheshire County. In the 1870's Daniel H. Dickenson and Sidney D. Comstock were running the Keene Steam Laundry at 10 Washington Street. In 1887 it was taken over by James A. Toof, a native of Canada. and was then located at 56 Church Street. In 1911 Charles G. Putney purchased the business. In 1957 it was sold to the People's Laundry, Inc., which is now located on Giffin Street. Mrs. Grace M. Borden is the current president of the firm. In the 1831 Keene directory the insurance business had several representatives. Elijah Parker was listed as an attorney and agent of the New Hampshire Mutual Fire Insurance Co. (Concord); Thomas M. Edwards was the agent for the Cheshire County Mutual (Walpole) and Aetna (Hartford); and Justus Perry represented Springfield. In the New England Mercantile Union Business Directory, 1849 the only insurance agent listed for Keene was George Tilden, representing the Aetna Insurance, although previous to this date he had been allied with other companies. By 1877, the year George H. Aldrich and his son, Herbert C. Aldrich. set up business, there were 5 insurance dealers in the city. By 1900 the number had grown to by 1914, there were 13; and in 1927, the year Robert M. Clark, a nephew of Eugene L. Aldrich (who had carried on the family business), purchased the firm, there was a total of 16. In 1950 the name of the firm was changed to the Clark Insurance Agency. At the death of Robert Clark in 1962, 492

83 his two sons, C. Wellington and Robert M., who had been with the agency since the end of World War II, became the president and vicepresident respectively. Another family agency serving the insurance needs of the area is the Trask family. In 1914 George F. Trask established the Cheshire County Insurance Agency, which today is carried on by his son, Norman O., and his grandson, Paul S. The 1966 city directory listed 21 local insurance agencies. When the Bodwell Granite Co. in Roxbury was abandoned, the site it owned in South Keene was taken over by James Bixby Elliot for the Clipper Mower and Reaper Co. This was about Elliot, a lifelong Keene resident, had been, in the earliest stages of his business career, active in the New Hampshire Glass Co. situated in what is now Fuller Park. In the 1860's he became a stockholder in the Clipper Mower and Reaper Co. when it was located in Yonkers, N. Y. Striving to salvage what he could from a failing business, he moved the firm to Keene and went into business for himself. The Keene plant covered two or three acres of ground, and orders came for machines from as far away as France and Germany at this time, and though it had many competitors. the Clipper was not excelled. After Elliot's death in 1888, his executors carried on the business, though his business acumen was sorely missed. Unfortunately, around 10 P.M. on the evening of June 15, 1891, a spark from a passing locomotive ignited the roof of the foundry. Although it was discovered by the engineer of the night express, who blew his locomotive whistle all the way in to Keene to spread the alarm, nothing could stop the disaster. By 11:30 that night all was smouldering ruins. Harry T. Kingsbury purchased the parts that had been rescued from the fire, and his shop at 68 Myrtle Street (The Wilkins Toy Co.) became the only source for Clipper repairs from that time on. The Clipper Machine Works was last mentioned in the Keene city directory. Herbert E. Fay, who had been a jeweler with Skinner, Day and Co., started a jewelry business of his own in 1879 and continued in operation until The first subscribers of telephones in Keene were Chester L. Kingsbury and Charles H. Stone in The first central exchange was established in July 1881 on Main Street, where Goodnow's Store now stands. It was known as the Cheshire County Telephone Exchange, and the first operator was Frank Tenney. The first manager was Ainsworth M. Nims. In 1883 the New England Telephone & Telegraph Co. acquired the local interests, and the name was changed 493

84 to the New England Telephone Exchange. Among the first business concerns to install telephones were the Sentinel Printing Co., the Eagle Hotel, the Cheshire National Bank, and Hills & Bullard (later called Bullard & Shedd). In 1927 Wallace L. Mason made the first local transatlantic call to London, paying $325 for a 13-minute conversation. After several moves, in 1956, the company erected a onestory building as a new central dial office at 64 Washington Street, which it continues to occupy today. In 1879 Dallas M. Pollard founded a wholesale grocery business, D. M. Pollard & Co. After Charles C. Abbott entered the firm it became, in 1890, the Abbott Grocery Co. with Herbert W. Clark as president and Charles C. Abbott as treasurer. In the 1890's the company had a building with three floors, all of which were used for the business, plus two storage warehouses, and their salesmen covered territory 100 miles north of Keene and 50 miles east. When Charles Abbott retired in 1936, Walter Kirk became president and treasurer. The company ceased business in The first Keene directory listing of an ice dealer was in under the names of Orlen D. Pratt and Benjamin H. Richardson. They lacked competitors until the early 1880's, when Amos Bancroft and Walter Roby, in business in the Cheshire House Block, added ice to the meat and vegetables they sold. In 1884 Charles W. Pierce and Fred Towns established the City Ice Co., and years later this firm was bought out by Fred E. Lane, who formed the Keene Ice Co. Ice was cut on Elm Street, in West Keene, and at the old reservoir(now Robin Hood Park ). The property was divided when it was sold to two other ice dealers, Fred J. Cummings and James Howard Bent. An ice dealer for 52 years at the time of his death, Bent was called "Father Bent" by the children on his route. About 1901 Charles H. Fairfield built ice houses and a dam on Fisher Brook, establishing an icc business there. In 1908 the West Keene Ice Co. on Hastings Ave. cut and stored 3,500 tons of clear solid ice. Around 1931 electric refrigerators came to Keene, and the ice business began to wane. Ralph Follansbee was the last dealer, operating an ice company up to In 1879 Henry Giffin started the Giffin & Son Coal Co. In 1887 his son, George Giffin, became a partner. At that time there were two other coal dealers in the city. In 1907 the Giffin Estate sold the business to Stephen Grant. who kept the company's old name. At this time there were four other coal dealers in Keene. By 1930, when the Giffin Coal Co. was last mentioned in the city directory, there were eight other coal dealers listed. By 1966 this number had shrunk to one listing. 494

85 Cleared for business after the Blizzard of '88 Around 1887 Robert Leveroni established a fruit and confectionery store on Main Street. A successful food merchant in the city for two decades. Leveroni was also the father of six children, one of whom, Nathaniel, became the pioneer in automatic merchandising when he formed the Automatic Canteen Co. of America in Continued growth of this company enabled Nathaniel Leverone (he changed the "1' to "e") to engage in civic and philanthropic activities, and in 1963 Dartmouth College named the Nathaniel Leverone Field House in honor of one of its distinguished alumni. In 1904 Robert Leveroni retired and his son, Lawrence P., took over the management until his own death in For many years Cheshire County was noted in the manufacturing world for its wooden boxes, and here Keene came to the fore as a manufacturing center because of the economical and superior facilities it offered manufacturers. J. Mason Reed, one of the pioneers in the box industry, started his career in a business that had been a going concern in Westport for some years. He became owner in 1868 and moved the firm to Keene in 1881, where it occupied the third floor of one of the factory buildings of the Beaver Mills Co. A large variety of wooden boxes of different styles and sizes was made for manufacturers and jobbers in many sections of the country, and a special feature was made of printed boxes for particular trade uses. Reed died in 1883 and his two sons, J. Carlon and George M. Reed, carried on the business until it was discontinued about The name Impervious Package Co. was taken from the copyrighted name of the patented article which this firm was organized 495

86 to manufacture. Incorporated in 1883, it made pails and buckets that were impervious to oils, varnishes, and like substances, and so these products largely took the place of tin, iron, or metal cans which kerosene and other oils corroded and rendered leaky and useless. They were adopted by the United States Government for all its lighthouses. The Impervious Package was made in pail or bucket form of finegrained, thoroughly seasoned wood, each stave tongued and grooved and every joint coated. The company soon had a three-story brick factory on Mechanic Street. The first president was Alfred T. Batchelder, a well-known lawyer and financier, and the secretary-treasurer who took active management of its affairs was Lyman J. Brooks. Almost half a century later the company was still active, manufacturing wooden kits and kegs. They went out of business about 1928, at which time Orville Cain was president and Nathaniel Batchelder was treasurer. Around 1886 the New Era Tea Co. opened for business in a grocery store on Roxbury Street. At that time it was run by Thomas F. Herbert and Thomas F. Hackett. After Edwin R. Gerould and Edwin E. Bissell became the proprietors, it was moved to Central Square in the early 1890's. To meet competition premiums of silverware, chinaware, and the like, were given to customers. In 1916 James Erwin bought into the business and the name was changed to James M. Erwin Co. In 1923 Erwin sold the firm to Daniel F. Houran, who gave it his own name. In 1939 Henry M. Shaw and his brother Chase formed a corporation with Houran, taking the name Keene Food Mart, Inc., and in 1941 the brothers bought out their partner. It is still under their management at the head of Central Square. In 1883 the Guaranty Savings Bank was incorporated with James Burnap as president and Edward C. Thayer as vice-president. The treasurer was Obed G. Dort, who was also president of the Citizens National Bank (chartered in 1875) at the same address. Due to the financial panic of 1893 the Guaranty Savings Bank closed its doors. John G. Lesure and Keene have the distinction of being the first to put out a line of veterinary medicines, according to a newspaper item of Previous to the start of Lesure's laboratory in Keene, there were on the market certain liniments and condition powders for horses, but no regular line of medicines. Lesure, a Civil War veteran, began as a blacksmith in Royalton, Vt., and then branched out into the livery business, which he pursued for 14 years. Having studied under an experienced veterinary surgeon, he soon became known for his success in helping the footsore or sick animal. In 1885, at the age of 40, he began 496

87 the manufacture of veterinary medicine in Keene under the name of J. G. Lesure & Co. He acquired the title of "doctor" through his work as a veterinarian, which he followed the greater part of his life. In the 1890's he had three traveling outfits on the road in New England and New York State selling his remedies, among which were Lesure's Veterinary Colic Cure, All Healing Balm, Electric Hoof Ointment, and Horse Renovator. After his death in 1901, the business was carried on by his family until the early 1930's. Since 1875 there had been factories in Keene for the manufacture of bent chair stock, hoops, and wooden rims, all of which came in the same class of wood work. The chair stock consisted of the bent arms and backs of rattan and cane-seated chairs and rockers, and the rims and hoops were used for sieves of various kinds, banjos, toy drums, and other articles requiring a wooden hoop. These various hoops and bent chair stock were made out of nearly all kinds of hard woods and required a special skill to get the wood bent and set properly without splitting or injury. Oscar D. Beverstock, who started the business in Keene in 1886, was a successor to the Keene Hoop Co. The 0. D. Beverstock Co. was last mentioned in the 1944 Keene city directory. John M. Duffy began his long business career in 1887, when he established a shoe store at 32 Church Street. He ran it until 1952, nearly 64 years at the same address. By 1890 there were 7 banks, 10 carpenters and builders, 7 blacksmiths, 5 carriage and sleigh manufacturers, 5 chair manufacturers, 5 clothing dealers, 3 coal dealers, 5 dentists, 5 druggists, 16 dealers in confectionery, fruits, etc., 21 dressmakers, 6 jobbers and expressmen, 3 laundries, 11 dealers in flour, grain, and feed, 6 livery stables, 11 lawyers, 9 lumber dealers, 4 machine manufacturers, 7 masons and plasterers, 11 milkmen, 7 meat markets, 13 music teachers, 8 dealers in millinery and fancy goods, 3 newspapers, 11 nurses, 5 dealers in music and musical instruments, 15 painters (carriage, house, and sign), 4 plumbers, 4 upholsterers, and 2 undertakers. In 1890 the Keene Granite and Terra Cotta and Tile Co. was organized by Joseph R. Beal, John A. Wright, and Wallace L. Mason. They erected a wooden factory on Water Street to make pottery and building bricks out of ground granite. Vases, pitchers, and urns of an unpainted greyish granite color were also turned out, though none of their pieces were marked. The business was short-lived, however, ending in 1894, at which time it was called the New Hampshire Moulded Granite & Tile Co. The building was sold to the Indurated Paper Co., of which Frank Adams was president. In 1899 John P. Rust bought the 497

88 Gilmore's Store circa 1892 plant as new quarters for his manufacture of wooden pails, a firm he had established in Swanzey in Pails and packages of various sizes and styles were made for use of preserve manufacturers and packaging houses. As the Keene Woodenware Co., this firm continued until 1946, when Wilson W. Bolton and Frederick J. Daley, two navy veterans in search of new careers, read in the New York Times that the building on Water Street was for sale and bought it the following day. A corporation was formed with Bolton as president and Daley as secretary-treasurer. The name Dalbolt combines the first syllables of the names of the two founders. At this time paper draperies were coming into fashion, and by developing special inks the new company soon became the largest independent manufacturer of paper drapes in the nation. In a short time plastic replaced the paper in drapes, and Dalbolt, Inc. became a leading color printer of plastic sheeting. Today, in 1967, the firm prints all kinds of synthetic and plastic fabrics. I n 1892 Charles C. Beedle began the C. C. Beedle Piano Co. in the rear of the Museum Block and in 1896 moved it to Main Street. In 1898 he sold a half interest to his son Karl. Early in 1899 he sold the remaining 50 per cent to Ellery Blake, a descendant of one of the three historic families of Upper Ashuelot. These two purchasers then formed the Beedle Co., occupying three floors. In 1924 Karl R. Beedle became sole proprietor, and in 1946 his son Karl J. took over the business. Over the years the store changed locations and in 1959 moved to its present site. Music is still the main item of business, although emphasis has shifted in 498

89 75 years from pianos and organs to radios, phonographs, and tape recorders. The Fresco Stencil Co. (Henry J. Johnson and George Hodgkins) manufactured stencils for wall and ceiling decoration. These were used by ornamental house painters and dealers in painters' and artists' supplies. The business was located in South Keene. In 1891 Austin A. Ellis took over a brush handle business, which had been established in In 1905 he began manufacturing wooden fish, about 31/2 inches long, to be used as artificial bait. In 1917 he sold out to the Burdett Chair Co., which moved the business from Mechanic Street to its Washington Street factory. In 1892, when Herschel J. Fowler moved his three-year-old box factory from Swanzey to Beaver Mills, he began using new and improved equipment, such as grooving and locking machines. In 1904 he built a new factory on Island Street and in 1911 joined with Leon C. Norwood and Charles K. Whitcomb to form the Fowler-Norwood- Green Co., manufacturers of lock-corner boxes and packing cases, the output going to the leading business centers of the country. Around 1920 the plant was sold to the New England Box Co., which had been formed in 1898 through a merger of three firms, Ansel Dickinson & Sons of Winchester, N. H., Shepherdson-Russell Co. of Baldwinsville, Mass., and the National Keg and Box Co. of Orange, Mass. The Keene branch, which had begun in 1917 on Island Street with LaFell Dickinson as president, became the largest of the company's eight mills. In a life span of approximately 60 years the New England Box Co. turned into one of the leading makers of wooden boxes in New England. Recognizing that the most important measure of a shipping container is its strength per weight, the company pioneered in the development of the Linderman Joint, which it used extensively in box production. The Linderman machine cut a tapered dovetail joint on two boards simultaneously. glued and fitted them together, all in one operation, and produced a joint stronger than one-piece construction. The Keene branch made all types of boxes and, when requested, would analyze customer needs and design styles of packaging or shipping containers to meet his requirements. Many local concerns used their packing boxes, and at one ti me carloads of boxes and by-products were shipped weekly out of Keene. In spite of the fact that it maintained a large fleet of trucks, the firm became the city's major user of rail transportation. The plant closed in 1957, and a few years later the factory was occupied by the Marlboro Manufacturing Co., organized by four brothers, John L., David E.. A. Reuben, and Thure S. Ohman, to make juvenile furniture. 499

90 It is still under the same management as of Sixty years earlier another Keene firm had been founded by brothers. In 1893 Walter L. and Windsor H. Goodnow established a clothing store on Main Street, 19 years after Walter L. Goodnow had opened his first store in East Jaffrey, N. H. During the period from 1895 to 1920 other Goodnow stores were added in various communities in New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, until there was a total of 22 in all. During this interval Goodnow stores were operated in such nearby towns as Marlborough and Winchester, with the Keene store acting as their source of supply. As transportation improved, these smaller stores were no longer needed, as people could easily travel to Keene. At the present time the Keene store operates a branch in Greenfield, Mass., and is closely associated with the Goodnow store in Taunton, Mass. These stores are still owned and operated by the Goodnow family, with Ronald P. Bach president of the Keene-Greenfield Co., a position he has held since Mrs. Ronald P. Bach, a daughter of the late Windsor H. Goodnow, is treasurer, and Windsor G. Brooks, grandson of Windsor H. Goodnow, is vice-president of the Keene-Greenfield Co. and president of the Taunton company. Other Goodnow stores are still in operation in Jaffrey N. H., and in Gardner, Mass., although under separate ownership. In 1894 the Cheshire Beef & Produce Co. was formed by William C. Coughlin and John M. Hovey, with a place of business on Emerald Street. They were wholesale dealers in western dressed beef, pork, lamb, tripe, and tongue. In 1938 Abraham Cohen bought the business from the Coughlin estate. In 1954 he moved it to Railroad Street, where he carries on a wholesale meat and storage locker business today. Young Harry Thayer Kingsbury, assisted financially by his grandfather, Edward Joslin, bought parts rescued from a fire at the Clipper Machine Works, and in 1894, with the same financial backing. purchased the Wilkins Toy Co. Around 1890 James S. Wilkins of Memphis, Tenn., who had married Mary Colony in 1878, designed and introduced an attractive line of model iron toys. However, the factory ran into financial difficulties and was sold to young Kingsbury. The new owner continued production of Wilkins' line of toys of the horse-drawn carriage type and other cast iron models. These miniatures included a landau with horses that moved up and down and carriage doors that opened; a Brownie fire department; a Roman chariot, drawn by three prancing steeds; tiny stoves; toy wringers; street cars; hansom cabs, and cannon. These were on the market by Another 1895 toy was a realistic steamboat named Monadnock. The Kingsbury Toy Co. 500

91 (though still running under the name of Wilkins Toy Co. in those early years) also made such diverse toys as a horse-drawn road sprinkler wagon which could be filled with water, a horse-drawn mowing machine, and a rowing shell with tiny oarsmen whose motion seemed to propel the craft forward. A push toy, a clown on a bucking donkey, imparted double motion to the figures as they were pushed along. The donkey had a bucking motion with each revolution of the wheels, and the clown was unseated, being thrown upward and forward and then dropped back into normal position. Other push toys, which were popular from the turn of the century, were a jockey on a race horse, a comical monkey in suit and cap, and a fire engine which turned right and left. One of the earliest of the company's toy automobiles was a reproduction of the horseless carriage. Spring-driven, the car had one occupant, a lady motorist. The drivers of Kingsbury toys, cast in sitting positions, were made with a peg that fitted into a hole in the seat of the vehicle, holding each driver in position as the wagon or car whirled about. By 1901 the company had become the largest manufacturer of toy automobiles in America. In 1906 it was selling a fire truck with removable ladder and a ringing bell. The firm marketed a Perfection Printing Press in a number of small models. In 1911 toys with detachable horses were introduced, including wagons, fire engines, and ladder trucks. In 1915 came a reproduction of a parcel post cart, complete with uniformed driver. World War I inspired a toy submarine that would dive, rise to the surface, and automatically shoot a projectile. The company also promoted production of toy destroyers and transport ships. The years passed; cast iron gave way to sheet iron, and the company produced motorized auto roadsters, cabriolets, dump trucks, auto derricks, trolley cars, trains, wrecking cars, army trucks, airplanes, and grocery trucks. The Kingsbury tractor, on the market by 1918, was moved by a crank at the side and equipped with a governor that regulated to any desired speed. There was a lever for starting and stopping. The tractor would crawl over obstructions, climb steep grades, and haul several trailers. In time some of the toys were equipped with electric head and tail lights lit by batteries. The Kingsbury auto aerial truck ladder, with gong and platform, had one of the most novel features ever applied to a toy up to that time. The ladder, automatically released whenever the front of the truck touched a wall, desk, table leg, or other obstruction, slowly unfolded and rose to an upright position. The strength of Kingsbury toys was graphically proved when three men, weighing a total of 655 pounds, stood on an aerial ladder truck without damaging the small toy or in any way impairing its running condition. The toy Kingsbury Fire Department consisted of a 501

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94 pumping fire engine (24 inches long), an aerial ladder truck (34 inches long), a combination chemical fire engine (31 inches long), and a hook and ladder truck (37 inches long), with four extra-long steel ladders, chemical tanks, and hose. In the 1930's the motorized racers produced were exact reproductions of cars used by Major H.O.D. Segrave, one while making a record speed of 203 miles per hour on Daytona Beach, Fla., in 1927, and the other one in which he broke the existing world record with a speed of miles per hour in The company also constructed two Bluebird racers, models of cars driven by Captain, later Sir, Malcolm Campbell. The materials that went into Kingsbury toys were of the best, the steel was first quality, only heavy gauge sheets being used. The paint was of a high quality baking enamel, which gave a glossy durable finish, or a high grade automobile lacquer was sprayed on. The motor springs were made of the best flat steel spring, practically unbreakable under normal use. Rubber tires were of fine soft rubber and were vulcanized to the steel disc wheels, which would neither mar nor scratch, nor come off. By the early 1940's the company was advertising, in addition to the ever-popular Kingsbury Fire Department toys, coal trucks with a crank to raise the body high above the frame to dumping position; a sand loader; a trailer truck; a Greyhound bus; "De Soto" sedans; a "radio equipped" coupe and trailer (the radio, Swiss musical movement, played a rollicking tune when the trailer door was open and stopped when the door closed ), train push toys, a camp trailer, consisting of five pieces ( blue coach with light blue trailer, folding tent, picnic table and bench, the latter two pieces folding into the trailer), and a fisherman's trailer with car, a water-tight floating boat with removable oars and a detachable boat trailer which hooked on to the car. A very practical toy was the bank clock, which registered coins, the minute hand showing cents, the hour hand denoting dollars. The first coin deposited locked the bank; it unlocked at $10. Also popular was the army defense gun and truck, as well as a 151/2 inch outboard motor boat that would travel 90 feet per winding. The firm operated as a leader in the toy industry for nearly half a century, coming to a halt in 1942, when the needs of World War II diverted necessary sheet steel to more vital production efforts. Considering also that the rise of molded plastics for use in toys might make a difference in future production, the company sold its patents and equipment. Now, a quarter of a century after the demise of the Kingsbury toys, these articles have become collectors' items, bringing high prices at auctions and in antique shops. Back in 1915 the founder's oldest son, 504

95 Edward J. Kingsbury, a graduate of MIT, had joined his father's concern. To overcome difficulties in toy production in 1917, Edward invented a two-spindle drilling machine with a weight feed. Drill pressure could be varied by adjusting a weight along a lever. To allow other manufacturers to use the machine, the company put it on the market, with the result that industries began asking for machines to solve other drilling problems. (In 1961 the original drilling machine was donated to the

96 Smithsonian Institution for its collection of historic models from which current industry has developed.) A new department was set up under Edward, and the Kingsbury Machine Tool business was launched in A year later Gunnar Swahnberg. an experienced draftsman from a Detroit engineering firm, came to the new company. Chester Kingsbury, Edward's brother, joined his father in the toy division, while Edward assumed responsibility for the promotion and development of the newly created machine tool division. In 1926 a new factory was erected to house the expanding machine division which that year was established as a separate division, called the Kingsbury Machine Co. Two years later it became the Kingsbury Machine Tool Corp. Increased automobile production in Detroit put greater and greater demands on the machine division. When the Second World War brought about the end of Kingsbury toys, the Kingsbury Machine Tool Corp. took over the vacated plant space. From machines for the automotive industry, the company switched to machines for fuses, aircraft engine parts, rifle bolts, and gun components. A battery of machines was designed to make M-1 rifle parts, and efforts of this kind were resumed for both the Korean and Vietnam conflicts. Since World War II the company has made machines of all sizes, with the emphasis shifting to large centercolumn indexing machines in response to demands for cost-saving equipment, particularly from the automotive industry. At the present time Kingsbury builds machines that drill, ream, tap, bore, face, recess, inspect, and perform other metalworking operations, while the experimental department continues to develop new units. Currently Gunnar Swahnberg is chairman of the board. Henry M. Frechette, Edward's son-in-law, who has been with the company since shortly after the end of the Second World War, was elected to succeed Swahnberg as president in The first "horseless carriage" to appear on the streets of Keene was a maroon-colored Duryea, steered by a tiller. It was the winner of the first automobile race ever held in the United States, its average speed being 7 1 /2 miles per hour, and it arrived in Keene as part of a Barnum & Bailey Circus parade on July 11, Three years later the distinction of being the first citizen of Keene to own a motor vehicle was earned by Leonard A. Wellington, who built a small motor wagon at Winchendon, Mass., where he was employed. At the turn of the century the Trinity Cycle Manufacturing Co. on Church Street turned out an automobile, a light pleasure wagon, from designs and specifications by the company's superintendent, Reynold Janney. It had its trial run on June 26, Janney is also credited with having been the first to own a "boughten" 506

97 automobile, which he purchased at Tarrytown, N. Y. It was propelled by a three-cylinder naphtha motor. The next year the business was sold to the Steamobile Co. of America, a Delaware corporation, which had started the manufacture of Steamobiles to sell for $950. This firm apparently ran into financial difficulties and was out of business in a year or so. In 1898 Harry T. Kingsbury established the New England Cycle Co. in conjunction with his Wilkins Toy Co. Kingsbury invented and patented many devices for the use of cycle repairers, makers, and dealers. These various devices and machines included the semi-automatic rim drill, the Keene universal repair jack, the wheel assembling chuck, the Keene frame straightener, the Keene crank and axle straightener, and the Apollo home trainer! In 1900 he made a naphtha-driven automobile. The next year George B. Robertson established a blacksmith shop in the rear of the Eagle Hotel. In those days it was to the blacksmith that car owners turned for repair jobs, and in 1904 Robertson began dealing in automobiles. By 1905 he and Frank J. Bennett were selling Stanley Steamers and Wintons. That same year the local paper wrote that six automobile licenses had been issued in Keene under a new state law. By 1908 there were 76 cars and 10 motorcycles registered in Keene, and that same year the Cheshire County Automobile Association was formed, with Dr. Ira J. Prouty as president. Also that year John E. Benton was arrested by Officer Lawrence E. Gilbo for exceeding the speed limit of eight miles per hour! The first motor vehicle show in New Hampshire was held in Keene City Hall on March 2, There were six different makes of automobiles on exhibit, and Fred Little showed the Indian motorcycle, of which he held the agency. At the 1910 show Alva W. Dickerman, the agent for Metz cars, also showed a line of Kodak cameras, Victor talking machines, and Edison phonographs. The first airplane to be shown in New Hampshire was a Curtis displayed at the 1911 Keene automobile show. By this time the automobile had become big business; Harry A. Pierce was agent for the Mitchell car, Edward C. Sweeney for the Whiting, Louis E. Roundy had the Ford agency, and Guy F. Fairfield was selling the Cadillac. Needless to say, the passage of years saw an ever-increasing use of cars, and by 1966 there were 29 automobile franchises held in Keene. Two years after its incorporation, on June 15, 1897, the Keene Savings Bank (which had begun as the City Savings Bank) opened its doors in the Clarke Block in Central Square at the corner of Washington Street. Its first president was Dr. George Hill. In 1912 the bank moved 507

98 to the old Ashuelot building at 48 Central Square. Since Dr. Hill's time the following have served as presidents: James S. Taft, Martin V. B. Clark, LaFell Dickinson, Ronald P. Bach, and Richard L. Holbrook. Lawrence C. LeBeau has served as executive vice-president and treasurer since 1963, In 1897 electric power was introduced into Keene factories. Makin's Dining Room at 33 Central Square was advertising a nice line of pastries, with orders delivered by the pastry cart. In 1899 Frank L. Sprague and William Carleton founded their local factory for the production of porch rockers and settees. They began in a small rented space on the third floor of Beaver Mills. Even then Sprague & Carleton used rock maple in the production of furniture. Rattan seats were woven at the factory, but most of the back frames were made by women and children in homes throughout the city. At one time there were over 100 families engaged in this type of work in their own homes. This was the period during which Keene was known as the "porch chair center of the United States," with an output of nearly 1,000,000 rockers a year. As chairs were sold and shipped only during certain months of the year, the need for storage space was great during the winter season. Empty barns were rented, and horse-drawn wagons piled high with porch chairs were a common sight on Keene streets in the early years of the century. When Frank L. Sprague died in 1908 the business was continued by his partner, with Harold A. Peart, Sprague's grandson, as manager of the Sprague interests. After the surviving partner's death in 1919, his interest was acquired by Harold Peart, who continued to use the name Sprague & Carleton. In the early 1920's the company built its own factory. By the next decade the sale of porch rockers had declined. To meet this change in furniture fashion, the company introduced a solid rock maple line of ladderback chairs and breakfast and sunroom furniture. In 1937 Howard E. Page joined the firm as general manager, and the company continued to broaden its line. During World War II they assisted in the war effort mainly through the manufacture of gun stocks. In 1945 Franklin Sprague Peart, a great-grandson of the founder, and Howard E. Page Jr. were elected vice-presidents. The elder Page died in In 1958 Sidney S. Ladin bought into the company, and today he is president and general manager. The smooth, satiny finish that tops off their items of furniture is the result of a special stain applied in a certain way, with plenty of rubbing in its application. In 1898 Jean P. Howes, for 10 years manager of the jewelry department of the A. B. Skinner Co., started his own jewelry store in Central Square, where it is still located 67 years later, the oldest jewelry 508

99 company in Keene. Jean's brother, Van Howes, joined him in the business, and later Van became sole owner. In 1957 Franklin Sullivan, who had been an employee for 40 years, took over the business, which his widow, Pauline, runs today. About 1899 Clifford C. Wilber, a native of East Westmoreland, became one of the first in the city to handle the sale of typewriters, with an office in the Gurnsey Building. He was the agent for the Underwood typewriter, which had been placed on the market in He was also a partner with his father, Charles W. Wilber, in a real estate business. Later he became the first representative in Keene for the Harley-Davidson motorcycle. Wilber devoted much of his life to independent historical research, becoming one of Keene's outstanding local chroniclers. According to the 1900 city directory there were 6 pail and pail stock manufacturers, 3 box makers, 2 brick manufacturers, 5 chair shops, 2 carriage makers, 2 engine builders, a tannery, a woolen mill, 4 sawmills, and a soap manufacturer; 9 banks were in operation, 10 blacksmiths, 8 livery and boarding stables, 2 book sellers, 5 jewelers and opticians, 3 bands, 9 shoe stores, 18 carpenters and builders, 5 fish dealers, 17 painters (carriage, house, and sign), 10 meat markets, 5 druggists, 10 clothing dealers, 2 coal dealers, 22 dressmakers, 18 grocery and provision stores, 8 insurance agencies, 5 real estate brokers, 9 dentists, 4 tobacconists, 11 hairdressers, 4 photographers, 18 flour, grain, and provision dealers, 6 oyster dealers, 4 plumbers, and 13 milk and cream dealers. In the early 1900's Abe Berger represented the Armstrong Co., dealers in papers and periodicals, and his newsstand was located in the old railroad depot. The firm moved into the new station when it was erected in 1911, and in 1914 William C. Hall, station master, and Amos A. Bartholomew, baggage master, took over the management. After the latter's death in 1925 his widow, Jeanette, ran the business for almost eight years. The shop is now on the site of the station, which was taken down in 1958, and Joseph Doherty is the present manager, having served in that capacity since the late 1930's. In 1901 Frederick B. Pierce moved his brush handle business, established in 1876, from Spofford to South Keene, where power was provided by damming the Ashuelot River. When the dam washed out a few years later, steam replaced this inexpensive power source. On his retirement in 1909, his co-partner and son-in-law, Harry D. Hopkins, and a grandson, Benjamin F. Hopkins, ran the business. They also owned the Keene Chair Co. In 1920 the Pittsburg Plate Glass Co. purchased the firm, which was to supply handles for the Baltimore and San Francisco 509

100 brush plants. In 1936 PPG bought a brick building on Marlboro Street and moved in the next year. However, the company continued to outgrow its quarters, and in 1945 built a new plant which made brushes of various sizes from New Hampshire's native birch, beech, and maple trees. Nearly two decades later, in 1963, the company finally closed its Keene branch. The following year Lane Buckets, Inc., a new company formed by Raymond L. Lane, formerly associated with his brother at the C. L. Lane Bucket Co. in Swanzey, began making wooden buckets and pails in the vacated factory. The Peerless Insurance Co. dates back to 1893, when Calvin B. Perry and his sons, Walter G. and William F., started the C. B. Perry & Sons Insurance Agency. Out of this grew the Peerless Casualty Co., incorporated in 1901 to write accident and health insurance. After several moves the company, now the Peerless Insurance Co., erected its own building on Maple Avenue, where it is still located. In 1957 Peerless became the United States managers of the Netherlands Insurance Co. of The Hague. By 1964 the controlling interest in Peerless had been purchased by member companies of the Mutual Fire Insurance Association of New England to provide casualty facilities for their agents. In 1966 stockholders were told by Robert G. Pyne, president of the company, that new business was at an all-time high, with 1,829 agents representing Peerless and the United States managed Netherlands Insurance Co. of The Hague, Holland. Around 1905 Charles L. Russell and his sons, Harry L. and George T., built a two-story brick factory on Water Street to make porch chairs. The firm closed its doors around In 1905 the Brattleboro Overall Co. established a branch in Keene to manufacture overalls, with George D'Arcy as president and treasurer. In 1910 this firm was supplanted by the New Brattleboro Overall Co., formed by Nathan A. Pelonsky. Around 1926 the name was changed to Watch the Wear Overall Co. Frederick E. Pelonsky and Alford J. Podbury started the Brattleboro Mfg. Co. at the same location to make pants and khaki cloth. In the early 1930's the name was again changed, this time to Fit and Wear Co., Inc. It was sold to Henry E. Swan around Swan retired in another year or so, and the business closed. Also in 1905, John Carrier and Caleb and George E. Stickney established the Newburyport Silver Co. in Keene, making sterling silver flat and hollow ware, souvenir spoons, and novelties in bronze in a factory at 25 Church Street. Caleb Stickney was once associated with the Towle Silver Co. in Newburyport, Mass., but left to work on his own. 510

101 Around 1908 attention was given to a new line of novelties manufactured from Tobin bronze, a metal of high polish. From it were made smoking sets, trays, loving cups, candlesticks, and the like. Stock was sold to the public as a means of financing operations, but the business closed around 1914, a not too successful enterprise. Assets were liquidated, probably at public auction. The mark on the back of the silverware was NSC Sterling. James L. Perry, a native of Warwick, Mass., who had lived in Keene since 1897, set up a shop with his father, John L. Perry, on Vernon Street in 1907 to handle carriages, wagons, and sleighs, along with bicycles and sewing machines. In later years James L. Perry & Co. sold furniture, antiques, and second-hand articles. In 1937 John C. Perry, the founder's son, took over the business, which is now located at 7 Court Street. The Carey Chair Co. was established in 1907 by Forrest L. Carey to turn out rattan, reed, and splint seat chairs. A specialty was made of piazza chairs, and by 1908 the factory was making 150 per day, the output being sold to jobbers throughout New England. The factory was on upper Washington Street at first, but later moved to Willow Street. When this factory burned down, a new one was built on Victoria Street. Over the years this became the last company to manufacture porch rockers in Keene. It also turned out Early American chairs and juvenile furniture. The company closed in 1963, at which time Franklin A. Carey, the founder's son, was president-treasurer. One of the first to advertise Edison phonographs in Keene was Alva W. Dickerman. In his store, established in 1906 at 15 Church Street, he and his wife also sold Victor Talking Machines, records and supplies, and sporting and athletic goods. The business continued for about another eight years. In 1909 the Ashuelot Shoe Co., organized by John P. Rust and William F. Holbrook, began making ladies', misses', and children's McKay shoes. Over the years the firm changed hands, though retaining the same name. In 1925 it was sold to the Crescent Shoe Co. By 1933 the company listed a capital of $50,000. President and treasurer at that time was Benjamin Segall and this was the last year the company was mentioned in the city directory. In 1887 George L. Hitchcock and Bert W. Hodgkins started a drug store at 39 Central Square, but the partnership was of short duration, and Bert Hodgkins continued as sole proprietor at their original address. Called City Pharmacy, the store offered for sale amateur photographers' outfits and supplies, paper hangings, patent 511

102 medicines, toilet requisites, ground and whole spices, cream of tartar, stationery, and all kinds of sundries. In 1914 Hodgkins sold out to Norman H. Farr, who continued, under the name of Farr's Pharmacy, at 39 Main Street. In the early 1920's, just prior to the building of the Latchis Theatre at 39 Main Street, the store moved to 49 Main Street. In 1934 it became LaFortune's Pharmacy, under the proprietorship of Arthur A. LaFortune. In 1936 it was known as Gallup's Pharmacy, with John S. Gallup as proprietor. By 1939 it was called Medical Hall, and Ward F. Archer was the new proprietor. He was succeeded by William and Thomas Davoren. In 1944 Elmer A. Roentsch took over and has run the business ever since. In 1964 he moved into a new one-story building designed especially for the business. After discontinuing his partnership with Bert Hodgkins around 1890, George Hitchcock opened his own drug store in the Cheshire House Block at 18 Main Street. In 1910 Milton E. Daniels bought Hitchcock out and changed the store name to his own. Around 1923 the business was sold to Archie Davis. It was in operation until the mid-thirties, though under different management. In 1909 the drug store at the head of the Square that had been established by Ben 0. Aldrich and Salmon F. Dutton was 15 years old. In 1910 it was sold to Nahum C. Dodge, a resident of Springfield, Vt., and Clarence A. Morgan, and the name was changed to Dodge's Pharmacy. In 1913 Glen D. Griffin and Clyde E. Perkins bought the store, running it until 1933, when the former became the sole proprietor. Two years later two brothers, John E. and Edmond J. Stapleton, acquired the property, but by the early 1940's it was permanently closed. In 1909 the Cheshire Clothing Co. was organized by Aaron Aliber to sell men's and women's clothing. In 1936 it became Vogue, Inc., selling ladies' ready-to-wear, with Philip Aliber as president and Louis Cohen, treasurer. Today, still specializing in women's apparel, the store is run by the founder's daughter, Florence, and her husband, Rubin Lipsky. In 1910 the city included among its many businesses 8 pail and pail stock manufacturers, 7 chair makers, 4 box shops, 2 brush handle shops, 2 carriage and sleigh manufacturers, 2 gristmills, a glue manufacturer, a woolen manufacturer, and 6 harness makers and dealers. There were 8 blacksmiths, the same number of livery stables, 5 hack lines, 12 clothing dealers, 14 grocery stores, 10 dry goods shops, 5 druggists, 7 jewelers and opticians, 3 hardware stores, 5 coal dealers, 512

103 3 undertakers, 5 makers of agricultural implements, 8 bicycle and auto dealers, repairers, and suppliers, 5 boarding houses, 23 confectionery and fruit dealers, 10 dentists, 6 engravers, 5 florists, 15 hairdressers and manicurists, 5 hotels, 11 insurance agencies, 15 jobbers and expressmen, 4 laundries, 23 music teachers, 7 oyster dealers, 9 piano tuners, 5 real estate brokers, 7 steam and gas fitters, 7 dealers in paints, oil and glass, 6 paper hangers, 4 veterinary surgeons, and 9 dealers in trunks and valises. Also in 1910 F. W. Woolworth opened its doors on Main Street, the first chain store of its kind to locate in the city. In 1964 the company built a new store on the corner of Main and Church Streets. Since Woolworth's, a number of other chain stores have been established over the years, though many are bypassing Main Street for less congested shopping areas. In 1906 the American Insulator and Mica Co. was incorporated, with Arthur R. Skoog of Malden, Mass., as president. Another similar company was the Keene Mica Products Co. which, as in the case of many industries in earlier times, was granted an exemption from taxation by the city for 10 years. The new company, organized with Leonard L. Howard as president and Donald Waling as treasurer, ran a mill on Ralston Street and a mine in Alstead. By 1922 the business had been bought by the Golding-Keene Co., with Charles E. Golding as president and J. Alfred Dennis as vice-president. Under Dennis' direction a new system for grinding the feldspar was developed. The firm mined and ground feldspar for the ceramics industry, adding mines in Gilsum and Surry, and branch mills in New Jersey and North Carolina. One of the principal mica (sometimes called isinglass) products was artificial snow, such as is used in Christmas decorations, the brilliancy of mica crystals giving the sparkling effect to the artificial snow. Feldspar also grew in importance and was used by glass, pottery, and abrasive industries. At one time Golding-Keene was shipping feldspar to 16 states in the west and south. During World War II the feldspar miners provided critically needed mica for electronic equipment. In 1953 the company was sold to a Buffalo concern, which in turn sold it to Strategic Materials, Ltd. of Canada, but by 1965 operations were discontinued. In 1966 the equipment and real estate of Golding-Keene were sold at auction. Around 1911 the Whittemore Shoe Store established a branch at Keene. Leon Ellsworth bought the business in 1914, selling it in turn to Harry Grower. In 1942 it became the Footwear Center, with Harold C. Ladam as manager. Today the business is under the co-pro- 513

104 prietorship of James F. Ferriter and Kermit E. Baker. In 1912 Frederick C. Wilcox organized the Wilcox Comb Co., Inc. to manufacture combs, brushes, mirrors, hair ornaments, and novelties in celluloid. Maintaining a branch office on Fifth Avenue in New York City, Wilcox continued in business until 1925, when he sold to Albert P. Delay, who changed both the name (to Delay Mfg. Co.) and the products (to golf tees, novelties, and plain, beveled, and bent glass). The firm closed in the early 1940's. In 1912 the Victoria White Granite Co. erected stone-cutting works, the city voting it exemption from taxes for 10 years. This seems to have been a family concern, with Earle C. Dodds heading the company. The firm ceased operations in 1921, before the exemption period had expired. The Keene Development Co. was incorporated in 1912 to attract new industry to the city, with William F. Holbrook as president. The company bought land and built several plants and houses, interesting a number of firms in the area, among them the A. E. Martell Co. of Boston, which was brought to Keene through an offer to build the firm a plant to their specifications. The Keene Development Co. was liquidated in In 1912 the Keene Building and Loan Association was formed, with Joseph A. Ryan as secretary-treasurer. In 1951 the name was changed to the Keene Co-operative Bank. Today Roland L. Harper is president-secretary. Presidents up to the present time have been William C. Coughlin, Harry D. Hopkins, John M. Duffy, and Roland A. Whitney, who currently is chairman of the board. Orvis K. Fairbanks came to Keene in 1913 and established a grocery store at 130 Elm Street, which today, more than a half century later, is run by two of his sons, Orvis B. and Albert W. Other members of the family operate grocery stores at various locations throughout the city. The Family Shoe Store was started in 1913 by Henry L. Dubois. In 1915 when Harry S. Amsden bought the business, he changed the name to his own. Today, still operating under the name of Amsden's Shoe Store, the business is owned by Russell E. Riley. The city directory listed Frank P. Gleason as a clairvoyant, in the issues dating from 1914 to Actually he had been established as a trance medium since 1888, giving readings in regard to lost articles and business and matrimonial interests. He was also available for seances and lectures. In 1914 ex-governor Eugene Noble Foss of Massachusetts moved 514

105 the Lynn Wood Heel Co. to Keene. This firm made wooden heels for ladies' shoes in what was known as the Rawson factory on Emerald Street. Parker A. Brown, manager under Foss, later bought control of the business, and in 1935 it was purchased by Colley B. Court and Eli Court, who still carry on in 1967 under the name of Keene Wood Heel Co. August Henkel and Carl Saam moved their manicure implement industry to Keene from Newark, N. J., in 1914, attracted by a newspaper advertisement inserted by a group of Keene men functioning as a chamber of commerce. Descendant from a family of master craftsmen, Henkel brought the art of fine cutlery-making to America from Germany in the late 19th century and over the years started a number of firms, with which the company now has no connection. Two years after coming to Keene, Henkel bought out his partner and returned to Newark until 1929, when he again came to Keene. In 1933 the company, then called A. Henkel & Son, bought its present factory on Norway Avenue. In 1947 Jack B. Miller of New York purchased the controlling interest in the firm and, operating under the name of Henkel Mfg. Corp., it is a subsidiary of Millers Forge Mfg. Corp. For a number of years it has turned out surgical instruments, as well as manicure implements, with the brand names Millers Forge and Premier. Today Jack E. Miller is still president, with C. Frederick Pfistner as general manager. The New Hampshire Tool & Die Corp. is a subsidiary of this company. The A. E. Martell Co. was established in Boston in 1892 and moved to Keene in Originally founded by Arthur E. Martell as a small job printing shop, it branched out into the design and manufacture of machine accounting records to suit individual requirements, as well as loose-leaf equipment and manifold forms. A good percentage of its output was sold to banks, including deposit slips used by Keene banks. In 1916 Edgar S. Small, a former salesman for the company, became vice-president and in 1942, its president. At the present time his son, John T. Small, is president-general manager. In 1915 the International Narrow Fabric Co. was started by Emil Grube, Ralph A. Rieth, and Frederick Graf. The three young men had been childhood friends in Barmen, Germany, before each had journeyed on his own to America. Grube answered an advertisement in a trade journal for the Keene Artistic Narrow Web Co., and though he could not speak English at the time, he was hired as superintendent, on the basis of his experience in weaving narrow fabrics. In Germany he had attended the Barmen Textile Institute. Encour- 515

106 aged by the Keene Commercial Club, he advised his friends to settle in Keene. In the beginning the partners did all the work themselves, and all earnings (save for $10 a week living expenses) were ploughed back into the business. By the next year, on the third floor at Robertson & Bennett's, the firm was operating 24 hours a day, running 3 shifts. They made trimmings for dresses and corset binding for women's foundation garments. In the middle 1920's the firm changed to elastic webbing, which it still manufactures. It is New Hampshire's only manufacturer of elastic goods. It also produces a non-elastic webbing in intricate patterns and designs. During World War II the company turned out 25,000,000 yards of material for helmet liners, belts, airplane safety straps, parachute harnesses, leggings, cots, gas masks, and other GI items. When fire completely destroyed their Eagle Court factory in 1943 they moved the entire operation to Congress Street, where they are still located. Today the executive officers are Emil Grube, Ralph A. Rieth, Ralph A. Rieth Jr., and Frederick W. Graf. After the turn of the century the Morgan Mfg. Co. of Newport, R. I., began business in Keene under the corporate name, Morganmade, producing many parts used in the manufacture of automotive machinery and airplanes. During World War I the entire capacity of the Keene factory was devoted to government work. All of the clamps used on the famous Liberty motors were Morganmade. In the company put on the market a combination auto stop and tail light, known as the "Keen-Lite." The firm was last mentioned in the 1930 city directory. The Markem Machine Co. was established in 1911 in Boston by Fred Asahel Putnam to meet the need for a mechanical method of marking sizes on quarter linings of shoes, replay ing the slow and costly hand process then used. F. A. Putnam recognized the opportunity for i mproving on this hand process, and with the aid of associates, built the first mechanical stamping machine, engraved type, and devised the formula for the special ink which the machine used. He later organized another firm to develop and manufacture the inks and chemical compounds needed, each commodity requiring a special kind of ink. This was known as the F. A. Putnam Mfg. Co., and is still the companion chemical company of Markem Machine. The marking of shoe linings logically led to development of additional products to solve the shoe manufacturer's identification problem machines, type, and ink to mark shoe parts in process, shoe boxes, and production tags. The textile industry next followed with requests for machines to mark 516

107 size, shade, and style number of hosiery boxes and to print small labels for identifying cones of thread and yarn. Since then, capabilities and markets have grown. Today Markem sells its products to all industry and makes 80 different standard machines, as well as many "specials," to mark all types of packages and containers, ball point pens, clothing labels, automobile parts, toys, zippers, chinaware, TV tubes, fishing rods, paint brushes, and thousands of other items. Over the years innovations in research and development have opened up many new markets. For example, the design of a machine to print on vacuum radio tubes led Markem to discover many other uses for marking systems in the electronics industry. Today this represents an important segment of sales volume. When radio tubes were made obsolete and transistors came into use, Markem machines and miniature printing type were required to print on transistors sometimes as many as 14 characters, plus trademark, in an inch diameter area. Similarly, in the drug and pharmaceutical industry, additional applications developed after Markem had solved the need for a machine to print on glass medical ampules and vials with an ink that would withstand sterilizing solutions and autoclaving to replace paper labels. The most recent request was for a machine to print capsules and tablets. Edible inks were formulated, and a machine was built that will automatically print up to 120,000 tablets or capsules per hour. While Markem makes several models of machines for producing labels, many times a direct printing (as on glass) replaces paper labels. The latest case in point is a revolutionary new process called Markem "Super Kemgo" which produces four color prints in perfect registration at high speeds on "no return" glass beverage bottles; thus the purchase and application of paper labels is eliminated. Super Kem g o is now in use by many major glass container manufacturers and appears to have an outstanding future. Markem has grown continually over the years. In 1918 the plant moved to Keene, where it located on Emerald Street. Keene was selected because of the city's fine community spirit, its attractive living conditions, and its available supply of highly skilled craftsmen. In 1950 Markem moved to new facilities constructed on Congress Street. Offices and production areas have been enlarged several times since then to keep pace with company growth. Branch offices and show rooms have been added in New York City, Elk Grove Village, Ill., Charlotte, N. C., Los Angeles, Cal., and Dallas, Tex. Firms overseas are equally interested in modern marking methods, and Markem has 517

108 always had a vigorous export program. Markem International Inc. directs a worldwide network of agents, and in addition, has offices in Rugby, England; Amsterdam, Holland; and San Juan, Puerto Rico. In 1966 the company announced the development of a new method of printing on glass, a revolutionary process that was termed "the first outstanding innovation or improvement in offset printing in many years." This new development is a method of inking several impressions in various colors, one on top of the other, on a rubber blanket and then transferring them simultaneously to glass, effecting a 100% ink transfer, leaving the rubber blanket spotless. Markem policies and practices have been determined by three generations of the Putnam family: Fred A. Putnam, founder; Claude A. Putnam, who became president in 1919 and held that office until his retirement in 1956; and David F. Putnam, who began working for the company as a chemist in 1936 and is currently president and director of the Markem Machine Co., with which F. A. Putnam Mfg. Co. merged in early The Perkins Machine Co. was established as a general job shop on Water Street in 1919 by Melvin S. Perkins, a native of Waltham, Mass., who had purchased the wood-working machine business of James C. Black. In 1922 Perkins bought the machine repair business of the Putnam Machine Co. For a time the Perkins firm had two branches, one in High Point, N. C. (sold in 1940), and the other in Bellows Falls, Vt. The Keene plant occupied more than a half-dozen buildings in various parts of the city. Over the years the company continued to develop, reaching a wartime high of 450 employees when the national emergency demanded time fuses and bomb parts. At this peak, 94% of production was apportioned to war work. In 1961 Perkins sold the firm to Roberts-Hart, Inc., which in 1964 sold it to Lee P. Hart, who operates the company today under its original name. In 1919 Arthur R. Jones, owner of a woolen mill in Maine, started the Wassookeag Woolen Co. on Mechanic Street to manufacture woolen fabrics. The mill ceased operations in 1932 as a result of the Great Depression. In 1920 the Keene Silk Fibre Mills were established to make decorative silk yarns out of waste silk, becoming a pioneer concern in the reworking of waste silk on the woolen system. The first president of the company was Albert C. Bowman. Soon rayon replaced silk in the market, and the firm then turned to making wool, alpaca, and mohair yarns. In 1945 the mill was purchased by the Charlestown Woolen Co., of which A. Harold Kendall was president and Reginald 518

109 Swan treasurer, both former officers of the Keene Silk Fibre Mills. Looms were installed and it became a weaving mill, making women's fabrics. In 1954 the Wallisford Mills purchased the factory. Another plant was located in Montpelier, Vt. B. Harold Erskine and Walter T. Ransburg formed the Hargo Woolen Mills in New Bedford but moved to Keene through the efforts of the Keene Regional Industrial Foundation. They took the name of Wallisford Mills because they liked the sound of it. The company made woolen fabrics until it closed in In 1920 there were about 48 industries in the city, turning out many different products. Included were a brick yard, 2 mica products concerns, a box maker, 2 brush handle shops, 6 chair manufacturers, a comb factory, a manifold book maker, 2 door makers, a keg maker, an overalls manufacturer, 2 pail factories, 4 machinery companies, a pottery concern, 2 shoe manufacturers and a wooden heel factory, a toy factory, a silver polish manufacturer, 4 textile mills, and a glue factory. There were 6 banks, a building and loan association, 38 grocers and 3 wholesale grocers, as well as 8 clothiers, 6 druggists, 6 contractors, 6 bakers, 5 vulcanizers, 15 painters and paperhangers, 10 shoemakers and repairers, 3 hardware stores, 26 dressmakers, 3 grain dealers, 4 oil dealers, 5 jewelers, 3 livery stables, 8 blacksmiths, 2 hack lines, 4 opticians, 10 automobile dealers, 8 garages, 6 bicycle dealers, 25 music teachers, 15 real estate agencies, 13 expressmen, and 3 theaters. In 1920 the Kafelt Manufacturing Company was formed by Harry M. Kharfen. Turning out scissors, tweezers, nail files, and surgical implements, the Kafelt Manufacturing Co. sold to jobbers and makers of manicure set cases and dresser sets. Their brand name was Keenedge, a play on the words Keene and keen. They went out of business about In 1921 Theodore H. Bergeron began as a general contractor, continuing in the construction business until his retirement in 1959, when his son Edward J. became president and manager. In 1961 the firm was incorporated as Bergeron Construction Co. In 1919 Abraham N. Fine started The Royal and soon began to purchase raw furs from local hunters and trappers. He sold these furs to New York and Massachusetts furriers, but in 1928 he decided that his own company would make and repair fur coats, as well as sell ready made coats. Over 48 years later Fine is still in business and has expanded his operation to include women's other wearing apparel. Because they lived in rural communities and did less driving than urban dwellers, it was believed that members of the National Grange 519

110 of the Patrons of Husbandry should be able to purchase automobile insurance at more favorable rates than those charged by commercial insurance companies. Insurance men of Keene, Richard C. Carrick, William F. Perry, Walter G. Perry, and others met with the National Grange Insurance Committee for the purpose of forming a company to insure Grange members. The National Grange Mutual Liability Co. (changed to National Grange Mutual Insurance Co. on January 1, 1959) issued its first policy in 1923 and subsequently extended its operations from the insurance of motor vehicles to become New Hampshire's largest mutual property fire and casualty insurance company, writing insurance in 1966 in 22 states and the District of Columbia, and ranking 24th in premium volume in 1965 among the nation's 2,230 mutual casualty and property insurers. President of the company is Kenneth P. Colby, and James C. Farmer is chairman of the board of directors. In 1967 the company occupied a new fourstory addition to its home office building at 55 West Street. In 1925 Carl R. Bloomer and Fern D. Haselton bought the old armory on Winter Street and converted it into a furniture store. Later they rented apartments above the store. The building was destroyed by fire on September 9, In 1926 Harold L. Holden began a sheet metal business on Railroad Street. Forty years later, in 1966, the H. L. Holden Co., ventilating contractors and producers of fabricated steel and aluminum, moved from its location on Main Street to a new factory in Keene Industrial Park. Mrs. Wilhelmina S. Holden, the founder's widow, is currently president of the company, and Albert L. Guyette is treasurer. Waldo J. Giovannangeli, who had worked in Leveroni's fruit store, opened his own market in At that time Mac's Fruit Store was located under the Ellis Hotel. In 1930 he moved to his present location at 105 Main Street, and in 1947 the store became known as Mac's Cut Rate, the name it retains today. In 1929 Bernard A. Streeter and Glenn E. Heald established a grocery store on Vernon Street, moving to the present location on Washington Street in Known today as Streeter's Super Market, its proprietors are Bernard A. Streeter and his son, Thompson C., Streeter. One of the first oil heater installations in the city was around 1927 in the Ellis Hotel. Arthur Nims of the Nims Plumbing Co. is said to have been the first to sell and install oil heaters for the home in In 1931 George G. Nichols started Ye Goodie Shoppe, a con- 520

111 fectionery store, making fresh candy daily. Tourists buying a variety of hand-dipped chocolate creams, ginger, and other candy specialties brought abo ut an expa nding mail order business. Nichols sold to the pr esent owner, Robert L. Domey. Th e only homemade candy shop in this area, it offers over 75 varieties from its own recipes. In 1931 Carl W. Johnson and James H. Henry sta rted th e electrical firm of Henry and Johnson. Today the busin ess is located at 38 Wa shington Str eet, with J ame s H. Henry, president. In 1930 ther e we re 52 industries in the city, producing 38 lines of merch andise and employing approxima tely 2,000 person s. There were abo ut 200 retail sto res and bu sinesses. Among these were 2 pap er box manufacturers and a wood en box one. ( All boxe s used to package Jclio wer e made in Keen e at thi s time. ) There were 3 cha ir manufacturers ( at thi s time it was estim ated th at 40 % of all porch chairs made in the United States were made in Keen e ), a brush handle factory, a broom mak er, a comb manufacturer, 2 cutlery manufacturers, a glu e fact or y, a hoop manufacturer, a silver polish fac tory, a to y manufacturer, 4 shoe factori es, 5 text ile mills, and 3 machinery manufac turers. Th er e wer e also 5 banks and a building and loan association, 2 whole sale gro cers, 44 ret ail grocers, 15 auto mo bile dealers handling 14 different makes of ca rs, 9 ga rages, and 22 automo bile ~e p a i r e r s. Th ough there was only one livery stable, ther e were still 5 black smiths. Ther e wer e also 7 coal dealers and a fuel oil dealer, with 4 firm s selling o il heaters; 9 sto res were ret ailing radi os. Not to be o verloo ked wer e 13 lawy ers, a maker of veterina ry medicine, an architec t, 3 veterinari ans, 13 clothing deal ers, 8 stores retail ing confectioneries and ice cream, 24 contractors, 14 denti sts, 5 elec trical co n tractors, 5 shoe dealers, 9 shoe rep airers, 3 flori sts, 6 furniture dealers, 16 insurance agents, 6 jewelers, 20 lod ging hou ses, 12 restaurants and lun ch room s, 15 painter s and decorator s, 6 ph otographer s, 15 real estate agencies, a wagon maker and rep ai rer, a yeast manufacturer, 3 theatres, 29 truckers, 2 taxicab services, 2 und ert akers, 4 va riety sto res, an overalls manufacturer, 2 auction eer s, 14 mu sic teachers, a mic a pr oducts manufacturer, 5 laundries, 9 beauty shops, 14 barbers, 3 junk dealers, a glass dealer, a fish dealer, a bottler, 4 bakers, an artist. and a clairvoyant. In 193 I the W. P. Chambe rlain Co., Nims Plumbing Co., and th e Public Service Co. of N. H. began selling electric refr iger at ors. In this same year A rthur K. Whitcomb started his constructi on business as genera l contractor for roads. Besides general co ntrac ting, the firm also bu ilds airports and supplies Monadnock blocks and othe r 521

112 types of building materials. In 1933 Whitcomb built his first washed sand and gravel plant. In 1942 the firm began the manufacture of cement blocks. Today Arthur Whitcomb is president of both Arthur Whitcomb Construction Co., Inc. and Keene Sand and Gravel, Inc. In 1932 the World Radio Sales Agency, located in the Bruder Block, was advertising radios at lowest prices. Also in 1932, the Puritan Chain Store established a clothing store in Keene. The first manager was Henry Legere; the present manager is Edmund F. Fleming. In 1931 Mrs. Sadie Snowling established the Quality Shoppe, selling ladies' ready-to-wear. Today the store, still selling ladies' clothing, is run by Samuel C. Snowling, J r. The year 1933 also saw the beginning of Dr. William E. Dexter's optometrist's office at 23 Main Street. In 1950 the firm of Dexter Optometrists moved to the residential area of Main Street to a house renovated for their professional needs, where the practice is still carried on by Dr. Richard Dexter, the founder's son, in partnership with Dr. Joseph W. Alger. Robert P. Wheeler, in 1935, established a grain feed mill on Railroad Street, which today, known as the Elm City Grain Co., is the only such mill in Keene. In 1936 the Princess Shoe Co. was founded by Luigi L. Farina, who had been co-owner of a shoe factory in Lynn, Mass. The company made women's leather shoes in the popular price field. In 1963 the business was purchased by the United States Corp. Gino Farina is president and general manager. Frederick A. Farrar, Inc. was started in 1937 by Farrar in a rented space at Perkins Machine Shop to rebuild and repair electric motors. In 1948 it moved to a new building at 15 Avon Street, where the firm is still doing business. In 1938 Roberts-Hart, Inc. was organized by Raymond S. Robert s and Lee P. Hart to manufacture men's work shoes, and located in a building once occupied by the Crescent Shoe Co., which moved out in In 1948 Paul A. Crane bought out Roberts and in 1964 purchased H art's interest. In 1938 R alph W. Payne started R. W. Payne Inc., a construction company, which is operated today by his son, Stanley P ayne, vice-president of the concern. Around this tim e Keene had about 160 modern retail establishments. The 1940 city directory showed 48 factories which included 4 chair manufacturers, 2 box manufacturers, 3 machine manufacturers, 522

113 3 textile plant s, 3 polish manufacturers, a mica co ncern, 2 shoe manufacturers, a broom manufacturer, and a chewing gum manu facturer. The livery stables had disappeared, and ther e was onl y one blacksmith shop. There were about 40 groce ry stor es, II dressm ak ers, 18 clothing deal ers, 25 resta ura nts, 5 druggists, 16 automo bile age ncies, 5 hardware dealers, 6 bak ers, 15 barbers, 2 1 beauty parlors, 5 florists, 7 furn itur e deal ers, 17 insurance agencies, 19 lawyers, 6 jewelers, an architect, 2 auc tioneers, and a medium. A big event of 1940 was the move of radio sta tion WK NE, which had started in Springfield, VI. (t he first in that sta te) to Keen e, whe re it became the seco nd station in Ne w H ampshire. The move was made becaus e of geographica l co nd itions suitable for goo d bro ad castin g. Ca lled the Vo ice of the Twin-State Area, WKNE reaches into seven counties in thr ee state s. In 1945 its pr esent ow ne r, Joseph K. Close, bou ght the sta tion from Co lonel Harry Wild er. The studio was located at 17 Dunbar Street unt il it moved in October 1965 to its new qu arters on Stanhope Avenu e. In 1941 Grant J. Holt and his brother, Cla rence G. Holt, mo ved their Ne w E ngland Screw Co. from M assachusett s to Keene, locating in the former Boston & Ma ine R ailroad rep air shops on E merald Str eet. It was the arrival of this new con cern which allowe d the B & M sho ps to move out of Keene. Plans for the fur the r development of West Keene ga ined in mom entum as the coming of the Ne w E ngland Screw Co. saw an intensive building pr ogram develop there to supply hom es for co mpa ny employees, as well as the gene ral public. The firm manu factu red screws a nd bolts of all kinds. In 1947 the bu sine ss was bou gh t by the Ce ntral Screw Co. of Ch icago. Today David S. Jennings is president-treasurer. In 1941 a company known as Mini ature Precision Bearin gs, Inc., whi ch had been form ed the previou s year, moved to Keene, one trailer truc k handling all its equipme nt, and located in the two-story vacant Greene Mineral Paste factory. Engineer Win slow S. P ierce Jr., inventor of th e first mini ature rad ial ball bearing in 1924, was on e of the founders of the compa ny, together with Arthur N. Da niels. P ierce, a nat ive of New Jersey, married Ma ry Davenport Brush, daughter of artist George de Forest -Brush, at Dublin in H is fathe r pur ch ased a sma ll machine sho p in L eb anon for him, and it was there that the young man crea ted a meth od of fracturing a ball bearing race so that it could be rejo ined exac tly at the br eak. A company called Split Ballb earing Corp. was formed, and Pierce was one of the stockho lders. In 1938 he received an order from Carl Nord en, in 523

114 ventor of the Norden bombsight. In 1940 Miniature Precision Bearings was organized as the small bearings division of SBB, and the move to Keene marked its separation from the parent company. Officers included Pierce, Horace D. Gilbert, and Arthur N. Daniels. During the Second World War MPB's products were in highest-priority demand by the government, which required an all-out war effort by these plants. With peace came new demands for an output to satisfy the many uses for precision bearings required by a civilian-dominated market. In 1950 Horace Gilbert became president and treasurer of the firm. Winslow Pierce, after a three-year illness, died on October 5, In 1956 a new plant, the first in the United States designed specifically from the ground up for the production of miniature ball bearings, was opened on an 18-acre site on Optical Avenue, and the Winslow S. Pierce Jr. Research and Development Laboratory was dedicated. In 1957 Split Ballbearing became a wholly owned division of MPB. In 1960 the company purchased the Carter Engineering Co. of Ferrysburg, Mich., and the next year acquired the Wafe Mfg. Co. of Bridgeport, Conn. That same year MPB was incorporated in Canada and Liechtenstein. By 1963 MPB was producing bearings to 20 millionths of an inch tolerance. In 1963 they acquired the Joy Ball & Roller Bearing Co. of Chicago, and in 1965 began construction of an overseas plant at Medemblik, Holland. The Vietnam crisis generated greater military demand for miniature and instrument bearings, and employing 1,400 people in four producing plants in this country and one in the Netherlands, today MPB manufactures over 1,000 types and sizes of bearings. Currently William M. Scranton is president, and Horace Gilbert is chairman of the board. In 1945 Findings Industries, Inc. was established by John L. Thornton to manufacture finding s for the jewelry trade. Thornton is currently president of the company. Pewter Ornaments, by Christina, is a handcraft product which started as a hobby and ended as a means of livelihood and indcpendence in 1940 because of the desire of a couple to live in the country, and specifically in Keene, in the homestead of Christina Bauer. Christina Bauer, a former art teacher, forms the original models and her husband George Bauer, a former Ph.D. research scientist, utilizes his knowledge of material processing. Their products are considered exceptional as, unique in the costume jewelry business, all designs are copied from nature. Many items are cast directly from the nature specimen, such as flowers, leaves, and small sea animals. From the modeled items, cov ered bridges and other New England items, 524

115 dogs, cats, horses, birds, and sports, it can be said, they all are first in their or igina lity and qua lity. Pe wter was chosen as a metal whic h finishes like silver but places the item in a popul ar price ran ge. Also, pewter had never bee n used before in this country for orna ment-ma king. T he wo rd "pew ter," in the E uropea n sense, mean s tin witho ut th e addition of lead. The C hr istina O rna me nts sell from the M ain e coast to Virginia along the tourist ro utes, and the State of New H ampshire uses them as gifts to notable visitors as a unique souve nir from thi s state. Also in 1945, Fred D. La ure nt, an ex-marine and Keene nati ve, who was for a sho rt tim e afte r the war employed in the research dep artm ent of a Massachusetts leath er co ncern, pursued a hob by. The result was the Dou glas T oy Co., which used his middle name. Stuffed an imals of shearling lambskin and fab rics, spec ially con structed to tak e ro ugh handling, wer e his products. In the firm was bo ught by St. Clair M. Smith, who is currently president-treasurer. The name is now Douglas Co. Inc. M ost popular amo ng the ap proxima tely 100 toy models are the little stuffed dolls with pla stic heads and vinyl faces, Boy Blu e and Bonnie. Of the stuffed an imals, the raccoon and squirrel are favorites. In 1946 G uy E. MacM illin formed the M acmillin Co., Inc., which became one of the largest co nstruction firms in the area. T oday J am es D. Walk er is president. A former officer of the compan y, R ichard E. Bean, left in 1954 to for m the R. E. Bean Co nstruc tion Co., Inc., which he still operates in In 1947 a gro up of merch ant s set up the Keene Bus iness Bureau, whi ch was reorgani zed in 1954 as the Great er Keen e Ch amber of Commerce. The current man aging dir ector is William W. McGowan III, who coordina tes th e efforts of more than 300 members in 35 committees. T o create a "shop Keene" attitude, th is organization instituted suc h merch andi sing idea s as the Sidewalk Carnival Days, during which merch ants move part of th eir wares outdoors and don cos tumes for festival sales at the booth s, and a new look during the holid ay season, with 42 garland "fantasy" trees to light the Ce ntra l Square business dist rict, a Chr istmas tree on the Co mmo n with 1,000 multi-colored light s, and an annual Christmas pa rad e with aro und 30 floats and 7 bands. O ther pr ogram s in rece nt years have included a citywide bea utificatio n program, an education p rogram of career opportunities in th e area, and a comprehe nsive study for planning, expans ion, and ren ovation s in the cen tral business district. The Cha mber was successful in its efforts in 1964 to have Keen e nam ed an A Il 525

116 America Cit y, the first so designated in New Hampshire. The award was "ma de in recognition of progress achieve d thro ugh int elligent citizenship action." The Mon adnock Cutlery Co., Inc. moved into a factory on R ailroad Street in to begin the manu facture of manicure and surg ica l inst ru ments. The founder, Le on J. Bergeron, is still president of the conce rn. At th e sugges tion of Govern or She rman Adam s, the Ke en e Indus trial Founda tion was form ed in The purpose of the or gani zation, financ ed by ind ividu als, is to aid existing bu siness and enco urage new indu str y to settle in Keene. Diversification is the key word with emp has is on "hard goo ds." Al so in 1951, Rowco Mfg. Co. established a bu siness on Emerald Street to mak e portabl e power br ush cutters. In recent yea rs the firm has added othe r lines of power equipme nt. Arshag M. Ho vhannesian is vice-pres ide nt and genera l man ager. In 1952 the Am eri can Optical Co. of Southbridge, Ma ss., bu ilt a bra nch fact ory in Industrial Park off Marlboro Street. The first res ide nt manager was W. Kelle y Hann on. At the start of operations in Keen e the com pa ny manufactured bo mb sight asse mblies for the Air Fo rce, optics for ra nge finders, and ae rial came ra lenses, and later added micr oscopes, o ptica l machiner y, rifle telescop es, and tank periscop es. The curre nt plant man ager is Kenneth L. Pursell. In 1955 Albert J. R icci, founder of The Melody Shop, Inc. ( which was established in 1945 to sell record albums, radios, and ph onographs ) br ou ght the television cable to Keene, making T V reception mor e un iversal throu ghout the city. They were also first in Keene with color T V. In 1962 Ricci sold his cabl e bu siness, Bett er TV, and it becam e New E ngland Vid eo. Wh en it was sold again in 1964, this tim e to Am erican Ca ble Vision, the firm kept the nam e New E ngland Video, making it a division of the pa rent compan y. O ver 56 miles of cable provide recepti on of nine television stations an d all-band FM. In 1966 R icci sold The M elod y Sho p to M ar io Farina, who ope ra tes it tod ay as the MGF Melod y Shop in a new place of busine ss at 102 Main Street. The Abbott Co. moved fr om Clinton, Mass., to Keene, locating on Railroad Str eet, where they manuf actured baby's play pen s and cribs; with Arthur L. English as general man ager. In 1964 the bu siness was tak en over by the Abbott Industri es Inc., whi ch mak es ha rdwood products. In 1957 H. Leigh Ma cd on ald bega n a one-ma n ce ra mic co n 526

117 cern, Folklore Pottery, operating in a single room in th e Bennett Block on Washington Street. Hi s war es have been sold throu gh out th e U nited States. In Edwa rd Fairbank s and his brothe r, L ester Fairbanks, built Keene's first shopping plaza on WestStreet, and in 1966 Riverside Plaza ope ned on Winchester Street near th e Keene byp ass. In th e W KBK radi o sta tion was es tablishe d by th e Monadnock Broad castin g Co rp. with a studio on Vernon Stree t. T alb ot R. Hood, one of th e own er s, is ge nera l man ager. This stat ion has th e first and only radi o- equipped mobil e unit in Ch eshire Co unty. A t the present time Keene has 35 modern factories, with 46 different p roducts, making it a city of wid ely diversified indu str y. It has one of th e lowest rates of unemployment in th e sta te. Abo ut $ 15, 500,000 is paid annually to approxima tely 4,500 per son s in wages, and nearl y $32,000, 000 in finished wo rk results from these ac tive esta blishme nts. The princip al product s include furniture of va rio us kinds, shoes, textiles, surgica l instrument s, toys, drill ing mach iner y, electronic co mpo nen ts, opt ical instrume nts, mini ature ball bearings, bu sin ess forms, jewe lry findings, indu strial marking equipmen t, silve r and furn iture poli sh, machine too ls, and specialty products. Keen e is the trading center fo r so uthweste rn New H ampshire, serving an estima ted 100,000 ind ividuals, with over 385 ret ail sto res and about 200 professional offices, The three national bank s have appro xim at ely $27,000, 000 in dep osits; th e two sav ings banks abo ut $3 4, 000,000; its one co-ope ra tive bank has close to $8,000,0 00. Among th e lar gest em ployers in th e c ity are the hom e offices of two ins ura nce firm s (Nationa l Grange Mutual In su ran ce Co. and Peerless Insuran ce Co.) which do busin ess throughout the nation. Ther e are now appro xima tely 8 accountants and aud ito rs ; 10 appraiser s; 4 architec ts; 32 lawy er s; 34 auto mo bile accessories dealer s, gar ages, and repairers; 23 insuranc e age nts and agenc ies representing a grea te r number of insurance compani es; 8 laundries; 6 milk de alers; I I mu sic teach ers; 20 paint er s and decorators; I I dealer s in oil burners and equipme nt; 7 ph ot ographer s; 5 printer s; 34 rea l esta te dealer s; 24 rest aurants; 7 shoe dealer s; 2 theaters; 3 tr avel age ncies; 3 vete rinarians; 29 a utomo bile age ncies; I I barber sho ps; 2 1 beauty sho ps; 7 sparling goods sto res; 72 ca rpenters, co ntrac to rs, and bu ilder s ; 7 cleane rs and dyers; 17 den tists; 6 finan ce co mpa nies ; 30 groce rs; 7 h ardwar e dealers; an d 5 vari ety sto res. 527

118 Keene Precision Park, a planned industrial district 528

119 KEENE GLASS by Kay Fox "Today, for those who collect old glass, there is in addition the fascination of historical and social significance, for each piece which has survived is tangible evidence of a way of life, of a stage in social and industrial development, and frequently of events which stirred man's emotions." This quote from a work of two universally acknowledged authorities on American blown glass, George S. and Helen McKearin, explains the widespread appeal of glass made in Keene during the early 19th century. A placid, compact village in 1810, Keene was even then noted for its wide, level main street lined with Lombardy poplars, lofty elms and buttonwood trees. At its head stood a large Congregational meetinghouse, whose broad front gazed majestically down the full sweep of this principal thoroughfare, visibly emphasizing a dominant position in matters moral and intellectual, as well as religious. Though industry had yet to stretch beyond the saw and gristmill stage, nearly a dozen shops and stores occupied the wooden buildings scattered up and down the mile-long avenue. The weekly newspaper detailed news from Europe and the national scene; its publisher, also the local printer, maintained as well both the town bookstore and a circulating library. Out of a population of 1,646, there were three doctors and seven lawyers. Keene's bank was the only one in the county. Though town residences were sm all, like their gardens they were well-kept and attractive to the eye. The majority of inhabitants were farm dwellers, self-sufficient and noted for thrift and hard work; their 529

120 well- cultivat ed lan ds comma nde d a fine view of timber-cover ed hill s and mou ntain s. Indeed, Yal e' s President Timothy Dwi ght in writ ing of his travels had proclaim ed : " Keene has been lon g estee med the pr etti est village, as it is unquesti on abl y the lar gest, in th e W estern par ts of New H am psh ire. At a subse quent visit, I th ou ght it one of th e pleasantest inl and towns, whi ch I had seen." It was a tim e of peaceful cha nge. Hi ghways were re plac ing old brid le pa ths and talk was stirring ho pes of making th e As huelot R iver, on whic h Keene was situa ted, nav igable for large freight boats. Local businessm en envisioned unt old pros pe rity th rou gh th is quicker and cheaper tr an sp or tation. A t the beginning of th e 19t h century no mor e th an a dozen glass ho uses we re func tio ning th roughout th e entire 'co untry. In a yo ung nati on with a rising populati on there was an ever-inc reasing need for window glass, as well as for bo ttles in all sha pes and sizes for w ine, cider, salad o il, medicines, toilet water, and the like. But U. S. glass manufacturers co uld not co mpe te with those of E urope. Assista nce at the fede ra l level, in th e fo rm of prot ecti ve tariffs, was lack ing. T here was also, on th e part of th e consum er, a relu ct ance to di splace for eign impor ts, as most ea rly dom estic glass was una ble to match th e qu ality of the products of lon g-establish ed E nglish, Iri sh, and Co ntinen ta l glasshouses. But dramati cally the situa tion ch anged. O ur shipp ing becam e a ca sualt y of blockades imposed by the two belli gerent s aga inst each ot he r in th e Napoleo nic Wa rs. To for ce bo th E ngland and F ra nce to honor U. S. rights on the high seas, President Thom as J efferson pr op osed the E mbargo Act, th us forbiddi ng all foreign comm erc e. The results pro ved disastrous to our eco no my and th e No n- Inte rco urse Ac t, prohibit ing tr ad e o nly with the two hostil e powe rs, was subst i tut ed. T he situation only worsened and by we were at wa r wit h Britai n. W ith thi s co ntinual disru ption of commerce, th e growing nati on was deprived of man y of th e requisites of good livin g. On e such item was glass wa re. T hough the first definite sta tement regarding the establishment of a glass fact or y in Keene appe ared in th e local newspaper on F ebru ary 12, 1814, whe n D aniel Bradford, A aron Appleton, and T imothy T witch ell, three of the 13 o rigina l pr opriet ors of the fac tory, gave notice that th ey wo uld be need ing a qu ant ity of tim ber for build ing, undou btedly th e idea for setting up such an industry had bee n under con sid er ation for some tim e. 530

121 As Warwick, M ass., is only about 21 miles to the so uth, word of that town's pr ogres s in such an experiment mu st have circulated in Keen e. An article in the New Hampshire Sentinel, November 10, ] 859, signed with the init ials "J.W.," reported that half a century ago the author, then a member of Willi ams College, was contacted by Dr. E be nezer H all about a la rge building ca lled "S he rma n's glasshou se," locat ed atop a mountain road lead ing to Williams Co llege. Althou gh no glass had ever been made the re, it was said that Sherman, a well-to- do farmer, had erec ted a furn ace in the hope that he might cha nce upon a lucky admixture of materials. After he exp end ed his small fortune to no avail, the furna ce stood idle. HaH, a school tea cher turne d ph ysician, and ambitious to bett er his per son al financ es, asked ''J.W'' to request, the next tim e he crossed th e mountain, Sherman's permission to co nd uct an ex perim ent in th e furnace. Both appeals wer e gra nted, and after seve ra l tri als H all returned to Warwick excited over a few specimens of glass. H is good luck stimulated a regul ar glass mani a in Warwi ck, and the incorporation date of that town's F ra nklin Gl ass Factory occ ur red Fe bruary 12, 181 2, altho ugh th e first melting of glass did not tak e pla ce until Sunday, September 5, Keene was growing in population and wea lth in spite of new taxe s and the thr eat of a nati onwide fina ncial pan ic wrou ght by the War of It wa s only reasonable that a number of loc al citi zen s would pool their capita l to set up a glass manufactory, th ere by bringing them selves and the co mmunity no small measure of profit from a commodity no lon ger avai lable from ove rseas. O r so they thou ght. The 13 men who band ed togeth er in th is enterpr ise were individ uals of civic and business prominence. G ilbert M ellen was an esta blishe d hot elkeeper; Daniel Watson, one of Keen e's 10 highe st taxp ayers in 1810, ca rried o n a large tr ad e in genera l merchandise and saddl ery ; Abel Blak e, at 55 the olde st of the proprietors, was also am on g the 10 highest taxp aye rs of ; Dani el B radfo rd had been nam ed selec tma n for two successive yea rs, and 18 13; Aaron A ppleton was in trade with his nephew by marriage, John Ell iot ; Am os Twitchell had alrea dy wo n recogniti on as an eminent surgeo n and ph ysician ; his brother, Timothy Twitch ell, had capt ained a ship, voy age d aro und the world and returned to Keene, whe re he would marry at the end of th e yea r ( 18 14) Susan Wat son, the dau ghter of one of th e aforeme ntioned pr oprietors; Nathaniel Sprague, a former Dartmouth stude nt, at 24 was the youngest of the stoc kho lders and so n of the lat e Pe leg Sprag ue, wh o had been active in both sta te and nati on al gov ernment; John Pr enti ss was Kee ne's pr inter and news 531

122 paper publisher; Albe Cady was prominent in local politics, having been town treasurer, town clerk, representative and selectman during the years 1809 to 1814; John Towns was a blacksmith, contractor and builder; Luther Smith, a clockmaker and brass founder; and Justus Perry, who had arrived from Marlborough two years previously, was already a successful merchant. Although none of the shareholders possessed a working knowledge of glassmaking, they wisely persuaded Lawrence Schoolcraft, superintendent of a glasshouse near Albany in New York State, to manage Keene's new factory. However Schoolcraft's name came to the attention of the proprietors, Timothy Twitchell met him by appointment in the spring of 1814 at Albany, N.Y., to discuss the project. The offer tempted Schoolcraft and he reached Keene the following summer. On August 17, 1814 he wrote to his son, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, who was at that time superintendent of a glass factory at Salisbury, Vt.: "I arrived at Keene on the 16th instant, and Caty Ann & myself found it one of the most beautiful country places we ever were in. The stockholders and directors of the establishment here were most highly pleased at my arrival, and by no means will let me go back again-i had hopes they would. I have already agreed to Caty Ann's tuition by one of the most accomplished ladies of Boston in this place. She is to board with the preceptress, in one of the finest houses in the place. Many young ladies from Boston are now in the school. "Arrangements for the works are in a state of forwardness, the buildings up & materials provided. I will write you more particularly in a few days...." Lawrence Schoolcraft, a veteran of the American Revolution, had received valuable training in the successful window glass factory at Hamilton, not far from Albany, N.Y., where he was superintendent from 1802 until he left' to assume management of a new glasshouse at Vernon, in western New York State. Both Lawrence and his son, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, who after a brief interval in glassmaking enjoyed a distinguished career in other fields, were prolific letter writers. Fortunately a significant amount of their correspondence has been preserved, from which dates and other details of their profession can be verified. In 1810 Lawrence was writing from Vernon to his son that sales were brisk and the demand was greater than the supply. According to one letter he had left the glassworks at Hamilton over a disagreement with several individuals, including James Kane, one of 532

123 the incorporators. However, as the son was to write of his father years later, the elder Schoolcraft was adept in the "disciplinary knowledge and tact in the government of men" which "united to amenity of manners" enabled him to overcome any ill feelings he might have harbored. In March, prior to Schoolcraft's engagement as superintendent, a notice appeared in the New Hampshire Sentinel proposing a glass factory "90 feet long, 60 feet wide, and 20 foot posts and 40 foot rafters, to stand about 1/2 mile northeasterly from the meetinghouse Cheshire County Jail on what is now Fuller Park former location of N. H. Glass Factory in Keene." This location is now known (1967) as Fuller Park, on upper Washington Street. Three months later, on June 24, the Senate and House of Representatives of New Hampshire declared that Gilbert Mellen, Daniel Watson, Abel Blake, Daniel Bradford, Aaron Appleton, Amos Twitchell, Timothy Twitchell, Nathaniel Sprague, John Prentiss, Albe Cady, John Towns, Luther Smith, Justus Perry, and their associates, successors and assigns were incorporated as a body under the name of "The Proprietors of the New Hampshire Glass Factory." Furthermore, "... said Proprietors are hereby empowered to divide their capital or joint stock into any number not exceeding one hundred equal shares, and thereupon to raise by assessment any sum not exceeding fifty thousand dollars, which may be laid out in the purchase of real estate; in erecting buildings; in constructing furnaces, ovens and machinery, in purchasing materials used in the composition and 533

124 manufacture of window and other Glass, and in such che mical pr ocesses as ar e conn ected therewith, and in defr aying the expe nses incide nt to similar establishments. And the shares in said F actory shall be conside red and hold en as personal estate, and tran sfer abl e upon the books of said Corporation; (and twenty thousand dollars of the ca pita l stoc k belon ging thereto sha ll be exe mpt from tax ation fo r the term of three years from and after the first day of April next) and all wo rkmen employe d in said Fa ctory as blower s or sto ke rs, shall, while so employed, be exe mpt from milit ar y dut y. Sect. 3. An d be it fur ther enacted, That the said Aar on Appleton, Daniel Brad ford and T imothy Twitchell, or eithe r two of them, sha ll call the first meeting of said Proprietors by post ing up notification s for that purpose in at least two public houses in Keene, or by advertisem ent in the Ne w Hampshir e Sentinel pr int ed in sa id Keene fourt een days at least be fore said meetin g; at which a Clerk shall be chose n and sworn to the faithful disch arge of the duti es of sa id office ; and th ey shall also agree on th e mann er of calling fut ure meetin gs; and at th e same, or at any subsequent meetin g legally hold en, they ma y divide their capital into sh ar es; may elect th eir officers ; pa ss by-laws; orde r assess ment s; agree up on the form of transferring sha res, and do an y act or ac ts whic h may be deem ed necessar y and pr oper to carry into effect the purposes of said Co rporatio n. All electio ns shall be determined by a majority of voters pr esent or represent ed at any meeting; and all represent at ions shall be in writing signed by the p erson to be represe nted, and tiled with the Clerk; and each pr oprietor shall be entitled to the number of votes according to the number of shares ow ned by said p roprietor in the followin g prop orti on, towit : for one share, one vot e; for any number of sh ares above one and not exceeding three, two votes; for any number above three and not exceeding six, three votes; above six and not exceedin g ten, four votes ; above ten and not exceeding fiftee n, five votes ; above fiftee n and not excee ding twenty, six vote s; and no more for any greater number of shares ow ned by the same pe rso n." O n Septembe r 30, 1814, Lawrence Schoolcraft was writing from Keene to his so n : ".... Your moth er wished to move back to H amilto n, but it is now a poor place, & mu st go down. And it has no advantages for bring ing up your little sisters and brothers. I have recommended to her, to remove to Keene in the winter, or else stay at the hom estead in Vernon. Hamilton is a dem oralized place, th at destr oyed yo ur brother Peter. H ere is a moral soc iety, and fine place to educate my small children. My sala ry is $ 1200 a year. I have agreed for two 534

125 years. A fine house is building, and all it wants for me to accept it, is your mother's answer. I am hearty & well I have not felt so well in fifteen years...." Work on the cylinder window glass factory progressed slowly. There had been several stockholders' meetings as the need for added finances confronted the group even before the first melting of glass. A major problem, one that plagued most early glass factories, was the difficulty in obtaining skilled workers. Training of apprentices was long and difficult. European nations, worried over possible competition and loss of their artisans, forbade glass craftsmen to emigrateb and those who defied the authorities by departing for Ameri- can shores were not anxious to reveal the trade secrets they brought with them. In October the directors met to discuss building "a house or Share no. 16 N. H. Glass Factory houses" to accommodate employees. Glassmaking was a lengthy and tedious process, and the workmen needed to live close at hand as the call might come any hour of the day or night that the molten mixture was ready for blowing. The directors were also anxious to find ways of obtaining wood and increasing their supply of stone and clay. The financial burden became so great that by October 13th it was voted to assess shares $40 each. By October 29th the factory was advertising for 15 or 20 woodcutters and in December was asking for ashes. Twice, early in 1815, the shareholders met to decide on further assessments the money problem was urgent even before any glass had been manufactured. It was not until the second week in April 1815 that the 535

126 New Hampshire Glass Factory actually commenced operations. So great was local interest in the enterprise that the proprietors inserted a notice in the local paper that no visitors would be admitted on the Sabbath. By June 17, 1815, they were advertising the sale of window glass in sizes 6 x 8, 7 x 9, and 8 x 10. But in another month new assessments were proposed, and on August 26 it was announced that shares on which assessments had not been paid would be sold at auction. A description of the works appeared in the Literary and Philosophical Repertory for February 1816: "... a manufactory of cylinder window glass, situated in the environs of the village.... which is carried on by an incorporated company under the name of the President and Directors of the New Hampshire Glass Factory, with a capital of $50,000. These works contain two furnaces of 10 pots each, and give employment to about 25 artists, mechanics and laborers in the internal department. They are conducted by a superintendent, who directs the building of the necessary furnaces and ovens, the proportions of the ingredients for glass, and oversees the various mechanical processes within the works,-and an agent for the supply of materials, sales of glass, and keeping of accounts...." Although the business continued, so too did the difficulties. Lawrence Schoolcraft returned to Vernon after his stipulated two years were up. Whether he became dissatisfied with working conditions or whether his wife continued reluctant to leave familiar surroundings for a small New Hampshire community it is difficult to say. Dr. Ebenezer Hall, late of Warwick glass enterprise, became superintendent around this time. Hall's name appears on Keene tax rolls for only one year however Poor ingredients, plus a lack of skilled workmen, resulted in a product that did not readily find a market and was virtually limited to local sales. Notices about the need for further assessments, how the business should be conducted, and announcing auctions of shares on which assessments were overdue continued to appear in the weekly newspaper. Finally disaster loomed : "T he New Hampshire Glass Factory will be leased at public auction on Wednesday August 20, By vote of the proprietors. John Elliot, Clerk." It appears that two of the 13 proprietors, Appleton and Elliot, assumed a controlling interest. The stockholders were discouraged, unhappy over the continuing spiral of assessments and anxious to rid themselves of the unending obligations. Nearly all sold their stock for a song. Though in 1821 a notice appeared that Benjamin 536

127 F. Adams and Oliver H olman had tak en over the co ncern, by April 1822 thi s partnership was dissolved and A ppleto n and Elli ot we re back in business. A t this time the factor y owned its ow n small but efficient fire eng ine which assisted at local fires whene ver needed. On October 28, 1825, carne the announcement that the Keene Wind ow G lass Factor y (as it was then ca lled) her etofore co nducted by Appleto n and E lliot would co ntinue as John E lliot & C o., co n sisting of John E lliot, O live r H olm an and Ben jam in F. Adams. By 1829 the firm was ad ver tising as Adams, H olman and Wood, as Joh n E lliot had tr an sferred his interest to John Vase Wood. That year the firm was the seco nd highest taxp ayer in Keene, but by 1830 this partner sh ip was dissolved, and the ne w one con sisted of Ben jamin F. Ada ms, O live r Holman and O rmo nd Dutton. D espite the continual cha nge of firm names, busin ess was good, as it had been ever since A ppleto n and E lliot purch ased th e controllin g inte rest and esta blished ca reful mana gem ent. A grea t deal had bee n learned at th e expe nse and ex perie nce of th e ori ginal pr oprietor s. In the first Keene dir ectory, issued in 18 31, glass making ran ked sixth as an occupa tion. A tot al of 16 glass blowers were listed, 10 fr om Ad am s, H olman and Dutton and six from Perry, Wh eeler and Co. ( the second glass ho use established in Keen e ). F ro m its earliest days the windo w glas s factory gave employm ent to a large number of people, in additio n to the blowers. M an y were engaged in va rious dep artment s of th e manufactory, while teamsters and woodcho ppe rs were kept bu sy providing fue l for the hun gry furnaces. O the rs gathe red sa nd an d hard woo d as hes for use in preparing the glass mixture. In an 1832 report to the gov ern me nt, relativ e to manufacturers in the U. S., Dani el Watson Jr., subagent for Keene, stated th at the A dam s. H olman and Dutton W ind ow Glass Factory owned real esta te, bu ildin gs an d fixtures valued at $5,000. In addition the factory ow ned eight horses and six oxe n and use d $ 12,800 worth of wood and mat er ials for making glass, most of wh ich was obta ined in New H ampshire. The only non-d om estic substa nces listed wer e $8 00 worth of clay, impo rted from H olland, and $5 00 worth of foreign sa lt. T he yearly value of window glass was rep ort ed as $30,000, of which New Hampshire absorbed on e-four th, and the rema inder was sold in other New E ngland Stat es. Thou gh th e salary appears pit ifully sma ll by tod ay's sta ndards, th e 30 workmen emplo yed received $ 1.25 per da y, a wage th at compared most fa vo ra bly with othe r m anufacturing salaries rep orted. Around the manufactu re of window glass from crystalized 537

128 qu artz began in Kee ne, renderin g it much stronger and clearer and endo wing it with a pec uliar and beautiful lustre. Tradition cl aims tha t so me of th is qu artz was min ed o n We st H ill. T he material to be melt ed was first pulve rized und er a lar ge sto ne, sim ilar to a m illstone. The stone rotated on edge, grinding slowly as a horse plodded wearily in a circle. Thomas R and, assoc iate d with th e local new spaper for over half a century, later reminisced: " In 1840, and p robabl y fo r twenty years prior.... a hu ge wood en bu ilding stood o n a p iece of groun d a few ro ds wes t of th e present county jail on W ashington Str eet. It was sur ro unde d by sma ller build ings, she ds, sta bles and immen se piles of heml ock wood disp osed in suc h a way as to form ave nues throu gh the grounds, giving the localit y the appearance of a m iniature village. The buildings we re blacken ed by clo uds of smoke which issued fro m a wide o pe ning in th e roo f of th e main build ing. d ay and night, for abo ut five d ays of each week d uring th e winter season, reminding one of th e eruptions of Vesuvius and requiring litt le stretch of th e imagination to mak e th e hu ge struc ture see m like a rea l volc an o. T he int er ior present ed a still more we ird spectacle, for here th e mysterious p rocess of glass making was in co nsta nt ope ra tio n in its va rious stages, outside int er est in which ce ntered up on th at portion of the work pe rformed by th e 'b lowers,' a class of workm en exp ert in m anipulating the molt en, lava-like mixture co ntained ill th e big cauldron s and by mean s of th e blowpipe fo rming it int o hollow cy linde rs fo r othe r workme n to finall y con vert into merch antable window glass. A materi al diminution of th e vo lume of smoke issuing fro m th e building's 'c rater' was alway s a signal to the yo ung people th at th e melting p rocess was co mpleted and that 'blowing' was about to begin. At such times the fact ory would be crowded far int o th e ni ght with spe ctators wh o never tired of wa tchi ng the workme n who manipulated th e blowpipes. Trouse rs, slippe rs and a tight -fittin g woolen shirt comprised th e glass blow er's dress wh en at work, th e trem endou s heat fr om the glow ing melting pot s bein g almost unbearable. T en o r twelve of th ese wo rkmen station ed alo ng either side of the big furnace made a picturesque sce ne as they alte rnately di pp ed th eir blow- pipes int o the liquid fire and swung the glow ing mass tha t adhered around and above th eir heads, whi le boys with wa ter pails and dippers co ntinually passed to and fro to relieve th e burning th irst which the heat enge nde red among th ose so directl y exposed to it. With th e mo uths of th e meltin g pot s ope n th e wh ole interior o f the building was light ed up with a glow 53 8

129 th at gave the appearance of a confl agration, making a startling impression on o ne not accusto med to the sce ne. "T he blowers were, generally, foreigner s who learn ed the art of glass making in the old co untry. They co mma nded la rge wages for those times and it was said of them that they made more money th an the proprie to rs of the wo rks realized fro m their investments. Among the first-cl ass work me n in this establ ishme nt were some who made Keene their perman ent hom e. John C1 ines mith, Ch arles Hirsch, Nicholas H ilt, Henry Lange, A ugustus Smith and a few others whose nam es are not now rec alled, wer e of this num ber, but no o ne of those nam es is now living...." O nly the sketchiest de tails are kno wn abo ut the glass blowe rs. T he ir nom adi c tend encies are illustra ted in the exa mple of Charles H irsch, born in Baltimore, Md., in Hi s older brother, born in G erman y, was later assoc iated with a glass factor y in South Boston. Though it is only a guess, it see ms logical to conclude th at the fath er emigrated to th e United States to work in the Baltimore Gl ass Works, and that his sons wer e trained at an early age to their father's occupat ion. Young Charles married Isab elle M acaul ey Jam eson, of A n trim, N. H.. and the ir first three children were bo rn in Bur lington, Vt., be twee n 1834 and As the Champlain Gl ass Co mpa ny of Burlington started up in 1827, quite pro babl y Hirsch worked th ere. The next child was bo rn in Sun cook, N. H., in As this was only two yea rs afte r the Suncook G lass Works had moved ther e from Chel msford, M ass., it see ms rea son abl e to think that Hirsch was employ ed as a glass blower. Sun cook 's commercial product was window glass. By 1843, the birth year of the next child, the Hirsch family was se ttled in Keene, and the perip atetic fa ther was established as a glass blower for the windo w glass fac tory. One of the most co lorful blowers co nnec ted with thi s windo w glass facto ry was Au gustus Sm ith ( Schmidt), a Ba vari an, who died a t Keene in 184 3, at the age of 60. In his ea rlier yea rs he had mar ched with the G rand A rmy of Na po leo n. Captur ed by the British, he was se nt as a pri son er of wa r to H alifax. Afterwards he enlisted in the B ritish Army but dese rted at the first opportunity to seek haven in th e U nited Stat es. He married Susannah Trask at Keene on Ma rch 18, But the glass blowe r holdin g most inter est for devotees of New Hampshire glass is Nichol as H ilt, first men tion ed in Keene reco rds in 1826, whe n he and his wife Maria bou ght property "on the west side of the roa d leading from the Gl ass Factory to G ilsum." As a matt er 539

130 of fact Hilt is mentioned 29 time s either as grantee or grantor in the exchange of property in records in the County Court House at Keene. A number of the se transfers included Stoddard property, and by 1850 Hilt was associated with Luman Weeks, Almon Woods, Ebenezer A. Rice and Frederick A. Gilson in the manufacture of bottles at The Box, South Stoddard. Earlier Nicholas Hilt briefly owned and op erated the third glass works in Keene at a time when he wa s employed at the wind ow glass factory, undoubtedly to give him self and some co-workers employment while fluctuations in business idled the larg er firm for short periods of time. F ragments of glass of a brownish color, similar to that made at Stoddard, were found years later in the soil of what was once Hilt's Gilsum Street property, leading one local historian to conclude that the formula for certain Stoddard bottles originated in Keene with Nich ola s Hil t. After his brief venture in this neighboring town (Hilt had sold out to his partner by 1853), he co n tinu ed to make his home in Keene, where he died in 1871, aged 60. The exceedingly small amount of taxes Hilt paid Keene reveals that the so-called third glass factory was a very minor business operation, lasting just on e year-l 841. No ad s appeared for any of its products; there are no authenti cated articles attributed to it. On the other hand, the Keene Window Glass Factory's freeblown pieces, those individually creat ed specimens made by the blower for himself or his friends, are now highly collectible items. On e, listed in the 1932 sales catalogue of early American glass from the collection of Herbert Delavan Ma son, was a light green Grecian urn typ e three-quart pitcher and of it was written: "... it leave s nothing to be desired in beauty of design or clearness of color." An other free-bl own pitcher fro m this "no rth factory" was described in the same ca talogue as "one of the few known Keene lily-pad pitchers. L eaves nothing to be desired in technique or form." The lily-pad decoration, used in a number of the Keene Window Glass Factory's hand somest, freebl own " individua l pieces," was don e at the Champlain Gla ss Works and at two New York houses close by, the Redford Crown Glass Company, established in 1830, and the R edw ood Glass Work s, set up in Undoubtedly the lily-pad design travelled from glasshouse to glasshouse, as blowers moved hither and yon. Matthew ( Ma tt) Johnson, a former En glishm an and expert glass blow er, was one of those employed at Stoddard in its early glassmaking years. Having many friend s at the Keene Window Gla ss F actory, he would frequently drop in and show his prowess and 540

131 craftsmanship by fashioning a lily-pad pitcher or scent bottle with the blowpipe handed to him by admiring cronies. Local tradition insists that the content s of a bottl e added to the conviviality of the meetings. Som e of the handsomest pieces fr om this Wa shington Street factory wer e mad e by the visiting Matt John son for his friends. F or man y years a store trade was carri ed on in conjunction with the wind ow glass fact ory, and the shop ch ang ed hands alm ost as frequ ently as the glassho use. Between 1814 and 1831 there were seven ch anges of own ership in the glass factory, though often the same men either bought bac k into the company or a new partner appeared on th e scene. Foll owing Ada ms, Holman an d Du tton, John Elliot returned to the field in 1837 as sole owne r but by 1841 the factory was back in the hand s of Benjamin F. Adams, as B. F. Adams & Co. For many yea rs th ese firms were amo ng the highest taxp ayer s in the town, and altho ugh it is impossible to sepa ra te the pr ofit of the wind ow glass fact ory from th at of the store with which it was connected, without doubt both wer e success ful. Indeed, during the first half of the ] 9th century many of the highest taxpayer s in Keen e were those who nourished as trade sm en. In 1848 a new firm took over the glass factory. Joshua D. Co l on y, well established in Keene affairs, entered the business with h is two nephews, Timothy and Henry Col on y, under the name of J. D. Colony & Co. They were the last to use the old north factor y, the final names to be connected with glassma king in Keene. It is claimed th at theirs was also the last cylinder glass factory to be operated in New En gland. The effects of a severe bu sine ss depression, the lowering of import duties, and the growing sca rcity and high cost of the wood used for fuel all tolled the end by 1853 for an industry that had played a significa nt ro le in the growth of the town. For a few yea rs after the buildings had been ab and on ed they wer e a con stan t reminder of ano ther er a. As the N ew Hampshire Sentinel editorialized in 1855 : "... its lofty front still stands, a monument of better days and of a better policy in our national government. The free trade stupidity has kn ocked down more glass factories and interrupted more industri es than the fiercest wind s th at ever blew." By the end of that year, on Saturday, December] 5, ] 855, an incendi ar y's torch reduced the entire plant to ashes. Altho ugh the fire compani es responded promptly to the alarm, lac k of water block ed all att empts to quell the flam es. It was remarked that the loss to the owne r was not seri ous, but considerable to those who for a long time had resorted nightly to the desert ed pr emi ses for firewo od. A fine growth of clover spra ng 541

132 up as a result of the ashes formerly used there and neighb orhood cows enjoyed exce llent pasture. In the 1870's the gro und was used by a baseball club an d in 1885 a county jail was ere cted there. In 1926 an armor y was built on the site, and whe n a new armo ry was erected at West Keene in 1959, the older building began serving as hea dquarters for both the city's Recreation Department and the Golden Age Club. But it is Keene's second glass co mpa ny, the works erected on Marlbo ro Street, and some times referred to as the "south factory," that produced the thousands of bottles and flasks now pr ized by collector s. On Novemb er 2 1, 1814, about three mo nths after his arrival in Ke ene, Lawrence Schoolcraft, first sup erintendent of the wind ow glass factory, wrote to his son, H enr y R owe Schoolcraft : "It is in co ntemplation here, to have a F lint glass establishment by two gentleme n of th is town. Th ey want a third on e to join them, to tak e a third part of the concern, and yo ur nam e ha s been mentioned to me, as a pr op er person to engage in it, and to tak e the superint endence of the same. You menti oned in a lett er to me that yo u had a not ion to take a fifth part of the stock of the Vermont work s, but had not agreed. Sho uld you see any da nge r of failure in the Vermont wor ks, take this into consideration. Flint works are very pr ofitabl e at present. Shoul d you ta ke a no tion to be concerned in th e works, you might still stay six months in Vermont, & in the meantime 1, with one of the concern he re, could pu t the m in grea t forwardn ess. After yo ur answer to me, one of the gentlemen will ca ll on you to co nsult on the business. An answer is wished for, without delay. T his is a secret, and mu st be kept as such. T he perso ns wait your answe r to make other arra ngements, if you decline, being determin ed to go on with the business." T imothy T witchell and Da niel Watson, both proprietor s of the window glass fac tory, were the two gentlemen mentioned in Schoolcraft 's lett er. Within a month T witchell was to marry Wa tson's daughter, Susa n, and it seem s evident that the well-to-do prospective fatherin-law was satisfied to become a "silent partner. " H is property on the T hird Ne w H ampshire T urn pike ( now Ma rlboro Street ) on the east side of Beaver Brook was to be the loca tion of the pr oposed fac to ry. T he name Schoolcraft fi gur es prom inently in the history of Keene glass. T hough Lawrence Schoolcraft was the guiding ment or in the beginnings of the wind ow glass factory, his fame is overs ha dowed by that of his son. Born in Watervliet, N.Y., in 1793, the younger Schoolcraft developed into a precocious child, prefe rring studies to the 542

133 usual boyhood amusements and eager to excel in every undertaking, whether it was building a simple waterwheel or collecting a shelf of minerals. Of an optimistic and self-confident nature, he early mastered the art of gla ssmaking under the tutelage of his fath er at the exten sive glassworks of the Hamilton Manufacturing Society. At the age of 15 he was sufficiently experienced to travel to Philadelphia to obtain a particular type of clay used to make pots for melting glass. When his father left Hamilton for Vernon in 1808 to assume superintendency of the Oneida Glass Factory, the first window gla ss factory to be established in central New York State, Henry Rowe followed in the fall of 1809 and unquestionably worked under his father for a short time. However, by early 1810 young Schoolcraft wa s associated with a new company, the Ontario Glass Works at Geneva, Ontario County, N.Y. Some three years later he was in Salisbury to superintend the newly established Vermont Glass Factory on the banks of Lake Dunmore. Here he also pursued the sch olastic subjects he so enjoyed and, under the direction of P rofesso r F rederick Hall of Middlebury College, he built a chemical furnace and made a se ries of experiments. Anxious to apply his results, he urged the Ver mont Com pany to let him produce works of flint and cry stal glass, a phase of the craft that see med to occupy more and more of his thoughts. T he Salisbury works conte mplated a seco nd factory to make bottles. W ith pr ospects of two glas shouses, thin gs were growing difficult and Henr y Rowe offe red his fath er on e of the fact ori es to manage. But at that tim e L awrence Schoolcraft felt that he was well situated at Keene and recommended his son retain co ntro l of both Salisbury work s : " Keep what you have in your power-it is not so easy to get it, as to lose it." Letters betw een father and so n em ph asize the respect with which the latter received advice and the clo se family ties which existed. Nevertheless, young Henry Rowe was restle ss. The sit uation in Vermo nt was not shaping up to his lik ing ; he would have preferred a milit ary commission in the Wa r of 1812 which wa s raging along the frontiers. Added to that, his olde r brother Peter, who had been with him at Salisbur y. had gone to another gla ss factory, to the displ easure of the Vermont pr oprietors. And to make matters more intol erable, young H enr y wa s having difficulty in collecting his own salary. Yet it wa s not easy to make up his mind to leav e for a new ventur e and he gave his fath er no definite an swer concerning the proposed flint glassworks. T hen a letter dated the last day of December 1814 arrived fro m 543

134 Timothy Twitchell in Keene: "We think this place has advantages which are not to be found in perhaps any place in New England. Wood is in plenty and is brought several miles without any hill and at a cheaper rate than in any of the neighboring towns. Building is done at less expense than at almost any place. Water carriage can be had from all parts of the United States and the world to within 12 miles of this place and on account of the situation of the country all travel to Boston & Eastward must come through this place from the West & Northwest. You will find Keene a handsome village and in it you will find good society. Good rock sand is to be had in any quantity at the distance of 60 miles and I expect without much doubt it may be had within 35 miles. All the other materials can be had conveniently as at any place. In case we could agree the business would be conducted by you.and myself. I think if Flint Glass business can be carried on to advantage at any place it can be done here & I believe your Father will agree with me in this. If you should have any idea that you should like something like what I have mentioned I should like to hear from you as soon as possible as I think if we Plan for th e flint glass manufactory determine to go forward the sooner we begin the better. I have made an estimate of the probable expense with the assistance of your Father and if you think it not too much trouble I should be pleased to have an estimate from you exclusive of the building, as you will not be able to calculate the expense of building here. We should wish to 544

135 Letter from Timothy Twitchell to H. R. Schoolcraft erect the works substantial and with economy. I was led to think of you from conversation with Mr. James Kane of Albany last spring when I met your Father there." A footnote to the letter said: "Be so good as to let this be seen by no man." Glassmaking was still conducted under a veil of mystery and the formulas carefully guarded. The emphasis that both Lawrence Schoolcraft and Timothy Twitchell place on secrecy indicate that even the contemplation of such a work was kept in strict confidence. On January 9 Twitchell answered a note from Schoolcraft and 545

136 stated that he would meet with him at the end of the week or the beginning of the followin g one. T witchell's next letter to Henry Rowe is dated Janu ary 30, 1815 : "Since you left this place I have drawn a plan of the building you left a sketch of and find if the sides are 17 feet the diameter wi ll be 41 and if the diameter be 35 the sides will be a trifle shor t of 15. I wish you to write me by the next mail how large the side s must be wheth er 15 or ] 7 feet and whether you expected the posts of the wings to incline the same as those of the main building or whether they are to be er ect if they are erect the plates cannot be framed int o the posts of the main buil ding, as the y are inclin ingyou will kn ow whether 15 feet will be a sufficient width or not and will give me the nece ssary instruction s by the next mail if possible. We commence taking wood this day and are forwarding the thin g as fast as possible." By February Twitchell was writing: 'The bricks which was (sic ) mentioned co uld be procured thi s winter arc ] 2 mile s distant and will cos t thr ee dollars per 1,000 for transp orting and four and a half at the kiln. Therefor e as they will cost seve n and a half dollars per M I thought best to take no more than would be necess ary for the furnace and was not positive whether we sho uld want 10, 000 for that purpose therefore wish you would write me immediately on the receipt of this how man y we hav e to get this wint er. Th e man will commenc e fetching befor e I shall have your answer but will not have many thousands here before that tim e-we can procure br icks made for four dollars per M in the spring by contract if not less-we have taken abo ut ] 00 cord woo d & engaged abo ut the qu antity we shall want. H ave engaged the ston es for und erpinning but have not yet let out the building but expect to this week. We have mad e a contract with one of our stores our orders for goods and they discount] a per cent on the amount we to settle (s ic) and pa y every six months which I think is a good bargain as we may pay consider abl y less in store pay as well as cash. M r. Watson has bou ght the old hou se near the Factory gro und and is about rep airing it and a very goo d famil y has engaged to go int o it to keep our boa rders (workme n). I think this would be bett er than for us to purehase-mr. W atson sends respects...." Later that month he was writing Schoolcraft that he had made inquiries regarding a blacksmith and had also found a shop in the village " in the cent er of business" where they could sell their product s. H e added that they had been obliged to pay from $4 to $5 for blowpipes from the New H ampshire G lass F actory as no on e knew how to mak e them. Th ey ha d also con tracted fo r a frame for the 546

137 whole building for $2 00 and had procured more than two tons of L ewisbor o sand and engaged a workman recommend ed by Henry's father. He concluded on a hopeful note regarding the end of the War of 18 12: "Peace will let us get our own clay ea rly fro m Phil ad elphia." By March Twitchell's letter was commenting of their progress "a s well as could be expccted" -and added th at he had engage d a mason formerly with the New H ampsh ire Glass Factory for less money th an customa ry in view of the length of the job. He ends : " I am going to Boston next stage to be gone about a week & I sha ll hope to find you in Keene on my return. If it would be agreeable you can board with me as soo n as I return." Sch oolcraft evide ntly arrived o n schedule for the next correspo nde nce is addresse d to him at Keene and dated April 12, It was fro m Pet er Starr, a lawyer who was str iving to collect H enry's back salary from the Vermont Gl ass Works, and he ment ion s tha t he has commenced suit in the Co unty Co urt and has att ached the real estate of the compa ny. Articles of co -partnership between Timoth y T witchell and H enry Rowe Schoolcraft were signed on Jul y 25, 1815: "... for the purpose of erecting work s and carr ying on the manufact ure of Flint Gl ass Ware generally in its vario us br anch es." As pa rt of the agreement neither party was to engage in the manufacture of glassware or any ot her manufacture which might interfere with the co ncern. Schoolcraft was to take cha rge of work in the interior of the building and devote his time and skill as an artist in the co nstruction of suitable furnaces, ovens, pot s (or crucibles) and in the compos ition and fusion of flint or other glass deemed most advant ageou s to manu facture. T witchell was to keep the boo ks, as well as to trans act the outdoor business, procuring all materi als necessary in building the factory and in making the glass. He was also responsible for selling the products and bu ying, selling and retailing goods, wares and mercha ndise genera lly. Both sa laries were retroactive to Fe brua ry 1, 181 5, and the agreement was witnessed by Tw itchell's wife, Susan, and his fath er-in-l aw, Daniel Watson. On April 15, 18 15, Schoolcraft's former instructor, F rederick H all, had writte n ment ionin g H enry's experime nts on Clarendon sand and express ing appreciation for ass istance in obtaining new subscribers to the Literary and Philosophical R epertory, published in Middlebury, Vt. H e also requested informat ion on the new Keene flint glassworks. Schoolcraft com plied and the following, from a letter publish ed in the Fe brua ry issue, indicat es his great expectations: 547

138 These works were built at the instance of Captain Timothy Twitchell, one of the principal pr oprietors, and are situated half a mi le from the village on the roa d leading to Boston, 80 miles distant fro m that town and 12 from Connecticut river. T he Glass-house is an octagonal wooden building, 42 feet at the base, and rising in the form of a co ne to the height of 53 feet, whe re it ter minates in a spac ious ventilator for the escape of smoke and other gaseou s bodies, whi ch are liber ated in great abundance from the bu rn ing of wood in the fu rn ace below, and the fusion of the materials empl oyed for m aking glass. There are wings on eac h side of th e main building, divided into co nve nient apartments for prepari ng materi als and crucibles, and for various ot her processes necessary in the man ufactu re. Connected with this manufactory are work s for cutting and polishi ng all sorts of gla ss, which enables the pr oprietors to have their war e finished, with a beauty that has lon g been called for in American glass. "This manufactory has been in operation abo ut three month s; it contain s one furnace of seven crucibles or pots and furn ishes employment for 16 workmen, exclusive of thos e employed during the winter sea son for cho pping wood. R especting the quality of the ware, I will ad d, th at it has obtain ed a high repu ta tion for its p u rity and strength, and th at the local adva ntages of the wo rks and the success which has att ended them gene rally, give th e pr oprietors full co nfidence in their prosecution...." In October Schoolcraft, in Albany to purch ase bro ke n glass, or cull et, was co ntempla ting an expa nsion of the firm. As his partner wrote fro m Keene : "... I think I feel pleasure with the ide a of forming a con nection with the gentleman you menti on aft er your description of h.rn and hope he will find no objection s in me to the connection. I co ncl ude in case we for m a connection wit h Mis ter D. th e calculation is to ope n a store of goo ds which you know I have alw ays thoug ht wo uld be of the first co nsequence to our co nce rn. I conclude he will expect to ta ke into account of cou rse our time in erecting the works-l think it wo uld be well for him to co me.... and if eve rything sho uld be sat isfacto ry we then ca n clo se the business. In case we ca lculate to open a sto re I think we ought not to lose the hire of F isks & I th ink it will not be let befo re yo u return. We are all well as co uld be expect ed. Dodge has begun making pots tod ay." By November 25, 1815, the local newsp aper was adve rtising "flint glass tumblers and dec anters and similar descript ion s of 548

139 glassware," from Twitchell and Schoolcraft' s factory. It seems the business dea l with Mister D. fell through, as no further mention of him is ever made. T he partners eventually mov ed their warehouse, however, fro m the manufactory to the Red House (store) one door north of Shirtliff's Tavern (now the Eagle Ho tel). This is one of the last public notices of the T witchell-schoolcraft partnership. By March 20, 18 16, came the announcement of the articles of co-partnership between He nry Ro we Schoo lcraft and Na thaniel Sprague. Article one sta ted that the subscribing parties ent ered into co-partnership to man ufacture glassware (not specifically flint glass as in the earl ier alliance ) and the firm would be known as Schoolcraft and Sp rague. Fur thermore both woul d share evenly all expenses and the profits would likewise be evenly divided. A fur ther regulat ion, sim ilar to an ea rlier o ne agreed to by Schoolcraft and Twitchell, de clared tha t neither party would enga ge in any other occupation during the cont inuance of the co- partnership without the ot her' s con sent. A newspaper item announced tha t Schoolcraf t and Sprague wou ld assume the indebtedness of T witchell and Schoolcraft. There seem s to be no reason for the dissolution of the partnership bet ween the latter other th an the business difficulties unexpectedly encountered when peace opened the floodgates of imp orts, deluging the country with E nglish and Con tine ntal glassw are. Together with the numerous domes tic glass factor ies spaw ned to fill a wartime vo.d, the supply far exceeded the demand. Forei gn man ufacturers were willing to undersell in order to reinstate their products in popular favor and wre ck do mestic compe tition. Accordingly, a depression swept over the enti re industry, hitting in particular those fact ories tu rning out the more expensive flint glass. Twitchell was a fa mily man, his first child ha ving been born in 18 15, and he felt enc umbered to seek his fortune elsewhere. H e left Kee ne for Petersburg, Va., where he stayed six year s, and then mo ved his growi ng family to Pensacola, Fla., engaging for the next 30 years in the merca ntile and lumber business, and returning to Keene in 1851, where he died in 1867, aged 84. Nathaniel Sprague, on the other hand, was a bachelor, and remained so to the end of his life. Before he joined Schoo lcraft, he was affiliated with the window glass factory. That, too, was undergoing d ifficult times. Both young men (Sprague was 26, Schoolcraft 23 ) belonged to the Keene Light Infantry, Sprague being the captain and Schoolcraft one of the four sergeants, and no do ubt Sprague was carried away by his friend's usual optimistic forecast. Neither had fam 549

140 ily responsibilities; they were free to work and to dream of coming fortune. In June 18 I6 the New Hampshire Legislature exempted the Flint Glass Factory from taxation for five years, providing the valu e of the property did not exceed $10,000. Furthermore, it exempted the workmen there-one master stoker, two common stokers, two wood-dryers, one calciner, one pot-maker, and the blowers-from military duty while employed in their respective occupations in the factory. But despite the tax exemption the downward trend continued. A letter to Schoolcraft and Sprague from J ames Andrews & Co. at Boston, dated July 17, 1816, is significant, indicating both inability to procure qualified glass blowers and the current slump in the market: "Your favor of the 15th inst. came duly to hand-our vessel arrived from Bremen a short time since, we had no particular communication from Mr. Winthrop respecting the workmen you wished him to procure from Germany. Our vessel remained there so short a time & he was so much engaged, that he probably had not time to attend to it, and we feel doubtful whether he would be able to succeed without having some funds placed there for that purpose-we expect another vessel from there in the course of a month or six weeks, perhaps by her we shall have some particulary (sic), which we will immediately acquaint you with. We cannot at present recommend your sending any glass ware here, as our market is completely overstocked with all kinds of glass & crockery ware, which makes it very low and dull sale. We should feel happy if we could encourage any thing at this time but we never wish a commission at the expense of our friends...." Nor was it easy for the young capitalists to collect their just dues. Even by Ju ly the books listed nearly 50 names, with the amounts owed to the earlier partnership of Twitchell and Schoolcraft, totaling $200.17, still unpaid. At the same time the partners had a hea vy debt to pay and by Au gust 31 Schoolcraft had bor rowed over $370 fro m his father. Nevertheless a letter fro m William Lee, late consul at Bordeaux, dated Novem ber 24, 18 16, ind icates that the partners were still looking for skilled cr aftsmen : "I understa nd from a mutual friend of ours, Seth Hunt Es quire, that you are interested in a glass worker. A Swiss who has been regularly brought up to that business came over in the same ship with me from F rance. H e is an industrious sober man who has had a good education. H is part is that 550

141 of the composition. He speaks French and German and tells me he would engage for low wages that would clothe and support him in his frugal way. I think he is an estimable man. As all the factories in this vicinity are at a stand, if you are in want of such a man he would come cheap and be found highly useful. If my letter should meet consideration please to direct to Mrs. Lee at No.5 Broad Way (sic) New York as I shall be absent to Washington-on opening the letter she will send for the Swiss if you can employ him and direct him how to reach Keene...." The post-war business panic continued to chill infant industries. On December 16, 18 I 6, Schoolcraft and Sprague had a $300 mortgage on their property. The next month they received a loan of $ from Henry's father. This new advance, however, proved of no avail, for in addition to the widespread depression, Schoolcraft and Sprague, like the original proprietors of the Window Glass Factory, were not careful administrators and spent more than they earned. Their financial troubles grew and by February 1817, the Flint Glass Manufactory was still under mortgage to Justus Perry for $300. By April young Schoolcraft was back in Vernon, methodically inventorying his liabilities, both in a private capacity and as a partner in the firm of Schoolcraft and Sprague. On September 17, 181 7, he was declared an insolvent debtor. But he remained undiscouraged. As Professor Hall had written to him earlier : "You have youth, health, vigor, leisure, the manual means, a strong intellect and a determined persevering desire to excel in whatever undertaking you are engaged. Enjoying all these advantages the public has a right to expect much from you." Only 24, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft took financial ruin in stride. Fully aware of his own potential, he turned westward. Tradition maintains that he took nine-year-old Salmon Portland Chase of Keene along with him on the journey, as the boy's recently-widowed mother wished to place him under the instruction of his uncle, Philander Chase, Episcopal Bishop of Ohio. Young Chase eventually became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and presided over the trial of Jefferson Davis and the impeachment proceedings against President Andrew Johnson. He won posthumous fame when his portrait was selected to appear on the $ I0,000 bill. The subsequent career of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft has dimmed his early association with glassmaking, He explored southern Missouri and Arkansas, pioneered in studies of the North American Indians, became a member of the Michigan Territorial Legislature, helped to found that state's historical society, negotiated a treaty with the In 551

142 Gla ssware in front row made by Marlboro Street factorytum bler & decanter under Schoolcraft in 1816; flask by a lat er concern; Iwo rear de cant ers of unknown origin dians whereby 16,000,000 acres of land were added to the U. S. and authored many works, ran ging from an autobiography to A View of the Lead Mines of Missouri. It was he who inspired Longfellow to write Hiawatha and a few years before his death in 1864, he began preparation, under a Congressional appropriation, of an elaborate work entitled Ethnological Researches Respecting the Red Man in America. Though there is no indication that Schoolcraft ever returned to Keene, that town never for got his contribution to its ea rly industry and, 36 year s after his dep arture, invited him to partake in the village's 100th anniversary celebration of th e acceptanc e of Governor Went worth's cha rter of Keene. Hi s ex-partner, Nath aniel Sprague, first turned to schoolteaching and later was ordained into the Ep iscopal ministry, his parishes including R oyalton, VI., and in New Hampshire, Drewsville and Claremont, where he died in H is sister E lizabeth, who had been associat ed with Mi ss F iske's Sch ool for many years, remembered him with a memorial window in Keene's St. Jam es Episcopal Church. Though Schoolcraft and his partners failed financi ally, arti sti 552

143 M asonic flasks- with HS (Henry Schoolcraft) and its later adaptation to JP (Justus Perry) cally they triumphed. As the Mc Kearins pointed out, they had begun New E ngland's first flint glass factory out side of the Boston region. Young Schoolcraft's interest in flint glass was one of the fact ors that led him to Keene and it follows that one of the most graceful piece s ever to come from the Marlboro Street glass factory was made during his superintendency. This is a flint glass decant er resting on a circular foot, with two appli ed tooled rings around the neck and a cut mushroom type stopper. T he body is elaborately decor ated with quilling altern ating with applied strawberry prunts. It is, indeed, a specimen to rival the finest pieces of early blown glassware. Not a commercial product, doubtless too costly to produce during tho se strained years of low prices, it was brought hom e by Na tha niel Sprague and rem ained in his family as a memento of the art of glass blowing. For the trade the factory turned out flint glass tumblers, less orna te decanters, bottle's and flasks, though the only typ e of the latter unquestionab ly made in Keene duri ng Schoolcraft's ownership was the Mas onic one bearing the initi als HS in an oval fram e. A chapter of the Royal Arch Masons was established in Keene in 1816 and young Schoolcr aft, who so proudly placed his initial s on the flask, had become a Mason at Salisbury, Vt., in However, this was but the first of many Masonic flasks to emanate from the M arlboro Street fac tory; more of this type were made than any othe r, their production not ending until around 1829 or What, if any, other flasks were made from 1815 to 1817 is uncertain. Th e Masonic is the only one ident ified by initials. A fascinating footn ote to the history of the Masonic flask is the incid ent related by New H ampshire author George Woodbury in a 1967 newspaper article. He recalls that one of these hand-blown whiskey flasks was carried to South Africa by a missionary, Rev. Alex 553

144 E. Wilson. Traveling into the wild hinterland, he met a zeal ou s M a son who bec ame so intrigued with the Keene flask that the Reverend gave it to him. Two years later Piet Retief, a stalwart, highly-respected Boer leader in th e Great Trek, was made a present of thi s same flask. While att empting to purchase land from the warlike Zulus, Ret ief and 70 of his "Voortrekke rs" with the ir serva nts, were accused by the chief of stealing ca ttle. Knowing his Boers wer e inn o cent, Re tief reali zed the livestock mu st have been taken by a rival ch iefta in. H e managed to sec ure th eir return but, while wat ching an entertainment arr anged by Din gaan, the Zulu chief, the entire Boer dele gat ion was speared to death in a war dance turned massacre. The next year, 1838, 460 Boers vanquished the Zulus and erec ted a church in which Christian burial was give n to the bones of Re ticf and his men. The unharmed Keene Ma soni c was found in Reti ef''s pouch bag and it is still pr eserved as an honored relic in th e votive church in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. With the arrival on the sce ne of the merchant Justus Perry, things took a different turn. Writing of glass works in New H ampshire a sho rt tim e later, Henry R owe Sch oolcr aft pompously reported: " T he Flint works, aft er having att ain ed a perfection in its Sunburst-nore spelling K een instead of Keene 554

145 production, whic h is perhaps nowh ere surpassed, is at present discontinued." In M ar ch of 1817 Perry was advertising: "Bo ttles at wholcsalea complete asso rtment of glass bottles is now ready for sale... and at much lower prices than the Hartford Bottles have been selling in this part of the co untry, packed in crates.... O rd ers from any part of the co untry will be pr omptly attended to, and any kind of bottles will be manufactured in th e shortest notice. No ware will be retailed at the Factor y." On Febru ary 18, 18 I9, the following noti ce was issued : "Justus P erry's Gl ass Bo ttle Factory now in ope ra tion. 100 cra tes on hand." Pe rry, born in 1788 in Marlborou gh, a town a sho rt distance from Keene, had arrived here in the fall of accompanied by his moth er and her yo ung children. H e succee ded Sparh awk and Da vis in a store on the eas t side of Central Squ are. In 1814 he became one of the origina l 13 pr oprietors of the wind ow glass factory and when the tlint glass bu sine ss faced ruin, he bou ght it at a fractio n of its worth. According to on e local historian, of all who engaged in th e local gla ss industry Ju stus Perry was the one who turned it to best financi al adva ntage. Hi s sharp bu siness sense correctl y interpreted the market for glass- he shi fted from the manufacture of flint glass to the less expe nsive gree n-g lass ware, including various type s and sizes of bottles. By M ay 1820 he was ad verti sing bottles, fluted flasks, inkstands, black ing and snuff bottles. F ro m the time Perry ass umed control, the Marlboro Street glass work s, thou gh ope rating unde r a vari ety of firm names through the yea rs, was actually a family affair. On Sept emb er 14, 1822, came the newspap er anno uncement tha t on th e 12th of that month Ju stu s P err y was succeede d in bu sine ss (both the factory an d the sto re ) by th e firm of Perr y and Wood ; J ohn Va se Wood had married Perr y's sister the previous April. On November 14, 1823, th eir ad men tioned bottles only and in the 1827 village register, published in the local newspaper, the firm was list ed as a "bottle manufactory." In September th is partnership was dissolved by mutual co nsent and the company carried on u nde r the na me of Perry and Wheeler, Sumner W heeler being Perry's younger half- broth er. Evidently th e pr odu ction of gre englass ware found a ready market, for the factory was doing very well and by Novem ber J ustus Pe rr y was plann ing expa nsio n : "The undersign ed will receive proposals for the laying of a rou gh stone wall for a glass factory buil ding. Said wa lls to be 100 feet lon g, 50 feet 555

146 Blown three m ol deca nters. or bottles, in heavy dark glass wide, 16 feet high and 2 Y2 feet thick, to be laid in lime mortar. The materials to be delivere d near the spot, to commence about the first of April next. Also for finding the materials and puttin g on the roof to said building, or the timber." Before long a large and subs tan tial stone building replaced the earlier wooden structure and bottles of every description found their way to a growing market. Blown three mold glass, America's ingenious inexpensive answ er to the fashionable high-priced cut glass, was also manufactured here, the pr incipal commercial items being inkwe lls and quart and pin t decanters. This output continued until the introduction of pressed glass at other factories caught the public fancy and interest in blown three mold ware declined. On Au gust 20, 1830, came word from the local paper that two day s pre viously Perry and Wheeler had taken into co-partnership Qu incy.wheeler ; henceforth the business would be known as Perry, Wheeler and Co. Quincy was 21, the younger brother of Sum ner, and half-brother of J ustus Perry. It is significant of the close family relations hip which must have existed tha t Jus tus Perry brought his mot her and her you ng childre n with him to Keene and suppo rted them. Later, when Sumner and Q uincy each attained his majority, they were taken into part nership. In Keene 's 1831 direc tory Pe rry, Wheeler & Co. advertise : "... almost all kinds, shapes and sizes of black and light green botties: containing from 4 ounces to I gallons, which the y offer for sale as low as can be obtained at any other establishment in the Un ited States. All orders by mail or other wise, will be promptly ex 556

147 ecuted...." At this time six glass blowers were listed in the directory as working for Perry, Wheeler & Co. In an 1832 report to the governm ent concerning their factory, the firm reported $6,000 as the value of real estate, with $2,800 as the annual value of the materials they used which were produced in the United States and $ 1,00 0 as the value of foreign materials (clay from Holl and and foreign salt ) consumed each year. The only product listed was glass bottles; their valuation of yearly output was $16,000, most of which was purchased in the U. S. tho ugh a small po rtion was ship ped to South Americ a. At this time the factory employed 30 men, 8 boys under the age of 16, and 6 wome n and girls. A notice dated September I, 1835, announced the dissolution of the firm of Perry, Wheeler & Co. by mutual consent; business was to continue under the name of S. & Q. Wheeler. Th ough Perry's name disappeared from the firm, there is evidence that he con tinued at least a brotherly interes t as his will included signed statements from various members of the family releasing all claims on the glass factory to Sumner Wheeler. Th ese were dated 1839 and 1841, a time when the Ma rlboro Stre et Factory was running into difficulties, faced with both a national business depression and locally the rise of the temperance movement. By March of 1842, 1,382 Keene names were pled ged in To tal Abstinence, which was more than half the population! Quincy Wheeler died, aged 30, at the American House in Boston, in Januar y His remains were conveyed home and committed to the tomb, attended by numerous relatives and friends. He died intestate; his brother Sumner was name d administrator, and the latter's inventory of the real estate belonging to the factory shows: Factor y lot containing factory ware hou ses, 5 dwelling houses and 12 acre s of land in Keene Foster house and lot (e viden tly where Joseph Foster, the glassblower, lived ) Holt lot ( 19 acres North Woods ) 30 acres in North Woods, mostly cleared 7 acres, 83 rods Beech Hill I 5 1 h acre s Tenant Swamp 6 acres, 32 rods in Tenant Swamp, lot of Coolidge Nims lot, 7 Y2 acres Under personal estate were included the custom ary items necessary to a glass manufactory-clay, pot shells, bottle molds, sleighs, wagons, horses, white lime, Dorset sand, blowpipes and shears, straw 557

148 and clay pipes. The listing of bottles on hand indicated both a wide variety and an amazing number, including: 82,800 pint flasks, 75,600 half-pint flasks; 3,168 junk bottles; 3,168 pint bottles; 23,328 half-pint bottles; 30,240 eight oz. bottles; 30,528 six oz. bottles; 14,688 four oz. bottles; 19,320 half-pound snuff bottles; 21,000 square blacking; 192 two-gallon bottles; 240 one-gallon bottles; 432 halfgallon bottles; 300 quart bottles; 480 pint bottles; 10,080 no. 1 inkstands; 12,240 no. 2 inkstands; 600 quart jars; 1,500 gallon demijons; 13,010 gallon demijons; 9,900 half-gallon demijons; 3,312 halfpound green mustards; 3,168 green. fancy mustards; 5,760 opodeldoc phials; 864 eight oz. phials; 6,480 six oz. phials; 7,632 four oz. phials; 4,032 two oz. phials; and 2,448 one oz. phials. It was evidently the policy, as in many other glass manufactories, to keep making bottles regardless of the market's decline. By now business was steadily deteriorating and although Sumner Wheeler was one of Keene's highest taxpayers in 1840, he could ill afford a losing proposition. A local newspaper item, dated 1841, cites pint and half-pint bottles, once a source of handsome revenue, were now almost without a market. Wheeler contracted to discontinue his manufactory (keeping the store that had been part of the business Keene as it appeared during the closing years of the glass industry 558

149 since Ju stu s Perry first took ove r) in favor of a company organized by Joseph Foster, who, in 184 2, established the first glassworks in Stoddard. Foster, one of the Marlb oro Stree t F actory's outstanding glass blowers fo r many ye ars, was born in in E ngland, where he learn ed the art of glassitwki ng at an early age, Emlgrating in his yo uth, he marr ied M ary Sa nde rs of Swa nzey, N.H., in E x act ly what date he began wo rki ng in Keene is not kn own, tho ugh he is named in the director y ( the first complete listin g of the town; the second one was not issued until 40 yea rs later ) as a glass blower in the emp loy of Perry, W hee ler & Co. As he was one of their best workers, it is not surprising that he was anx ious to set up his ow n factory when business reverses spelled the end for the Marlboro Str eet works. U nfo rtu nately, he, too, fou nd the going difficult and his venture end ed in failure. A t the time Sumn er Wheeler sold his glass making business, the Window G lass Factory was still op er atin g on Washington Street. It was to co ntinue for ano ther decade and th en the glass making furnaces in Kee ne were bank ed for all time, ending a splendid cha pter in the up- and-down years of an earl y do mestic industr y. It s wares, bo th comme rcia l and those pie ces made by blowers exercising their skills in the ar t of glassrnaking for their ow n use, are no w eagerlyso ught collec tor's items and on display in various mu seums. 559

150 Some Museums with Collections of Keene Glass: T he Bennington Mus eum, Bennington, Vt. The Corning Museum of Glass, Corning Glass Center, Corning, N. Y. The Currier Art Gallery, Manchester, N. H. Metropo litan Museum of Ar t, New York City Old Sturbridge Village, Sturbridge, Ma ss. The Toledo Mu seum of Art, Tol edo, Ohio. Th e H enry Francis du Pont Winterth ur Museum, Winterthur, Del. Flasks Made at the Ma rlboro Street Factory, with Approximate Dates of Ma nufacture: Masonic to 1830 Sunburst: Type of GVITI-1, circa ; Type of GVIII- -circa Eagle to 1830 Success to the Railroad- late 1820's Washington-j ackson- late 1820's Cornucopia: 1) Eagle reverse; 2) Urn reverse-circa , etc. 560

151 NEWSPAPERS by Grace B. Prentiss T he small town newspaper is one of America's greatest he ritages. Keene tr aces its daily paper back to M arch 23, 1799, when it began pu blication as a weekly issue. F irst ca lled the New Hampshire Sentinel, it has been published co ntinuously since that date. It added a daily in 1890, with the inauguration of the Keene Evening Sentinel, altho ugh the weekly publicat ion continued until According to the best source of infor mation, the Sentinel is the ninth oldest newspaper in the co untry. However, four weeklies preceded the Sentinel between 1787 and T he first, The Ne w Ham pshire R ecorder and Wee kly A dvertiser, was established on August 7, 178 7, by J ames Davenport Griffith. Influenced by "9 5 public spirited" citizens who clamored fo r a pr ess in their growing community, Griffith left Boston (wh ere he encou ntered difficulties over a tax on advertising and was forced to discontinue The Continental Journ al and Weekly Advertiser ) and set up a printing office in a small one-story wooden building on Keene's Main Street. Ea rly the next yea r he was advertising "wi th relucta nce" that those "9 5 public spirited customers" had yet to pay the cost of one pap er. He then issued his paper in a sma ller format to cut expenses. A tem porary suspension of the newspap er from November 27, 1789 to M arc h 18, 1790 failed to ove rco me financ ial troubles and he reluctantly ceas ed publication with the March 3, issue. Griffith had 561

152 Keene's first newspaper earned, however, the distinction of becoming the first printer in southwestern New Hampshire and of making Keene the fifth printing center in the state. He had also published, in 1788, Keene's first book, a small 15-page pamphlet of the Rev. Aaron Hall's oration honoring New Hampshire's adoption of the Federal Constitution. Griffith continued a local trade in quill pens, ink, paper, printed forms, and books, which he hauled from Boston. On January 5, 1792, he began his second Keene paper, The Cheshire Advertiser. Keene at this time was little more than a frontier outpost and there were a number of difficulties in publishing a newspaper. Griffith found a noticeable decline in advertising; he had trouble collect- 562

153 ing the price of subscriptions; most important, newsprint had to be bought a great distance, in those days a major task as roads were al= most impassable in certain seasons. Through his articles in the Advertiser, Griffith constantly prodded the public, reminding them that it was most important for the good of the town to establish a paper mill in the vicinity. It is believed that some credit must be given him for the establishment of a paper-making industry in nearby Alstead in But this was too late. By the end of 1792 Griffith called a halt to his second publishing venture. The next year he left Keene. The third Keene paper, the Columbian Informer or Cheshire Journal, was established by Henry Blake & Co. on April 4, Henry and William Ward Blake were associated in the new firm until Henry's death on March 9, William continued the newspaper until summer, when he sold it to Cornelius Sturtevant Jr., a journeyman in his employ. With Elias Sturtevant and Abijah Wilder, the new owner formed the firm of Cornelius Sturtevant Jr. & Co., and commenced publication of The Rising Sun on August 11, The firm also carried on a printing trade and in 1795 brought out the only known foreign language book to be published in Keene, the 14-page Elegia, de Originale Peccato (17 lines of Latin quotations). The Sturtevant Co. later branched out with a publishing and printing business in Putney, Vt., and on April 7, 1798, the Keene office

154 was placed in the hands of Elijah Cooper, who at one time had been an apprentice with a printing company in Walpole, N. H. Apparently the business failed to prosper, for late in the same year John Prentiss, then associated with his older brother in printing work in Leominster, Mass., heard of the situation and in February 1799 came to Keene to purchase the hand press and equipment of The Rising Sun from Abijah Wilder for $250. On March 21, 1799, his 21st birthday, young Prentiss began setting type for his first newspaper, which he named the New Hampshire Sentinel, a title retained for the weekly publication until 1957, when it was combined with the Keene Evening Sentinel. The first issue of the Sentinel came off the press on March 23, 1799, and was distributed to 70 subscribers at $1.50 a year. The cash capital of the new firm was just $5. Within six months 250 subscribers had been attracted and in two years' time the number became 500. On the front page of that first edition of the New Hampshire Latin Bible bound in Keene by Thomas S. Webb

155 Sent inel, under the headline " Impo rtant Sta te Pap er," was pa rt of the report of the Co ngress iona l Committee "on the petition aga inst th e Alien and Seditio n Laws." Inside ther e were dispatches about "peace" in G ermany, " re newe d war in Italy," the su rrender of M alta to Ne lso n, II bad fi re in Norfolk, Va., and an alleged poison murder case. In a single co lumn given to adve rtise me nts appeared the offers of " two grist m ills und er one roof, situated well for custo m," "a sawmill," "a sma ll farm of 45 acres of land on the road lea di ng to Westm oreland," "a good dwelling hou se with fo ur rooms, good cellar, well of water and smail ba rn- on the Bos ton road o ne mile and a half from Keene Meeting H ouse." In the " wa nted section" were requ ests fo r a "jo urneyma n tanner and curr ier," "a postrider wa nted immedia tely to circ ulate the Sentinel," and an ap prentice to the pr inting business, 14 or 15 years of age, well recomme nded with a goo d schoo l educa tion "for the Sentinel." It was nearl y two weeks before news of the death of George W ashington reached Keene to be pub lish ed in the week ly pap er. Wi th the remarkable wire service developed ove r the yea rs. today's news is received imm edi atel y. In 1897 the Sentinel becam e a mem ber of a nat ion al news service, the Associated Pr ess, but in 1965 the ow ners changed to United Pr ess. T he Sentinel had six differ ent ho mes or locati ons fo r business before the co mpany built its ow n bui lding at 55 Ma in Stree t in T he pa per was published fro m th is locati on for 37 years. In the owners built a br ick bu ildin g at 60 West Stree t, whe re the Keene Evening Sentinel ha s been published since its issue of May 2 1, T he da ily paper, the Keene Eve ning Sentinel, sold for 2 a cop y or $6 a year, at its ince ptio n, but the price has gra d ua lly increased to its pr esent (1 967) cos t of 10 per co py. T he number of columns in the pap er has rem ained the sa me, but the amo unt of pages varies eac h day. At pr esent Wednesdays and Thursd ays offer th e lar gest issues because of th e great bulk of ad vertising on these da ys. From its founding in 1799 to 1847 John Pr enti ss guided the publicat ion. For two years ( ) his bro ther was associated with him and from 1828 to 1834 his son, John Willi am, worked with him. Four yea rs lat er ( 1838) John William aga in joined th e firm and the nam e J. and J. W. Prenti ss was reestablished. Wh en th e founder retir ed in 184 7, his so n too k in A lbert G od frey as a partner. F oilowing the reti rem ent of John Willi am Prent iss in owing to ill health, Albert Go dfrey. G eorge S. Woodward. and Samue l Wood ward ow ned th e paper for six years, whe n Samue l Woodward' s pla ce in the part 565

156 nership was taken over by Thomas Hale and Thomas C. Rand. Samuel Woodward, proprietor of the American News, a weekly published in Keene, agreed to unite that paper with the Sentinel.' From 1865 to 1872 there was a period of unsettled ownership. Finally Clement J. Woodward bought the holdings of 0. I. French and George Ticknor. In 1880 William H. Prentiss, grandson of the founder, became part owner and assumed the duties of city editor. When the business became a corporation in 1893 Bertram Ellis, William Prentiss, Thomas Rand, and Samuel Woodward were the stockholders. In 1912 Rand sold his holdings and six years later Ellis disposed of his. From 1918 until the death of William H. Prentiss in 1923, the company was owned in equal shares by Prentiss and Woodward. With the death of Mrs. William H. Prentiss in 1935, half the ownership passed to John W. Prentiss, great-grandson of the founder. Woodward died in 1927 (Prentiss became president that year, a position he held until his death) and Woodward's shares went to his son, Paul, of Connecticut, who sold his interest in 1945 to John E. Coffin. Prentiss and Coffin were co-owners until the sudden death of Prentiss in In October of 1954 Mrs. John W. Prentiss, with her son, William H., and John Coffin, sold the newspaper to James D. Ewing and Walter C. Paine, the present owners and publishers. However, Mrs. Prentiss and Typical Keene bindings Scholar's Arithmetic, 1821 and New Arithmetic,

157 her son ret ained the comme rcial pnntmg business, founded by Jo hn Prentiss in 1799, th e sa me year that he had esta blishe d the newspap er. This printi ng business had met with early success. In 1803 Prenti ss ea rned $800 for a psa lm and hymn book ; in 1807 he secured th e copyright to Dr. Daniel Adams' Scholar's Arithmetic, which had seen three editions print ed elsewhe re. Beco ming on e of the most popular school texts of the era, as man y as 100,000 copies were sold by Prentiss in some yea rs. T he arithm etic ultima tely we nt into some 60 edition s and rep rint s. A little-kn own fac t ab out th e schoo l book con cern s the recentl y highly publicized novel Fanny Hill: Me moirs of a Wo man of Pleasure, which has never been out of print since 1749, and for years was a "forbidde n bo ok." It see ms th at Isaiah T ho mas of Worceste r, M ass., ob tai ned a co py of the work fro m Londo n with the intenti o n of pu blishing it. H owever, afte r prudent deliberation he decided against the proj ect and rath er than was te expensive pap er, he had it ma rbled ove r and sold a po rt ion of it to John Pr enti ss, wh o used it in making some copies of his eighth edition of the Scholar's A rithmetic in B ut the sc hoolboys of the ea rly 19th century never did learn tha t the board co vers of th eir textbooks co uld have tau ght them some thing othe r than lon g division. D ur ing his half ce ntury of active work, J ohn Pr entiss became on e of th e leading citizens of Keene, holdi ng the offices of town clerk, tow n tr easurer, represent ati ve and sta te senator. He was also a delegate fro m New H ampshire to th e Peac e Co nfere nce of 1850, held at Frankfo rt-an-ma in, Ge rmany. T hough Pre ntiss retired fro m business in 184 7, he kept up his intere st and contributed art icles to th e paper until his death in 1873 at the age of 95. Wh en he was 93 he wro te, in lon g hand, his autobio gra phy. T he origi na l manu script was pr esented to th e Worcester A ntiquarian Society by his grea t-g ra nddaughter, Mrs. G eo rge Pier ce Baker. Thro ugh the years there hav e been a number of local shortlived periodica ls and newsp apers, but o ne paper lasted for 86 years. T he Cheshire Republican mov ed to Keene from Walpole, N. H., wh er e it ha d bee n establishe d under a different nam e in 1793 and had fa iled twice. T he first Keene issue ca me on Novemb er 17, 1828, under Nahum Stone as edi tor and pr oprietor. In 1831 Ston e ha d a circu lation of 730 agai nst Prentiss' 1,1 50. In 1834 the pap er, for a sho rt tim e kn own as th e Cheshire Co unty R epublican and Farm er's M useum, was owned by Benaiah Cooke, wh o sold it to H arvey A. Bi ll in H oratio Kim ball purch ased it from Bill in In 1865 he, in turn, 567

158 sold it to Julius N. Morse and William B. Allen. In 1878 it came under the control of its final owners, Joshua D. Colony and Sons, including Ormond E. and Oscar L. The father assumed the chief editorial work and management. It was, in spite of its name, a strong Democratic party voice, the only one in the county, and it survived until Before his death in 1852 Benaiah Cooke, at one time publisher of the Cheshire Republican, owned several other publications, including the Cheshire Farmer, , a monthly paper concerned with agriculture; American Silk Growers & Agriculturist, , a semi-monthly; and the Philanthropist, , a temperance paper. This latter publication was purchased in 1848 by Otis F. R. Waite, Job printing advertisement 1867 Early library catalogue who carried it on under the name of The Spirit of the Times until 1850, when he sold it back to Cooke, who re-named it The American News. It was known as a "free soil and temperance" paper. After Cooke's death the paper was sold at auction to Samuel Woodward, who published it from 1852 to In that year it merged with the New Hampshire Sentinel. Another of Cooke's short-lived publications was the Free Soil Palladium, a weekly that began and ended in There are two papers currently published in Keene. One is the Keene Evening Sentinel and the other the Keene Shopper News. The 568

159 ----- latter was established in 1959 by Gabriel M. Shakour of Shakour Publishers, Inc., and is primarily an advertising publication. With a controlled circulation of over 18,000, the Keene Shopper News is delivered weekly without charge to every family residing in Keene and 42 surrounding towns. It began as an eight-page paper and has grown to approximately 36 to 40 pages, featuring local and county news. In 1967 the National Association of Advertising Publishers granted it top award as the most improved paper over nearly 300 competing publications. At the present time the Keene Evening Sentinel is published six days a week by James D. Ewing and Kenneth F. Zwicker, assistant publisher. The paper averages 14 pages a day and is an eight column x 23 inch page. The circulation is 9,194, with 96 newsboys who deliver the paper in Keene. There are eight truck routes which cover the towns in C heshire County and a few towns in Sullivan and Hillsboro Counties. The company employs approximately 48 people, seven of whom are reporters or staff writers under Ralph W. Newell, editor, and Frank Barndollar, managing editor. There are seven linotype machines in use every day and the paper rolls off a Duplex Tubular Press printed from stereo-type plates. Over the years the Keene Evening Sentinel has won both national an d regional awards, including prizes for typographical excellence, front page makeup, and editorials. In 1961 it received an Award of Honorable Mention in the Svellon Brown Award competition for "meritorious and distinguished service to its public." 569

160 THE KEENE FIRE DEPARTMENT by H. Emile DeR osier T he Keene Fire Department predate s March 22, 1808, when a group of 42 prominent citizens were origina l members of the fire society, first called Subscribers for an En gine. On March 22 the title was cha nged to Pr opri etors for an En gine; seven days later an ac t was vo ted at the Ge neral Court to incorporate the propri etors und er the nam e of Keene En gine Company. This act was appro ved June 13, Fire equipment as need ed was purchased with money from the members' own purses. Th e first meetin g of the co rporation was held on February 6, 1809, at William Pierce's T avern, site of the pr esent Cheshire Block. Noah Cooke was chose n mod er ator; A lbe Cady, clerk ; Cady, Elij ah D unbar, and James Mann as a committee to dra w up bylaws, rules, and regulations necessary for the governi ng of the corpo ration. These were acce pted on Febr uary 2 1, 1809, and the socie ty was incorpo ra ted under the name Keene E ngine Co mpa ny. Of the 42 members, 20 were chose n to co nstitute the first engine company, with Josiah Willard as captain. The first firewards were J ames Ma nn, William Wyman, John Bond, and Da niel Adams. T he first president was Noah Cook e. On June 28, 1822, an act was passed by the State Senate and H ou se of R epresent atives to cha nge the name from Keene Engine Com pan y to Keene Fire Society. 570

161 Of several companies formed at various times, the Deluge Engine and Hose Company was the first in service and is still in existence with the name Deluge Hose Company. Another, first called the Phoenix Hook and Ladder Company, is now known as the Washington Hook and Ladder Company, and dated from 1868 or In August 1883 a new company was formed called the Keene Steam Fire Engine and Hose Company and is also still in existence. In 1847 the Board of Engineers became the official title of the fire service. Also at this time the town started to purchase from the society the fire equipment which would become town property. The Fire Department was to be governed by the selectmen. On April 12, 1856, the Board of Engineers adopted the title Keene Fire Department for the organization. The first fire house, erected in 1808, was located on Main Street, slightly north of the old Sentinel building. Over the years the department headquarters moved to several locations, all unsatisfactory, and finally in 1884 the city purchased property on Vernon Street. Plans called for a building to accommodate three companies, Keene Steam Fire Engine and Hose Co., Deluge Hose Co., and Washington Hook and Ladder Co., with suitable stables for horses and rooms for the dr ivers. The new fire house was completed in February On May 28, 1892, construction of an addition to the Central Fire Station was begun, and by the end of the year all the companies were housed ill one building (the present fire station) for the first time in the department's history. The men in the companies practiced firefighting and fire procedures once a month. In the early days every able-bodied man of the community played a role in firefighting. E ach household was required to hang in a conspicuous place two leather buckets painted with the owner's first initial and last name, and these wer e used to form a bucket brigade at a time of fire. The buckets were made locally by Daniel Watson. O ver the years the town placed a number of wells within the are a for a water supply for fires. By 1845 there were eight on Ma in Street, connected by aqueducts from a central well at the head of the Common. Here a pump was installed to keep the other wells supplied. After years of discussion a new Deluge Engine hand tub was bought in This purchase was made only after a fire destroyed one of the town's oldest homes, built in 1775 and called the Major Willard house. The amount of property lost was lo times greater than 571

162 Niagara H ose R eel-1863 photo the cost o f the engine. This engine, Numbe r 34 8, is still operative in By 1853 the Neptune Company had two more engines. One of the department's most interesting pieces of equipme nt was the Ni agara Hose Re el, a four-wheel ho se wagon purchased in 1862 for $250. This brightly painted wagon had orn ame ntal scenes on the end s of the reel. On the right side was a sce ne of a fire (Gerould Block) with spectators in the foreground and other citizens hard at work rem oving goo ds from the building whil e firefight ers battl ed to subdue the confl agration. On the other side was a picture of Niagar a Falls, after which th e en gine was named. In ] 864 all owners of dwellings wer e ordered to have in their possession a ladder or ladders to reach the highest part of their roof. Th ese ladd er s were to be kept in good condition at all times. Around ] 868 flush hydr ant s were coming into use for firefighting; they were repl aced in 1890 by post hydr ant s. By 1869 water from Goose Pond was deliv ered to the center of town by aqueducts made of holl owed-out logs to permit the fl ow of wat er. M an y thou ght this would mean the disbanding of the fire dep artment. In 1874 a new four-wheel hose wag on was purchased for the Deluge Ho se Company and located at Sym ond's T ann ery. The Niagara E ngine, with 300 feet of hos e, was statio ned in the South Keene Chair Shop an d mann ed by a group of the emp loyees. A small hose 572

163 carriage was placed in the west part of Keene and known as Station #7. A hose wagon was place d at Station # 5 at the Hope Mill s ( Beaver Mill s ) on lower Railroad Str eet. When the town became a city in 1874 the fire dep ar tm ent, with a valuation of $10,000, was turned over to the city government. Virgil A. Wright was the first chief under thi s new form o f municipal gove rn ment. For yea rs the Board of E ng ineers had tal ked of purch asing a stea m fire engine. T his was not acco mplished until 1883, when the dep artment bought an Amoskeag Steam Fire En gine, which was in service until the ea rly 193 0' s. In 1891 the department co nsis ted of three companies: Steamer H ose with 25 men, Deluge Hose with 20 men, and Washington Hook and La dde r with 20 me n. In 1902 a new (and final) horse-drawn ladder tru ck was put into service at a cos t of $ 1,250. In 1907 a new che mical hose wago n was added, the first of its kind in Keen e. T he chemical, a co mbi na tio n of soda wa ter and acid, whe n mixed togeth er formed foam to smo the r fires. T he Keene F ire Dep artment becam e mot orized in with the purc has e of a Kissell triple co mbi na tion ( water tank, booster hose, and a ladder), followed by a M ack ladder tru ck. In 1923 the department purchased ano ther new piece of fire equipme nt, a 1923 Reo chass is, and mounted the co mbination chemical and hose wagon fro m the horse-drawn wagon of the Steamer Co mpa ny. Later altered to a brush fire tru ck, this is still bei ng used by thc dep artment. As it is the oldest motorized vehicle still in service, it is ca lled on for parades. In 1925 the first motor-driven pumper was put into service, an Ahe rns Fox 750 gpm, and th is was followed by other modern pumpers. Radio co mmunica tio n was introdu ced to the fire service in T he fi rst radi os were installed in the chief's car and the 1933 Ah ern s Fox 500 gpm pumper. La ter radios were installed in most of the other fire tru cks. Wh en the railroad first ca me to Keene a new activity was adde d to the town, the Firemen 's Mu ster. T ra in service mad e it possible for out-of -tow n fire compani es to tra nsport their equipme nt to the area for co mpet ition. T eam s from Massachusett s, Ve rmo nt, an d surrounding towns in New H ampshire attended. T he first Keene mu ster mention ed took place on Sept ember 10, 1857, with 14 fire co mpa nies participat ing. A crow d of ,000 spec tators was on hand to witness this "fi rst" in the history of the Keene Fire Dep artm ent. 573

164 Each Fourth of July fire companies took part in the town parade, fol1owed by a family picnic and a ball game between the fire companies. In the fall of every year the fire companies held a parade and hose-laying contest as a demonstration for the townspeople. After the parade the companies returned to the fire house and waited for the bell to start the exhibition, when each company proceeded to Central Square with its apparatus and laid hose to see which could get water in the shortest time. This type of demonstration continued for years. The firemen would also try to see who could get water above the steeple of the First Congregational Church. This event ceased when someone left the trap door open in the steeple and water seeped into the organ, causing great damage. After this they held the exhibition at the Old Armory for a few years and then returned to Central Square until The next year the fire apparatus went to Robin Hood Park and tested the pumps with other town fire departments. In 1960 this was changed again. The fire companies now hold a Firemen's Muster at the Cheshire Fair Grounds the first Sunday of Fire Prevention Week, with as many as 50 pieces of motorized equipment. Inspection Day for the Keene Fire Department is held on Thursday of Fire Prevention Week, a date established when the town became a city in The special activities include a parade with eity officials, a tour of the fire house, a hose-laying contest, and a traditional scalloped oyster supper catered by the Ladies' Auxiliary. The day's events conclude with the Firemen's Ball in the evening. 574

165 The first Keene Fi re Department mascot was a shaggy, whiteha ired canine named "Billy," wh o join ed th e departme nt in F eb ruary This little dog was a familiar sight running alongside the fire truck and ba rking all the way. At fires he kept ch ildren away from the fire trucks. He was a faithful member of the department for three years, and after his death was grea tly missed by the firemen, as well as by all the citizens of Keene. Not until December 1951 did the fire department acquire another mascot, a Dalm ati an named "Smok ey." He lived at the station and rode to fires on the fro nt seat of the engine. " Smokey" was killed by an au tomobile on November 3, A short time late r a second D almatian was given to the department. Also named "Smokey," he was mascot for six yea rs, unt il his death from old age. There has been no mascot since. F ire mutual aid plays an import ant role in fire service. It is an association of fire dep artment s which by law has becom e a publi c municipal corpora tion. A lthough th is type of system had bee n used in the are a for mor e than a century, at first it was not compu lsor y for neighb oring towns to assis t free of cha rge. I nfluenced by a fire mutual aid orga nization started in at G reenfield, Mass., a sma ll group was determined to begin a system in Keene. O n M arch 23, 1953, a meeting was held at the Keene Fi re Department to which the chiefs of Cheshire Co unty and neighbor ing town s were invited to study and formulate plans for a fire mut ual aid system. A seco nd meetin g was held on May 23, 1953, and at this 575

166 time an association was formally organized known as The Southwestern New Hampshire District Fire Mutual Aid System, whereby the towns agree to give and receive assistance without charging for their services. It was obvious at this time that a focal point to operate this system was needed. Keene, the only station manned 24 hours a day, was the most suitable location. With the helpful cooperation of Chief Walter Messer and the willingness of firemen on duty to handle the cal1s, this important step toward a central communication center was initiated. ' During the period of development al1 calls for fire assistance were made by telephone. Before long it was found that two-way radios would increase speed and efficiency, and by 1957 this type of communication became an established fact within the fire mutual aid system. By 1962 the Southwestern New Hampshire District Fire Mutual Aid System had grown to include aid to towns in Vermont and Massachusetts. A FEW OF THE MORE SPECTACULAR 20TH CENTURY FIRES The Patch One of the most dangerous fires Keene had witnessed in many years occurred on a day when the temperature read (July 6, 1911) in an area known as the Patch, at the lower end of Emerald Street, where a sawmil1 and storage section were owned by the Impervious Package Co. The fire extended from the gas house to Ellis Brothers Florists and from Ralston Street to the canal. Many homes were threatened by the blaze, which burned the house of Charles Burns, a three-story storage building owned by Humphrey's Foundry, and a number of wooden buildings of the Impervious Package Co. This company also lost its entire contents: 6,000 cords of staves, 300,000 feet of headings, and a large supply of logs. Ellis Brothers, to the south of the Patch, suffered a great loss in flowers. Sparks even set fire to the awnings of the Cheshire House Block at the corner of Main and Roxbury Streets. Many firemen were overcome by the intense heat. The fire burned for several days and left only ashes. The Keene Fire Station On May 29, 1914, early in the evening, a fire was discovered making headway in the rear of the Keene Fire Station, where stables 576

167 Fire Station, Vernon Street for horses of the City Highway Department were located. All the animals were safely removed while the fire worked its way to the hay loft above and into the attic over the quarters of the Hook and Ladder Company. The fire alarm room, located on the second floor, received heavy water damage, and all the furnishings of the firemen were damaged or lost in the blaze. The fire burned the fire alarm wires entering the station, thus putting all the fire alarm boxes out of service. It was then thought advisable to build a fireproof addition on the northeast side of the station for the fire alarm room. This fire was believed to have been set, as the shed was always open and anyone could walk through the passageway where the fire had started. The fire station was again swept by fire on March 14, Heavy damage was done to the building before the blaze was brought under control. The station was rebuilt on an enlarged and improved plan. The Burdett Chair Shop On the morning of April 19, 1925, fire swept the three-story wooden building of the Burdett Chair Shop on upper Washington Street (opposite the present Sturtevant Chapel). The Keene Fire Department used all its available equipment, and called on the Marlbo- 577

168 rough Fire Department to assist in protecting the surrounding buildings. The fire had started in the center of the main building and worked both ways, and damage was to the extent of $75-100,000. The Bank Block Hundreds of spectators watched a daring leap made on the morning of April 13, A fire had broken out in the Cheshire County Savings Bank Block on the fourth floor where Miss Addie Carter was a tenant. Miss Carter attempted to go down the stairway but fire blocked her escape and she received burns on her back as she warned others to escape. She climbed out of the window, hung from the window sill, and finally leaped to the pavement below, to be caught by her brother, Wright Carter, who was watching the dense smoke pour from the building. Both were taken to the hospital, but neither was seriously injured. This was the third fire within a few weeks in this block, and it was believed the fire had been set. Tons of water were poured into the building and much water damage was done to the four floors. W. L. Goodnow Store On August 17, 1934, a fire broke out about 11 :30 P.M., which caused over a half million dollars damage, completely destroying the E. F. Lane Block, which housed the W. L. Goodnow clothing store, several offices, and apartments. Several thousand dollars damage was also done to the adjoining Spencer Hardware Store. Firemen were hampered by escaping ammonia gas fumes and dense smoke, and Dr. Walter F. Taylor, who set up an emergency center ncar one of the trucks, treated many for smoke inh alation and injuries. The firemen fought the blaze from all sides and adjoining roofs as flames were coming from all ends at once. Though every effort was made to keep the fire from spreading to the Spencer Hardware CO.'s upper floor where ammunition was stored, the fire reached some of the ammunition and hundreds of rounds exploded. Firemen fought the blaze all night and many remained on the scene the rest of the next day. Robertson Motor Company Thousands of spectators were on hand to witness the most disastrous fire since the Goodnow fire of With the temperature well 578

169 below freezing, firem en were called out at 2: 30 Christmas morning of 1943 to put out a blaze which had broken out in the building of R obertson Motor Co. The fire destroyed the three-stor y garage. At this tim e the top floor was occupied by the International Narrow Fabric Co. Near the burning struc ture were man y woo de n dwellings which were dam aged slightly by the fire. T he lack of wind was a blessing, as sparks had skyroc keted high into th e air and cinders fro m the fire reach ed as far away as Beaver Street. Losses amo unted to the extent of $ 100,000 to each of th e compa nies. Bloomer & Haselton On e of the most spectacular fires in Keene for many years destro yed th e two- and-one-half-story buildin g of Bloomer & H aselton at 2 1 Wint er Stree t to the exten t of $60,000 dam age. The fire broke out early Sunday afternoo n, Jul y 4, Eve ry av ailable piece of equipme nt was used, and firemen fou ght the blaze from all sides, but it took mor e th an two hours to br ing the fire und er control. A seco nd and even more disastr ou s fire struc k th e Bloomer & Haselton bu ildin g late on th e night of Septembe r 9, 1967, and burned into the following morning. The building then housed 20 apartments K eene Fire Departm ent,

170 and four businesses. Though the fire made quick headway through the building, there was no loss of life. Hundreds of onlookers watched as Keene firemen battled the blaze with help from the Marlborough and Meadowbrook Fire Departments. The building was gutted and the loss was estimated at $100,000. Dalbolt, Inc. Explosion rocked the building of Barker Realty, Inc. on West Street, formerly the Faulkner & Colony Mill, at 12: 20 P.M., June 30, 1964, blowing out 15 windows on the West Street side and all the windows on the Island Street side. The blast lifted the roof of that section of the plant, setting the support column awry, and causing part of the roof to cave. A portion of the back wall on the south side was blown out. The blast occurred inside a 120 foot gas drying oven of the Dalbolt Co., located on the west end of the third floor. The oven was being used for drying cloth printed by the company. Parker Patch, Jr., aged 36, superintendent of production, succumbed to severe burns received in the blast. Damage was estimated at approximately $125,

171 ffeather. by Merton Go odrich PART ONE Some E ven ts P rio r to 1800 Almost from the beginning, the weather was an imp ort ant factor in the history of Keene. For two or thr ee years after the township was established a few of the earliest proprietors came to clear their lots in the wilderness, but they remained only during the warm summer mo nths. In 1736 three of them decided to stay during the winter, but in F ebruary their provisions gave out. T hey chose Seth Heaton to go to Northfield for a new supply, but he was un able to obtai n anything there exce pt some meal. He started back in a fierce snowstorm. A short distance beyond Winchester, further progress through the storm in the deep crust-covered snow becam e imp ossible, and he returned to Winchester. When he failed to arrive at Keene the others let their one horse and two oxen loose where they had access to their ha y, and started out for Winchester on snowshoes. Early next spring, when they all came back to their cabin, they found the livestock still alive but nearl y starved. 581

172 There is no record of the weather here for the next 30 years. The settlers had such a difficult time resisting the attacks of the.indians that resistance to adverse weather conditions was of minor importance. But it is told that at Keene in the winter of the snow came early and remained late, and the depth was about five feet much of the time. There was only one street in the village and it was piled so full of snow that no teams could get through. Those who needed firewood to keep their homes livable had to haul it in from the nearby hills on handsleds. The winter of was comparatively mild, but the summer of 1764 was cold with "a hard frost" on June 1 and a frost on September 9, which "hurt the corn very much." The winter of was a tough one with "hard Cold, deep Snows, and Difficult passing as ever was known." Among papers bequeathed to the Historical Society of Cheshire County by Mrs. Ella E. Abbott is a bundle of envelopes on the backs of which are items which appear to have been copied from an old diary written by an unknown person. It tells the kind of weather that prevailed each day from March 1 to December 31, It states that the last snowstorm in the spring occurred on April 2, and the last frost on June 7. On October 26 "a snow fell almost knee deep." Snow fell on three days in November and on 13 days in December. The winter of was an "Open Winter" with several freshets, the worst of which occurred in March, when many mills and bridges were carried away. The "Journal" or Diary of Abner Sanger of Keene was begun October 1, His entry on the second day reads, "Sunday mn very Raney, before and after Day, forenoon wet, the sun brakes out tord noon, aftn clear and warm. none of us go to Meeting. Pleasant Evening." The first snowstorm of the following winter occurred November 16. On November 24 it was "Pleasant but ye snow is deep." Six days later there was "an exceeding hard rain toard night," followed next day by "great floods." During the winter there was much "warm thawy" weather. There were thunderstorms on both March 20 and 21, A month later the forenoon of April 22 was "very snowy." Great extremes continued all year. The latter part of May had many "very hot days," and on May 28 "Toard Night comes up a Terrible Hurricain Thunder shower. Trees are whirled down in Great Plenty." Three weeks later, on June 21, there was "a hard frost." The first frost that fall came September 12. It rained from October 18 to 21, and on 582

173 October 22 "T his remarkable grea t Rain ca used a Great F loo d." The first snowstor m came Novembe r 9 and in the next stor m, November 15, " the Snow fell Kn ee deep." In co nt ras t with the ea rly snowfall in November 177 5, the first snowst orm in did not blanket Keen e until December 12. T he diary co ntinues into 1777 with menti on of the wea the r each da y, but there were no rem arkable eve nts. The grea t hu rr ican e of 1788 had an extremely narrow path, but it was inten se and cut a swa th th rou gh all the North Atlant ic and New En glan d States exce pt Maine. T his is the first hurrican e of which there is a news story in a Keene newspap er. T he New Hampshire Recorder, in th e issue of Sept em ber 9, 178 8, does not nam e it co rrectly, but states, " the violent tornad o which was experienced in thi s county on Au gust 19 extende d as fa r as Ph ilad elphia with dismal effects both on sea and land... The da mage to houses, ba rns, and cattle is beyond co nce ption... By the acco unts we have received of th e damages in this County not less th an 100 catt le were killed by fallin g tre es, and in many places, acres of exce llent timb er are entirely level." This storm is ref erred to in Griffin's History ( p. 283), but the date there is wrong. The winter following this hurrican e was the warm winter of described as "the M ost Agreeabl e Winter I ever knew. " During the last 20 yea rs of the 18th centur y several winters were described as "comfortable," "midling," or " pretty open." But the winters of , , and were seve re. The New Ham p shire Sentinel, March 30, 1799, has this news story : "T he olde st man scarce reco llects such a wint er as the past. Since the middle of November the gro und has bee n covered with snow. T he mail sleigh from Boston to Walp ole has passed th rou gh this town eighteen week s successively." And on May II, "T he snow now in many part s of the town is two or three feet dee p. " PART TWO So me O u tstandi.ng Weathe r E ven ts, Cold Days and Cold W aves The temper atures menti oned in old dia ries are not considered acc ura te by the Weather Bu reau, but from several diaries and other 583

174 sources listed in the references, important and genera l informati on has been obtained. The earliest very cold morning cam e on Januar y 18, 1806, wh en 38 below zero was rep ort ed. Wh at was lon g known as "Cold Frid ay" occurred January 19, ThIStrul y awful day is unique in the annals of the weather and caused indescriba ble suffering in all the states on the northern border of the country. T he pre ceding da y was unusually mild with rain and temperatures in the fifties, but dur ing that night and the next forenoon there came a sudden drop of about 70 with a fea rful gale. It blew down barns and hou ses. Cattle were froze n in their stalls. Even wild anima ls peri shed. R ecent scientific studies have pr oved that a wint er gale has the same effect as a dro p in temperature of between 30 and 40. Althou gh the thermometers did not read lower th an 20 below zero on th e 19th, the gale produced the same effect as a temperatu re of 50 or 60 below. There was a very cold day on December 16, 183 6, when the readin g was 14 below zero at I P.M. In his week ly report print ed in the Keene Sentinel, Janu ary 19, 1840, Reverend Zed ekiah Bar stow stated, "T his is the coldest week th ere ha s been since I ha ve tak en any notice of the weather." Seven of the eight days from January 12 to 19 ha d temper atures below zero and th e coldest was Janu ar y 17, whe n his thermometer registered 37 below zero at sunrise. F ive co nsecutive mornings ha d average minima co lder than 20 below zer o. The co ld wave of Janu ary , 1857, by compa rison with both official and unofficial standards, appears to be the most severe cold wave ever experienced in Keene. For severa l years at thi s tim e, Ch arl es Sturtevant, th e register of deed s, mad e man y notat ions abo ut the wea the r in the books of land reco rds of Ches hire County. They were found and compiled by Roy M. Pick ard into a manuscript from which the following dat a abo ut th is cold wave are quoted. "T he week of January 18 to 26 inclu sive, 1857, was the coldes t week ever known in Keene." Th is cold wave really lasted nin e days, but only the followin g thermometer readings were put down : "Jan. 18, 25 below at 7 A.M., 10 below at noon. Jan. 23, 22 below at 8 Y2 A.M., 28 below at 10 P.M. J an. 24, 36 below at 7 1 / 2 A.M., 40 below by some thermom eter s. Jan. 26, 25 below at 7Y2 A.M., 20 below at 9 A.M." Th ese readin gs show tha t not only was the temperature far below zero at dawn, but it remained below zero all day for seve ral 584

175 A "fine day " in 19th century Keen e-s-r esidence of Dr. Charles Adams, site of the old fort days. The mean temperature on January 18 was 17.5 below zero. The very low readings late in each day are most remarkable. The 40 below on January 24, 1857, is the coldest unofficial record in Keene. The old diaries which were read indicate that there were more "awful hot" days than usual in the summers between 1864 and 1868 and again in PRECI PITAnON Floods and Freshets During the period there were many floods and freshets which did varying amounts of damage to roads, bridges, mills, and meadows. In the first part of the period some of the worst spring freshets occurred in 180 I, 1813, and A warm rain melted a lot of snow in February 1824 and the high water carried away a bridge at South Keene, did much damage on the turnpike from Keene to Surry, and at the Faulkner and Colony mills. In November 1828 the newspaper stated that the "Connecticut River was the highest in 40 years." The Freshet of September 24, 1882 As told in the Sentinel, "T he great rain of Friday and Saturday (September 22 and 23) raised the water in the Ashuelot River to an 585

176 unprecedented height. It submerged the pottery on Winchester Street beyond the bridge and inundated parts of Surry Road, and Water, Church, Island, Pearl, Ralston, and Emerald streets, but now it has begun to subside (25th). Mills are all shut down. Many corn and potato fields are flooded. Referring to the preceding drought, some said, 'If only we could have had this water eight weeks ago, how much good it would have done.' " The Freshet of March 26, 1884 From the Sentinel news story: "The heavy rain last Wednesday (March 26) washed out quite a portion of the roadway on North Elm Street, and a landslide ncar South Keene covered the Cheshire railroad track for quite a distance.... Beaver Brook was swollen so that the water flowed over Church, Roxbury, Spring, and other streets. It was six inches higher than it has been for some fifteen years." Hurricanes O n October 9, 1804, a tropical storm of small size swept the Middle Atlantic states, but it developed hurricane force when it reached New England. A cold air mass was on the western side of the storm which produced a very heavy snowfall driven by a fierce gale. A company of men from Gilsum started early in the morning to go to Keene to participate in the annual "muster" of the militia, but "a fearful snowstorm came on with a violent wind," which blocked the road with deep snow and trees, so that many suffered severely, some could not reach Keene, and a drummer from Sullivan nearly perished before he could get home. The next severe hurricane in New England occurred September 23, The Keene Sentinel said this: "The distressing details of destruction by the late unparalleled storm occ upy a large portion of our paper. In this vicinity the damage was trifling, some elms and forest trees were prostrated and old sheds blown down." The center of this gigantic tropical disturbance passed over eastern New H ampshire and inflicted enormous damage. This hurricane was long considered to be the worst storm of its kind in New England. But it was not as severe in Keene as the hurricane of 1788, and no other comparable sto rm came this way until the G reat H urricane of

177 Violent Local Storms A small tornado. In July 1807, "During a shower a whirlwind passed across the northern part of the village," destroyed several buildings and carried shingles to the: top of Beech Hill, Its chief force was confined to a path a few rods wide and a little more th an half a mile in length. On August 9, 1813, a great hailstorm hit Keene after passing through several towns north of the "village." Hailstones inches in diameter fell in Keene and covered the ground to a depth of three inches. Great damage was done and many houses had almost all their window panes broken. On July 26, 1819, during the Sunday afternoon services in the meetinghouse in Keene, there was a violent tempest of wind, rain, thunder, lightning, and hail. For fifteen minutes rain fell heavier than ever seen before with hailstones of considerable size. There were more and gentler showers the remainder of the afternoon, with incessant streams of lightning darting in every direction. Many buildings were struck in surrounding towns. It was reported that before the shower the temperature was as high as 100 in some localities. At noon on August 4, 1870, there was a severe electrical storm in Keene. Edwin G. Metcalf's house and barn were burned. The lightning struck in several other places. What was called "The worst thunderstorm in many years" occurred October 8, The chimney of Lapham and Rawson's tannery was struck and completely demolished. In a shower July 21, 1881, "the display of lightning was very grand; numerous balls of fire were shooting across the heavens in all directions." Lightning struck A. B. Skinner's house on Roxbury Street and the water main in the street was torn up for a distance of about 700 feel. 1839, The Year of Four Great Storms The year 1839 was notable for having four very severe storms, the greatest number in anyone year. The first of these was a rainstorm that began January 26. This melted a large amount of snow, washed it into the streams, and caused a great flood all over New England including this region. The ice on the Connecticut and Ashuelot Rivers broke up and many bridges were carried away. 587

178 Th e second stor m was another violent rainstorm which began before the effects of the preceding one were over. T he Sentinel states, "papers from the Kennebec River to Lake Ch amplain west and as far south as Pennsylvani a are filled with accounts of disasters," and a whole column is devoted to the details of the loss of millions of dollars of property. The other two sto rms were "no r'easter s." One began on Sunday morning, December 15, and co ntinued all day, all night, and part of Monday. The Sentinel tells the stor y. "The roads were badl y blocked by snow. The Boston ma il of Sund ay arrived on Wedn esday. T here was no mail from Nashua for five day s. Ir took nin e hour s for a sleigh to get to Keene from Walpole on Wednesday. Such a snow has rarely been experienced in December. In the valley it is more than two feet deep." Only two weeks later, on December , the region had another violent storm which deposited about 15 inch es of snow, born e by a wind "that rocked our firmest hous es, piling up mountain s of very damp snow." The period without mail was a day longer than in the preceding storm. The mail carrier from Co ncord had to bring the mail a porti on of the wayan his back. Winter co mes to W est Street 588

179 Snowstorms Prior to 1888 Previou s to 1888 the diari es describe " hard" winters and "ope n" winters. There were winters when freq uent snowstorms piled th e snow up as high as the top s of th e " kitche n windo ws," or, rarely, a tunnel had to be du g through a dr ift to go fro m the hou se to the ba rn. By cont ras t, some wint ers had so few sno wstor ms that the tot al ac cumulat ion was not mor e th an two fee t. F requently there have been sno wstor ms in April in which there was a fall of seve ra l inches in near by town s while littl e or non e has fallen in Keene. O n April 18, 187 9, there was "a very violent sno w sto rm." The snow melted ra pidly in th e va lley, but twelve inches accumulated on the surroundi ng hills. R arely ha s sno w fall en in M ay. O n M ay 8, a sto rm de posited so mu ch sno w th at man y peopl e rode to churc h in sleighs. O n May 15, 183 4, " the snow dri fted as if it were Fe br uary." On May 3, 1841, sev eral inch es of sno w fell in the night but it all melt ed the next da y. On four occasions noticeable amounts of snow hav e fa llen lat er th an May 15. None of these un official records have menti on ed this snow re ma ining on the ground more th an a day. Sever al tim es in the fa ll sto rms with on e o r more inches of snow have occurred in Oc tober; the earliest of th ese was O ctober 6, Du rin g the winters there ha ve been ma jo r snows to rms with more than a foot of snow in each in ab out 30 of the 90 seasons. A curious incid ent is recorded in regard to the storm of Decem ber 3, O ne of Joseph Baker 's shee p was lost and burie d in the snow. A month lat er it was found alive in a drift. It had survived because the heat of its body benea th the dri ft had melted the snow whi ch supplied eno ugh water and it had fed on the dead grass. T he sto rm of Decem ber 2, 1854, did mu ch da mage " in the village" of Keene. Several bu ildin gs were destroyed and 50 chimneys were blown down. In Ash Swamp mor e than 500 old pine tree s wer e up rooted and many trees were felled in o ther parts of the town. Tha t next sum me r a stea m saw mill was set up for the purpose of sawi ng all this tim ber. Th e Bli zzard of 1888 The ove rpowering sno wsto rm of M ar ch , was the worst in this region since Keene was se ttled. De tai led accoun ts of this ter rific storm have bee n found in th e diari es of E mily Z. M ar k of 589

180 After the Blizzard of 1888 Gilsum and A. A. Woodward of East Swanzey and others, and in published histories too numerous to mention. The storm developed over the Great Lakes and swept eastward over New York State and New Jersey, increasing in intensity as it came until it blasted all of New England. Everywhere the story was the same. The two days preceding the storm were "a warm day" and "a warm lovely day." There were "snow squalls" in the afternoon of the 11th, but that night the storm really began with thick falling snow and a very high wind. It continued all next day, all that night, and all the following day, and did not "let up" until the 14th. Drifts of hard-packed snow from 12 to 15 feet deep were piled across the roads, and half way to the top of the second story windows on the lee side of the houses. Horses hitched to sleds floundered in the drifts, were "cast" and had to be unharnessed before they could get up. The strongest men became exhausted trying to fight their way through the drifts and took refuge in the houses of friends and neighbors where they were compelled to stay one or two nights. On the 14th, the Gilsum diary states, "There is no getting from one town to another, even from here to Keene.... They telephoned they had only broke out the square and a few of the principal streets." Stage drivers on Monday had to stop part way to their destinations. Travel was not resumed and no mail could be delivered for three or four days after the storm ceased. During all this time crews of many men were shoveling snow out of the roads. On Saturday, the 17th, Swanzey got its first mail from Keene since the Monday morning before, a space of five days. Many estimated the snowfall at over 40 inches. 590

181 Sleighing Parties About a hundred years ago, on evenings when the winter weather was clear and bright, and the snow in the roads had been smoothed and hardened by the great rollers that were used the n to roll it down, it was the custom to have "sleighing parties." On January 7, 1836, there were two parties, one of 25 sleighs from Sullivan to Keene, the other of 40 sleighs from Dublin to Keene. "In the center of the latter party was an omnibus well filled with a band for music." On January ]5, 1836,72 sleighs with about 150 people rode from Keene to Walpole. T he Y ear Without a Summer The summer of 1816 was the coldest ever known in the northern part of the country. By those who lived at the time 1816 was called "the year without a summer," "the poverty year," or "eighteen hundred and froze to death." Stories were handed down for generations about a spring so late, cold, and wet that seeds merely rotted in the ground. There were severe frosts every month in the year. At Keene, on June 6 and 7, snow fel1 to a depth of several inches and the frosts were very severe on August 20, 21, and 26. There was scarcely any rain for the 12 weeks ending September 14. The corn crop was nearly a total loss everywhere. In this region no corn was raised except "pig corn" and most of that spoiled. "People were very much straitened for food to eat." Pigeons furnished most of their meat. Fodder was so scarce that many cattle had to be turned out of the barns the following January to Jive by browsing on trees, some of which were cut down to bring the twigs within reach. In an adjoining town the ground froze very hard every night from June 5 to June 12. Everywhere in northern New England there were storms during June and July with a snowfall of two inches or more. The summer was also very cold in Europe where there was much rain in contrast to the dry weather in New England. Extreme Seasons Som e of the most extreme seasons of this period, wit h the exception of the year that had no summer, are included in this section. 59 1

182 The summer of 1857 was a cold one. The register of deeds recorded that April, May, and June were very cold and wet. There was a snowstorm on May 17. Every day from June 15 to 19 and again on July 1 it was so cold in his office that it was necessary to have a fire in the stove. On June 13 he wrote, "Some astronomers have predicted that we were to be wiped out this day by a comet, but it seems the comet can't come it." The summer of 1877 was also cold. On June 22 there was a freeze so severe that "ice the thickness of window glass froze in pails of water left standing over night." The winters of , 1R35-36, , , , and were unusually cold. The winter of , which followed a cold one, was notable because only 12 inches of snow fell during the entire winter. Some very mild winters were those of , , , and There were late springs in 1803, 1820, 1834, 1843, 1850, 1876, 1884, and PART THREE Information From the Official Records, Weather Stations in Keene The first official weather records in Keene were begun by Henry S. Mackintosh, at 42 Roxbury Street, January 1, These were records of temperature only. In 1892 records both of temperature and precipitation and other data concerning the weather were begun by Samuel F. Wadsworth, at 29 Beaver Street, less than a quarter of a mile from the first location. His period of service as cooperative weather observer was notable for its length, 38 years, and his records for their detail and completeness. He made many summaries of importance. He was succeeded by Robert P. Hayward who lived at "The Knoll," a name he gave to his home located on the Hurricane Road about three miles north of the city. To adjust the averages of the data in the city to the rural condi 592

183 tions at "The Knoll" Wadsworth and Hayward kept separate records, each in his own location, for three years, 1928, 1929, and 1930, and compared these data. They computed the adjustments that needed to be made in the averages of the Wadsworth records in order to establish a fair basis for comparison. Hayward carried on his observations as long as his health permitted, a period of 13 years. He also made valuable tabulations of the records. While his health was failing he was assisted by Walter Barnard who copied the old records in a condensed form. His excellent copies ar e now preserved in a vault at the Keene National Bank. In September 1940 the weather station was returned to a location within the city at 18 Beech Street and the records were kept by Charles F. Robbins for nearly four years. In June 1944 Clifford E. Titcomb became the official weather observer and the station was moved a short distance to 43 Willow Street. He began the practice of supplying the Keene Evening Sentinel with monthly weather reports. After serving a little more than four years Titcomb asked for a replacement and in December 1948 Merton T. Goodrich was appointed to the position. Again the station was moved only a short distance, this time to 36 Wyman Way, where the records are now being kept. The duration of this period of service is 18 years up to the present time. T he official records of precipitation at Keene have now been kept continuously for 75 years and the records of temperature for 81 years. During this long period. with the exception of the few years at "The Knoll," all the locations have been not more than half a mile from each other, in the same urban environment and at nearly the same elevation. Adjustments of the averages of records at "The Knoll" have been made to allow for the return to an urban area so that all the averages have a uniform basis. The weather station at Keene is among the very few stations in the whole country which have such a long period of continuous records under such uniform conditions. From data left by his predecessors and from his own, Goodrich has prepared more than a score of different tables and graphs concerning nearly all elements of the weather. He has instructed college students in the construction of these graphs and has exhibited some of them at the Public Library. For this voluntary work and the results he has been complimented by officials of the Weather Bureau. Using Goodrich's plans, a model of three dimensions has been made recently 593

184 under the direction of Arthur J. Giovannangeli, head of the Science Department of Keene State College. This model shows graphically the precipitation for each month of every year. Goodrich has also devised a method of making graphs of winter weather with a typewriter. This is described in the issue of December 1965 of the magazine Weatherwise. TEM PERATURE Cold Waves and Cold Days In news stories any group of uncomfortably cold days is called a co ld wave, but officially we may define the minimum temperature for a day as the lowest during the 24 hours, and a cold wave as five or more consecutive days with minimum temperatures zero or below. T here have been 20 of these cold waves in Keene since The two most severe cold waves came in a pair. For six days, from J anuary 21 through January 26,1961, the average of the minima was 20.2 below zero. Then came one day, January 27, with a minimum temperature five above. Immediately following this, for the seven days, January 28 through February 3, the average of the minima was 19.9 below. The average of the minima for the entire 14 days was 18.2 below zero. If we include the afternoon readings the average for the whole period was below. This is the longest and most severe cold spell in the records. The coldest official temperature in Keene is 32 0 below zero. This low record was made on two dates, January 5,1904, and February 16, Twice, on January 28, 1935, and February 18, 1958, the thermometer has registered 31 below; and twice, on February 9, 1934, and Ja nuary 18, 1957, it has registered 30 below. T he day wit h the coldest average temperature for the whole day was Decem ber 30, 19 33, when the average temperature for the whole day was 17 0 below zero. Frosts The first frosts in the fall occur at earlier dates outside the city limits than at the weather station. The average date of the first autumn frost at the weather station is September 18. F ro sts have occurred in August in six years, 1908, 1912, 1925, 1934, 1940, and T he average da te for the latest frost in the spring is May 24. There have been three times when frosts have occurred late in June. 594

185 They were June 21, 1918, June 21, 1927, and June 22, But each of these dates was preceded by a period of warm weather. In 69 of the 81 years of records the last freezing temperature in the spring has been felt before June 7. Extreme Hot Days No temperatures as high as 98 were recorded in the first 15 years of the records. In 1901 the temperature rose to 98 twice. On July 7, 1908, and on May 22, 1911, it again reached 98. In July 1911 a hot spell without parallel spread over all New England. It lasted 12 days, from July 1 through July 12, and at Keene seven of these days were hotter than 98, and on one of them, July 3, 1911, the all-time high record of 104 was made. The maxima for these 12 days were: 91, 95, 104, 103, 103, 101, 88, 91, 99, 102, 99, and 95. Beginning in 1911, the official thermometers in Keene have registered 98 or higher on 33 dates. Floods and Freshets Among the most damaging floods and freshets of recent years are these: April 9-14, Old residents agreed that there had not been such a flood for 24 years. It was brought on by copious rain and melting snow. The water in the Fairfield reservoir escaped on April 9. By the night of the 14th Beaver Brook was higher by almost a

186 foot than anyone remembered, and the Ashuelot River had reached the old high water mark. July 12-14, A downpour of 5.56 inches of rain in two days did great damage to crops. February 13, Two inches of rain and large quantities of melting snow raised the level of the Ashuelot River more than 10 inches higher than at any time since 1869, overflowing meadows and roads. April 12-13, High winds did as much damage as the high water, especially to electric power lines. March and April It rained every day for two weeks, from March 9-22 inclusive. The rain took away all 12 inches of snow cover. In April rain fell in II of the first 16 days. The total rainfall in six weeks was 11.5 inches. All streets at low levels in the city were flooded. The river rose three feet and 250 persons were given shelter in the churches. September 13-20, During the eight days preceding the Great Hurricane 6.12 inches of rain fell and all the lower area of the city was flooded. The completion of Surry Mountain Dam and more recently Otter Brook Dam has prevented serious floods in Keene during the past score of years. The Great Hurricane Keene was not hit severely by a hurricane during the 150 years between 1788 and 1938, but several passed by over southern and 596

187 southeastern New England. Then came the Great Hurricane of This hurricane had followed the typical path of such storms along the Atlantic Coast and was headed away from the land northeastward over the ocean, when, several hundred miles south of Long Island, its leading edge bumped against an area of high pressure which blocked its motion in that directon. At the same time, covering the Connecticut Valley was a large area of low pressure which had remained there for eight days. It had already dumped more than six inches of rain in Keene and raised the Ashuelot River to flood stage. Suddenly and unexpectedly, on September 21, the center of the storm swerved from its normal course. It rushed north toward this low pressure area, hit the coast near Narragansett Bay, and with terrific force roared directly up the Connecticut Valley. Keene lay a little to the east of the path of the center, in the quadrant of these storms where the energy is greatest. In the city Steeple of First Congregational Church after 1938 hurricane 597

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190 scores of elm trees, some of them more than four feet in diameter, were torn up by their roots, ripping up sidewalks and pavements as they fell. Chimneys were toppled, sides of buildings were pushed in, and some small garages and sheds were picked up and crushed. All the beautiful pines of Wheelock Park were tangled into a mass as if they were jackstraws. The soil, softened by the recent rains, could not hold down the roots of the trees. On many thousands of acres in the valley, the trees were uprooted and flattened like fresh mown hay. For a long time the only contact Keene had with the outside world was by amateur radio. Although all electric lights and power were out of commission, the Keene Evening Sentinel, by hand labor, got out its regular edition the following day. During the storm a barometer at the Sentinel Building recorded a minimum low pressure of inches. The men students at Keene Normal School, as it was then called, spent several days helping to clear fallen trees from the campus. For many weeks crews ot nnernen from as far west as Minnesota worked to repair the damage to electrical communications at a place they called "Keeney." The factors in the atmosphere which govern the motion of storms seem to have been changed for a while by this great hurricane. In the next few years, instead of hurricanes being a rarity in New England, they were frequent and brought heavy rainfall to Keene. While they did very little damage in this region, they caused much destruction in southern New England. Violent Local Storms Among the violent local storms in the official records are these: July 8, The big cloudburst in Keene, 3.6 inches, the most ever recorded in one day, fell during a thunderstorm in the afternoon and much damage was done. September 9, Keene had rain, hail, and a destructive wind while Croydon and vicinity were being devastated by a tornado. Shortly before 5 P.M., July 22, 1926, a wind storm of terrific intensity passed through Keene, and within a space of 10 minutes caused property damage of many thousands of dollars, including $10,000 to lines of the Keene Gas and Electric Company. About 125 trees were blown down. August 24, A very severe thundershower with a downpour of 1.40 inches of rain in about 15 minutes. July 18-23, Heavy thundershowers every day for five 600

191 days, which deposited 3.72 inches of rain in this time. There were a great many showers during June The worst, on June 16, did great damage to trees and power lines. On the 24th 2.02 inches of rain fell in one shower. June 29, A very heavy thundershower flooded the streets with 1.17 inches of rain in a short time after 2 P.M. The Great Drought The Great Drought in this region began with November 1962 and had not ended when this report was written in January Ot her droughts have lasted for a few months, but this drought has lasted more than four years. We compare only the four consecutive years from 1963 to The total precipitation for each year is respectively 31.15, 29.37, 30.54, and inches. Based on normals computed for each year by combining the annual total with the total for the entire period of records, the deficiencies are 7.70, 9.36, 8.07, and 7.44 inches. The total deficiency is inches and this is greater than the whole prec ipitation in any year of the four consecutive years. This is true whichever way the comparison is made. From the beginning of this drought to the present time, out of 51 months 42 have been dry. In the 75 years of records there is no situation comparable to this. Normals The normals related to temperature are the averages of 8 I years of records and those relat ed to precipitation are the averages of 75 years of records. Annual temperature, Annual precipitation, including rain and melted snow, 38.5 inches. Winter snowfall, 61.7 inches. Length of growing season between freezing temperatures, the latest in spring and earliest in fall, 115 days. Length of snow season between first and last snowstorms of one inch or more in a winter, 131 days. Based on 36 years of records the number of degree day s in a season between July 1 of one year and June 30 of the next, 7178 degree days. 601

192 Extremes for Years and Seasons Highest annual average temperature, 1949, Similarly, the coldest year, 1904, Year with greatest precipitation, 1951, inches. Similarly, the driest year, 1894, inches. Winter with greatest snowfall, , inches. Winter with least snowfall, , 27.2 inches. Coldest winter (the combined averages of December, January, and February), , Similarly, the mildest winter, , and , tied for first place, Other Extremes Month with least precipitation, March 1915, 0.04 inch. Month with most rainfall, July 1915, inches. It is surprising to note that both thes e extremes of precipitation occurred in the same year. Greatest amount of snow in one storm fell on M arch 4-5, 1960, 21 inches. Changes in Climate It has been pro ved by man y scienti sts that changes in climate are constantly taking place. The records at Keene agree with this conclusion, and show definitely that when the records began in 1886 a cool ing trend was takin g place, that between 1905 and 1955 there was a very noticeable warming trend, and since 1955 a cooling trend has been going on. By dividing the time into periods of five years each we find that between 1886 and 1905 the average temperature of the periods decreased by 1.1 from 45.4 to During the next 50 years the average temp erature increased 3.7 and during the last 10 years it has decreased 2.2. Using other methods of computation similar result s are obtained and a comparison of other elements of climate, such as the length of the growing season, show corresponding changes. These changes of climate may be likened to the wave s of the ocean. The ripples on the surface correspond to the difference between consecutive years and often app ear rough ening the surface with very little system. But the ripples rid e upon the small waves and the se upon large waves, and all are borne alon g by the great swells which correspon d to the fluctuations of period s of 50 years or more. 602

193 THE HISTORY OF KEENE'S CEMETERIES AND BURYING GROUNDS by Esther P. Cook The First Town Yard It was the custom of early New England settlements to combine the meetinghouse, in which all governmental affairs were carried out, with the church. In Keene the first meetinghouse and burying ground, commonly called the "Town Yard" or "South Yard," were found on the west side of lower Main Street, where a marker now stands. This meetinghouse, with its adjoining burying ground, was established in 1736 on what was then the convenient location opposite the head of the Boston Road (now Baker Street). The oldest record of Keene's first burying ground is found in the minutes of the proprietors' meeting of ] 762, when it was voted for "Dan Guild to dig graves in the Burying Place by the Town Street." L ater records show a slow decay of this first yard into eventual oblivion. In ] 808 the town voted to raise $300 to fence all burying places with $ appropriated for the South Yard. This was the last time any money was spent to preserve these grounds. By 1840 the yard was in a state of neglect. The fences and walls were down and farm animals grazed there. Many stones had been broken by vandals ; others had been carried off fo r use as door sills or other purposes. In the years ] 844, ] 845, and 1846 the town tried to have the South Ya rd, then on 603

194 the Robinson Farm, fenced in, but the fence was not built and stone by stone the old yard vanished. This left Keene with a "lost cemetery." A few head stones and graves were moved to the Washington Street Cemetery. The old South Yard is now under the intersection of the Route 9 bypass and Main Street. It is a tragedy for Keene to have lost its first burying place. Interred there were most of its first pioneers, proprietors of the town and veterans of the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. Colonel Isaac Wyman, who died March 31, 1792, was buried there. Wyman came to Keene in 1762, built the finest house in town, and kept it as a tavern for 30 years. He marched at the head of his company to Lexington in 1775 when news of the battle reached Keene. Later he served in the Battle of Bunker Hill, and was promoted to colonel. The last to be buried in this lost graveyard was one of Keene's " milder" Tories, Major Josiah Willard, who died in Willard had been the town's first representative to the legislature in Keene's Five Burying Districts In 1793 plans were laid down for the establishment of five burying districts for the town, and by 1795 this had taken effect, with one burying ground in each district. Most of these yards were already being used for burial purposes at this time. Since transportation in that era was poor at its best, people buried their dead nearby. In cases of communicable diseases, the deceased were buried immediately. The first district included the village, the land between the Ashuelot R iver and the North Branch, the land from the Swanzey line as far north as the west side of Fisher Brook (now crossing Court Street underground), to the Sullivan line on the east side. The burying yard for this district was the Prison Street Yard. Prison Street has since been renamed Washington. The second district was the southwest quarter of town, north to the Chesterfield Road and included the small village at West Keene ; people of this district used the Ash Swamp Burying Ground. The third district was the northwest quarter of town. This ground was "Near the Westmoreland road, three and one half miles from Town," off the present Hurricane Road. The fourth district included the north part of town. This yard was "in the crotch of the road beyond the Chase farm," now Court Street and East Surry Road. The fifth district included all the land east of the North Branch 604

195 (Otter Brook). This yard is now in the town of Roxbury, west of the Nathan Nye homestead. Later the second and third districts were combined and the West Yard near the Sawyer Tavern was used. This is now on Bradford Road. The Ash Swamp Yard At a proprietors' meeting February 23, 1761, it was "Voted upon the Fourth article that the neck of Comon Land where Isaac Clark and Amos Foster were buried be appropriated and Set apart for a burying Place for the Town." Thus Keene's oldest existing burying ground came into being. Clark and Foster and Foster's wife were victims of a severe smallpox epidemic that spread through the settlements at that time. They were buried on a forest knoll near Ash Swamp Brook, and the town acqu ired the land for its second burying ground. Clark and Foster were among the original proprietors and they and some of Keene 's first settlers were buried there, the town being only 27 years old when this yard was started. This small yard can be found north of West Street, just east of White Brook. Most of the old slate markers are gone and there is one stone on which the date 1761 is barely legible. The Ash Swamp Yard has been treated kindly, and is cared for along with the other Keene cemeteries; on May 30, 1900, the Daughters of the American Revolution rededicated the grounds and placed a memorial boulder there. The Yard is officially closed and is kept as a memorial. The North Yard Nestled under the shade trees in the triangle at the junction of Court Street and East Surry Road is the North Burying Ground. This land was originally part of the farm of Israel Houghton, who willed it to his son John in John served in the French and Indian Wars and later was a captain in the Revolutionary War. In 1776 Captain John Houghton set aside land for a family burying ground and shortly afterwards his friend, Ebenezer Day, was buried there. In 1794 Captain Stephen Chase bought the farm and built the present house, which now stands on the west side of Court Street. Although the North Yard was designated as a "Town Yard" in 1795, the deed to the land remained in the Chases' possession and 605

196 the famil y continued to keep records of the burials. It was not until 1900 that a de scendant, Joseph Chase, presented a quitclaim deed to the city. In 1954 Mrs. H. Bramwell Shaw, gra ndda ughter of Joseph, and resident of the Chase homestead, found the old burial certificates among the family papers and presented them to the city clerk. Still stan ding is the sto ne of E henezer Da y, the first to be buried in the No rth Yard. He died January 12, 1776, at the age of 66. D ay was an or iginal proprietor and served under Captain Willard in 1747 and Th e gravestones in this yard ab ound with inscriptions and epitaphs. Here is found the clas sic: "Reader behold as you pass by As you are now, so once wa s I. As I am now, so you mu st be. Prepare for death and follow me." Many stones arc engraved with similar words, warning the pa sserby of his impending doom, regardless of his position in life. The good man : " He re lies a man whose heart was kind and free, who was ever loved with God-like Charity." The worldly man : " A nd when ambition fills yo ur breast, Think of my lonel y pla ce of rest." Some sto nes give the cau se of death, such as that of Stephen Chase, age 7 years "... whose death was occasioned by the fall of a tree. How short the spa n of the cradle to the grave." The Yard Oil the W estmoreland Road (Hurricane Road) The third district burying ground is on th e left side of the Hurrican e Road close to the Westmoreland line, and wa s laid out in Because of its age, many old stones are gon e and mo st of those still standing ar e illegible. This yard is well tend ed. Weathered or broken sto nes ha ve been laid on the surrounding sto ne wall, rather than left on the ground to disappear. Their shape alone indicat es that they were o nce headstones. Since it was the cu stom of the era to mound the earth over graves, one can still make out the old lots. About 100 person s were buried here. William S. Briggs listed the inscriptions on the sto nes in the cemetery in 1878 and remarked that the oldes t monument in the yard wa s dated 1798 and the latest On e headstone which has remained in rem arkably good condition reads: "In memory of Mrs. Lydia Partridge, wife of Mr. Levi 606

197 P art ridge who died 28, Nov , aged 51 years. Virtue now rec eived reward, And every grace with sweet accord, Shall no w un ite to pr aise the lor d, In hallelu ers to our God." It is recorde d that Lev i Partridge (also A mos and R eu ben ) ran a tavern and saw mill on the strea m out of Goose Pond. In this yard is the gra ve of R evolutionary War soldier John Balch. In 1781 he wa s appo inted by the legislature as th e first post rid er for the first public mail rou te. Once in "each and eve ry four teen days" he rode from Po rtsm outh to Con cord, to Plym outh, to Cha rles tow n, to Keene and back to Portsmouth. Fo r this he received $ every th ree months. T he town fa rm, the fo rmer Deacon K ingsbury far m, was locat ed nearby and used as such until T his cemetery would naturally have been used for burial of per son s who died at the poor farm and it has been sugges ted tha t those nat ive stones witho ut inscriptions for the most pa rt mark burials made betwee n The Prison Str eet Yard T he Pri son Street Y ard (Washingto n Street ) was mad e a town ce mete ry in T his replaced th e So uth Y ard as th e burying ground of the first distri ct ; however, the old yard had a few int erments after th at date. T he first to be buried in the Pr ison Street Y ard was John Holland Johnson, the seven-yea r-o ld son of Moses Johnson, wh o died April 22, Hi s slate stone is in goo d co ndition a short distance so utheast of the entrance. Gravestones giving an earlier dat e th an 1795 are those mar king the res ting place of bodies rem oved from other places or erected as mem orials. The first to be moved was the remains of Ca ptain E lipha let B riggs, wh o died of sma llpo x in 1776 and was buried at th e foot of the hill on the roa d leading to R oxbury. As ea rly as 1789 the town appointed a co mmittee with power to ca ll on the ir neighbors to turn out and fence the seve ra l burying places, with out pay. At first the new Prison Street Ce metery was sur ro unded with a stone wall, the sam e kind that farmers used to build on almost all the hill land s. There was a sma ll building in the back part of the yard, painted blac k, for the sto ring of tools and biers. It was lat er used fo r storage of the town hearse. Ther e were two biers, o ne for ad ults and one for children. During the year 1795 local citize ns vo ted to buy a pall cloth, the first one 607

198 ever used in town. At a funeral the coffin was placed on the bier, and the black pall cloth spread over it. Eight pallbearers were appointed, four to carry the bier and four to assist. Mourners and friends followed on foot. The meetinghouse bell gave notice of a death in the community and was tolled on the morning of a funeral and also during the march of the procession from the Meetinghouse to the grave. About 1830 the tombs on the west side were built, and those on the south side of the enclosure were added a few years later. In 1847 the old wall was removed and a fence constructed around the yard at the expense of the town. Under the direction of the Ashuelot Chapter, DAR, the tombs were again repaired in Burial places have been recorded for 695 persons in the cemetery. This record contains the names of less than one-fourth of the bodies which have been buried there, the rest having passed into oblivion. Between 1800 and ] 835 several plain headstones were erected to the memory of Revolutionary War soldiers. They bear the names and dates: Samuel Bassett, died November 8, ] 834, aged 81 years. (Town records, aged 80 8-] 2 years) Noah Cooke, died October] 5, 1829, aged 80 years Major Davis Howlett, died February 23, 1817, aged 79 years (Town records, aged 80 years) Samuel Osgood, died July II, ] 828, aged 7] years Josiah Richardson, died February 20, ] 820, aged 74 years (Town records, Feb. 25,1820) Capt. Jeremiah Stiles, Esq., died December 6, 1800, aged 56 years (Town records, Dec. 5, 1800) William Woods, died March 23, 1818, aged 83 years (Town records, aged 84 years) Capt. David Wilson, died December 5, ] 818, aged 70 years Capt. John Leonard, died April 27, 1829, aged 76 years Major General George Ingersoll, died July 16, 1805, aged 56 years. The remains of at least two Revolutionary War soldiers were buried in graves not now designated, viz., Nehemiah Towns (Towne), died May 2, 1820, aged 72 years, Samuel Heaton, died April 1, 1830, aged 70 years. In the late 19th century Superintendent Stephen Barker sought out and found 13 of the old yard stones from the so-called "Lost Cemetery" and stored them. In ] 904 the Ashuelot Chapter, DAR, had the ] 0 legible headstones set in a lot at the rear of the cemetery 608

199 with a memorial boulder (site of the old hearse house). The Chapter also gave the iron gate at the cemetery entrance that year. Descendants of early settlers have since placed more durable monuments on some of the old graves, and in 1966 there were two new stones with bronze DARseals on the graves of Revolutionary War soldier William Woods and his wife. Old slate stones rescued from the Lost Cemetery included those of Elizabeth and William Sumner; Abner Blake, six-year-old son of Nathan, who died 1766; Elizabeth, seven-year-old daughter of Rev. Clement and Elizabeth Sumner, who died 1767; Widow Betsey Fairbanks, wife of Capt. Nathan, deceased in 1772 at 69 years of age; William Sumner, died 1765 on his day of birth to Rev. Clement and Elizabeth Sumner; Zipporah Harvey, 1778, 27 years old, wife of Ezra Harvey; David, 1789, 20 years of age, son of Thomas and Sarah Baker; Capt. Ephraim Dorman, 1795, 85 years; Hephzibah Dorman died 1781, aged 63 years; Abigail Reed, wife of General James Reed, died 1791, age 68 years; and Madam Ruth Whitney, 72 years old, died From the minutes of the town meeting in 1859: " Paid J. & F. French for New Hearse $ Paid H. P. Muchmore for Hearse House $175.00" The town maintained a hearse for public use and housed it in a shed in the southeast corner of the Prison Street Yard. Later in the century funeral directors provided their own vehicles. The city abandoned the keeping of a hearse and ordered the shed torn down. The last horsedrawn hearse was used in After demolishing the hearse house, workmen found an old partially-filled tunnel that led toward the stone house on the south side of the cemetery. Noteworthy citizens of Keene who have been buried in the old Prison Street cemetery include Rev. Zedekiah S. Barstow, for 50 years pastor of the Congregational Church and the last minister to be settled by the town. He died March 1, 1873, aged 82 years and 5 months. His epitaph reads: "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith; henceforth, there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day." Also buried here are Ithamar Chase, father of Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase; Miss Catherine Fiske, the founder of Miss Fiske's Female Seminary; George Newcomb, whose life was "cropped like a rose before 'tis fully blown," and his parents and brother Seth, whose 609

200 life was "too much devoted to the world and too little to his Maker." The stone of Miss Eliza Carter, though she had passed three-score years and ten, announced that "She was always young." Mrs. Lydia Beals, aged 102 years, was the oldest person buried here. She died January 12, The West Yard The West Yard, on the west side of Bradford Road, has been in continual use since the 18th century. There were eight interments in It was not included in the districts of 1795, but was made a town cemetery when districts two and three were later combined. The oldest marked grave is that of Daniel Washburn, aged six days, who died January 25, The many stones dated 1798 give evidence of the smallpox epidemic of that year. In 1806 Colonel Abraham Wheeler opened a tavern at Ash Swamp (now on Arch Street, opposite Bradford Road). He was succeeded by his son-in-law, Josiah Sawyer, who deeded the land containing the West Yard to the town. In 1889 the yard was enlarged on the back and sides with cemetery lots. This yard is a combination of the old burying ground and the modern cemetery. There are old slate and marble stones on graves laid in rows, side by side, some with small foot stones. There are also the later rectangular lots, each with one monument and flush or small headstones. The later monuments gave names and statistics only, but the early stones were inscribed with epitaphs and expressions of faith, and one stone bears the simple statement: "Here lies an honest man." The Old Nye Yard The fifth burying ground laid out by the town of Keene in 1795 is now in the town of Roxbury. (In December 1812 the town of Roxbury was incorporated, taking land from Keene, Packersfield, and Marlborough.) This yard is on a high knoll on the left of Roxbury Road, one-eighth mile beyond the Babbidge Dam Road, and is not easily seen from the road. This is commonly called the "Old Nyc Cemetery," as the land was originally part of the Nathan Nye farm. The Nye homestead is still standing, just above the cemetery. This yard is still in use, although there is a much larger town cemetery farther up the road. The first to be buried here was the wife of Nathan Nye, Lucretia, 610

201 who died August 14, 1795, aged 23. Her husband is buried at her side. At his other side is his second wife, Lydia. Their three headstones are among the few of the old ones still in good condition. Woodland, Greenlawn, and Northeast Division In 1854 Keene purchased land from Thomas M. Edwards to be used as the Woodland Cemetery, including the old Muster Field on Beaver Street. The grave of the renowned Keene naturalist, George A. Wheelock, is to be found in the Northeast Division, marked by a large black slate stone. During the 19th century expert stonecutters and quarrymen were imported from Europe and great marble and granite mines were opened in Vermont and New Hampshire. This, coupled with the ability of trains to haul heavy freight, meant that gravestones could be large monuments of superior quality, polished and carved to the taste of the purchaser. There also came into being the large family plots surrounded by granite or iron fences, with individual lots reserved for future generations. This era saw the advent of the trust fund for perpetual care of the lot. Facing Beaver Street on the southwest corner a tomb was constructed for temporary interments during the winter months. Today this is used mainly by out-of-town small or private cemeteries lacking facilities for winter burials. Near Beaver Street in Woodland Cemetery is a marble stone inscribed "Old Peter; died Feb. 9, 1870, Ae. 57 yrs. Erected by his friends at the Cheshire House, Keene, N. H." Peter Jeffery, a Frenchman, had been employed a lifetime as a man-of-all-work for Keene's famous hotel, the Cheshire House. When he died no trace of home or family could be found, but he had a multitude of friends. On May 8, 1889 land for Greenlawn Cemetery, off Page Street, was conveyed to the city and on September 20, 1901, land between Woodland and Greenlawn was bought from Pierre Couillard. The part of the cemetery from Page Street to North Lincoln Street was called the Northeast Division. Conflicting dates have arisen as to the origin of Keene's cemeteries. The dates the town or city council voted to buy a cemetery, appropriated the money to do so, and officially opened the cemetery, could have a spread of 10 to 20 years, and in the meantime, several persons were buried in that location. There are many recorded burials going back one to 20 years before these two cemeteries were officially opened. 611

202 Buried in the Northeast Division is Major General Simon Goodell Griffin, who died January 14, He commanded the Sixth New Hampshire Volunteers during the Civil War, which he joined as a captain at the beginning of the conflict. Later he wrote The History of the Town of Keene from 1732 to In April of 1902 the massive granite monument that marks his grave was hauled into Keene by ox sled, as there was still snow on the ground. There are a great many graves for the year 1918, showing 193 burials the year of the influenza epidemic. In 1965, with a much larger population, there were only 134 interments. Keene does not have a military cemetery, though there are lots maintained by veteran organizations. Sumner Knight Chapel The Sumner Knight and Family Memorial Chapel is situated on high land in the Woodland, Northeast Division Cemetery. It is a one and one-half story structure with a seating capacity of 150 persons. By the will of Marcus W. Knight the sum of $50,000 was bequeathed to the city for the erection of a chapel in memory of his father, Sumner Knight, and the Knight family. The bequest was accepted on December 4, Saint Joseph's Cemetery In 1857 the first Roman Catholic parish was established in Keene. Shortly afterward Saint Joseph's Cemetery was laid out-a tract of land on the east side of Main Street, a few hundred yards south of the South Branch River. Later a tomb for temporary winter interments was build in the northwest corner. Like other cemeteries in Keene, the lots were quickly bought up and Saint Bernard's Church established a much larger cemetery directly across the road, actually an enlargement of the same cemetery, and using the same name. Here was set aside a lot for Catholic war veterans. This is Keene 's largest private cemetery. The grounds are owned and cared for by the Catholic Church. Statistics of interments are recorded at City Hall, as well as in church records. Both cemeteries are bounded by iron fences and plans for the future call for new granite entrances. On Memorial Day 1964 a memorial monument was dedicated in the newer cemetery. 612

203 Monadnock View Cemetery In 1936 the last available land of the Northeast Division was opened up. These lots sold so fast that the City Council purchased, on May 7, 1946,75 acres at Park Avenue and Maple Avenue from John Cook and Jedd Wilder. This ground was named Monadnock View Cemetery and it was voted that sale of each lot should include the cost of perpetual care. The original plan called for markers flush with the ground, but after many complaints the cemetery was divided, monuments being allowed in one half. A few years after this cemetery was opened it was the only one left with lots for sale. The first to be buried in Monadnock View was baby Ann Hiede Coppo on April 19, In Woodland, in Greenlawn, and in the Northeast Division the city has always kept a "free ground." In the past it was called the paupers' lot or paupers' grave, but in 1966 Keene closed all previous "free grounds" and set aside a new "free ground" at Monadnock View. The first burial here was on December 13, This topical concerned only a brief history of the cemeteries, that is, how and when each began. No attempt has been made to list persons buried in the grounds, except in a few instances of special interest value. 613

204 ~'I usic I n Keene by Gardner Barrett On March 7, 1780, the town voted "that the singing in public worship be performed without reading line by line as they sing." The music of churches was of prime consideration in early years and singing by the congregation was considered an important part of public worship. To better the quality, Keene, in , appropriated $60 to teach the people to sing. The town was not always so generous in this regard and many times flatly refused such an appropriation, though in 1820 it did vote $50 to give such instruction to both the Congregational and Baptist Societies. In the 1820's Keene had a choral body known variously as the Keene Sacred Music Society, Keene Musical Society, and the Keene Harmonic Society. Under whatever name, it gave concerts well patronized by the public. The object of the society was to perform classical music in the best style, using the newly published collection of music by the Handel and Haydn Society in Boston. Handel's works usually took foremost consideration. The first performance of his "Messiah" in Keene was given on February 21,1821, at the Meetinghouse, admission 25. Keene had its first glimpse and hearing of a prima donna on August 16, 1827, when the noted cantatrice Signora Eliza Ostinelli Biscaccianti appeared in concert, with a vast European reputation and a real furore. A critic wrote of her performance: "Tho her cadences 614

205 are not always so mellifluent or finished as could be wished, nevertheless, her execution defies criticism." By 1854 the Che shire County Musical Institution was well organized and brought many noted musical figure s of the era to the :;tage of Keene's old town hall. Local citizens were pr operly appreciative of performances, both in solo work and in conjunction with local artists. For a number of years the great Carl Zerrahn of Boston was conductor of this soci ety and brought his highly polished artistic standards to its performances. At times the chorus numbered over 500. Later it was stated in the New England Magazine. "T he Ke ene festivals of the 1870's were pr obably the most fam ous in all New England, being relatively what the Worcester festival has since become." But in tim e the In stitution faced prohibitive costs. Financial losses, plus a wanin g of interest, caused the organization to disband. In time a group of musically inclined indiv idu als formed the select and social Keene Mu sic Club at which members play ed, sang, and read papers on all ph ases of music. An invitati on to attend was equivalent to a royal comma nd and was so acknowledged. Keene's heyday in rnusc was the period of the Keene Chorus Club from , 'and the Club did much to advertise Keene throughout the co untry. In 1902 Mrs. H erb ert E. Fay had become prime mov er in the orga nization of the Club, engende ring a spirited enthusiasm am ong the citizens. A conductor was obtained who was destined to become one of the great choral conductor s of his time, Nelson Perley Coffin of Newport, N. H. He was the guiding light of th e Club from 1902 to the time of his sudden de ath in The first concert was given February 20, 190 2, with Mr s. Berdia C. Huntress as acc ompani st, a position she occupied unt il her death in The chorus numbered 150 voices. Th eir first festival, a gala occasion, was held the same year. There was scarcely a major choral work of any real distinction not sun g at these festiv als : " Messiah," " E lijah," " St. Paul," and the Verdi " Re quiem," with th ree performances to its credit. "Aida " and "F aust" were given in con cert form with such artists as Edward Johnson, Anita Rio, Janet Spencer, and Emilie DeGogorza in the leadin g roles. Keene owe s much to th e memory of Edward F. Holbrook, Berdia C. Huntress, and Henry W. Br own. These citizens gave generously from their means that others might enjoy the musical talents of great artists. After the death of Nelson P. Coffin, the Ke ene Ch orus Club carried on under the baton of George Sawyer Dunham of Boston from 615

206 1924 to The first choral performance in New En gland of Ponchielli's " La Gioco nda" was sung in Keene with a cast head ed by the well-known sopra no Claire Maentz. Three Keene sopra nos wh o lent lustr e to the festivals by their artistry were Mildred H. Whitcomb, Teresa Daly, and Edith A. McCullough. Th e festivals were expensive affair s. With th e depr ession of 1929 the spa rk of other da ys was dimming, and the Keene Cho rus Club ende d, no longer a finan cial pos sibility. T he M acd owell M ale Chor us was found ed by Henry Southwell, Hugh R. Par k, Eri c Waling, and Gardner Barrett. Numbering some 40 voices and co nd ucted by Arthur T. Coogan, thi s gro up gave progra ms for seve ra l yea rs, with guest soloists Rose Bampton, Mar ie Healy, M ildr ed Strout, Jean ette Vreeland, and others sha ring the platform. Hop e Mason Guild and Edda Bennett Beal were the official piano accompa nists and on occas ion team ed with Li ly Lofgren L an e and Ca therine Cogswell Ames. Keen e was fo rtuna te in othe r choral co nductors : Har ry W. Davis with his Keene Teachers Co llege ( as it was known then ) Cho rus and the dir ectors of the Keene High School A Ca ppella Cho ir. This latt er gro up has given co ncerts in such cities as New York, Boston, Montreal, and Ottawa. The Keen e Brass Band and Keene Military Ban d had been orga nized in the 187 0' s. Beedle's Military Band star ted in Othe rs followed, but the one th at has remained more or less co nsta nt over the yea rs to the present tim e is th e Keene C ity Band. The Gordon Bissell Post # 4 Am erican Legion Band ha s mad e a nam e for itself th roughout the New En gland area. T he first da nce orchestra in Keene to gain wides prea d recogniti on wa s undou bt edly the " Kee ne Quadrille Band" which played regularl y (under different nam es) for all of the better balls, asse mb lies, and levees in town. A corres ponde nt of the Bellows Falls Tim es says of the G rand M asonic ball at Ches ter, Vt., on J anuary 29, 1874, "The re is no bett er ball music within one hundred miles of here th an th at of the Keene Qu adrille Band. T he callin g, or rather, prompting, was clear and distinct, the selections unu sually fine." The ba nd ca rrie d on und er vari ous leaders. L ater the organization was known as the Second Regiment Band, M aynard and Merrill 's Orchestra, Maynard and Holton's Quadrille Band, and M aynard and Wh eeler's Orch estr a. T his last combination pla yed for vario us city fu ncti ons until well into the mid-1880's. Every town in the country large enough to ma int ain a fire de 616

207 partment had an annual Fireman's Ball. Keene was no exception. Local orchestras usually were engaged to play at these affairs, with an occasional "outside" band imported. The Deluge Hose Company and the Phoenix Hose Company held a series of dance assemblies every winter. The Keene Light Guard was another civic organization holding monthly dances. From descriptions available their military balls must have been "the" social event of the season. The Universalist Society, as well as the Unitarian Society, held annual fairs and festivals, culminating in several hours of dancing. An organization known as the "Monadnock Colony of Pilgrim Fathers" was another society sponsoring a series of dances during the winter months. At that time it was customary to hold a "Dedication Ball" to open a new civic building officially. It was somethin g else again to commemorate the opening of a new shoe factory with a public dance. Yet this happened on February 16, 1892, when the Lancaster Shoe Company formally dedicated its huge building with a Grand Ball. The early years of the 1880's saw the most spectacular series of balls ever held in Keene. These were known as the "Big Six" balls, receiving their name because six local business men sponsored them. Aside from the dancing, these evenings became pleasurable as reunion ti me for former Keene residents, and many came a long distance for this purpose only. The "Big Six" series of dancing assemblies continued well into the 1 890's. Their only serious competition came from those originated by Benjamin S. Osgood, which were called the "Ours" series. 617

208 Though perhaps not as elegant as the "Big Six" dances, still they found favor with the general public and were well patronized for many years. The Bccdle Orchestra of the "Gay Nineties" and beyond was one of the finest groups of musicians ever gathered together in the city. It was organized shortly after the Beedle family came to Keene in the early 1890's and within one year was musically in demand throughout the county. In 1893 five of the eight musicians in the orchestra were named Beedle, and top men in the field for miles around were anxious to join this celebrated group. At the age of nine Edwin Eugene Bagley, born in Craftsbury, Vt., in 1857, came under the care of his cousin, Mrs. Charles C. Beedle, a member of the company of Leavitt's Bellringers. The boy joined this group as a singer and comedian. Later he became a member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and Boston's Germania Band. He returned to Keene in 1893, where he was a member of Beedle's Orchestra for the next seven years. In 1905 Bagley composed his "National Emblem" march, which has become famous throughout the country. His other marches include "America Victorious," written at the close of World War I, and the "Farm Bureau March." Bagley died in Keene in Bandstand erected 1872 on site of town well; removed in

209 With a ba ss voice of exceptiona l rang e, power, flexibilit y, and appealing quality, a local singe r of ope ra and ora to rio, William " Bill" Ny e, delighted audiences for many years. For several years shortly after World War II a group of local si nge rs formed the Keene Li ght Opera Company and performed in such popular hits as "H.M.S. Pin afor e," "The Mikado," 'The Sorcer er," and "Robin Hood." The first dancing school in Keene was tau ght during the winter of by a Mr. Burbank of Brookfield. In the 19th century this typ e of instruction became a flourishin g business. Boys and girls were instructed in the latest steps as well as goo d co nduct. Adults were tau ght the dances at later hours. The dance season began ea rly in Octob er, ran th rou gh the winter months, and usually ended in April. Th e Sentinel, during those months, co nta ined num erous references to the local dancing assemblies. Freque ntly wedding anniversaries were celebrated by a dancing party. Ralph G. Page, well-known Keene resid ent and autho rity on co untry dances, call ed his first square da nce on December 6, 1930, in the Stoddard T own Hall. He becam e a full-time profe ssional ca ller in Since then he has been teaching at dance camps, sch ools, and colleges throughout the country and in Ca nada. The U. S. Govern ment (Department of State, Ex cha nge of Persons Branch) sent Page to Jap an in April and May of to teach New England country dancing. In the fall of 1966 he was invit ed abroad by the English Co un try Dance and Song Society. Page spent several weeks travelin g around England pr esenting New England dances. Members of a gro up und er Page's lead ership have rec orded a sco re of traditional co ntra and squa re dan ce tun es for Folk Dance Co. of New Yark City. Page has written articles about square and contra dances for many publicati on s and is editor of " Northern Junket," a danc e and folklore qu arterly. A Keene-born mu sician is the talent ed violini st Michael Vitale, who at the age of six began violin lesson s with the late Fredyum H endrickson. After three years of stud y, an audition at the New England Conservatory of Mu sic br ought him a scho larship which enabled him to continue und er Alf red Krips, Assistant Concertmaster of th e Boston Symphony Orchestra. Wh en Vitale was 12 the Conserv atory pr esented him in recital at Jordan Hall in Boston. The sam e year the Juilliard School of Mu sic in New York awarded him a scholarship to study with Ivan G alamian, one of the world's greatest violin instructor s. H e made solo appearances with the Worcester and Cincinnati Sym 619

210 phony Orchestras and, in 1964, the year of his graduation from Juilliard, Vitale became, at the age of 21, the youngest member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. The Keene Community Concert series, also known under other names, to a large degree continues to fill the void left by the old choral groups. Starting with the first season in , many foremost artists of the present day have appeared on these programs before sold-out houses. 620

211 POPULATION GROWTH OF KEENE , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

212

213 INDEX a Abbott, Charles, 292 Abbott, Charles c., 216, 494 A bbott, Mr s. Ella E., 185, 582 Abbott, John T., 148 Abbott Co., 526 Ab bott Gr ocery Co., 324, 494 Abbott Industries, Inc., 526 Aberdeen, Scotland, 127 Academy Fund, Academy House. 79, 21 3 Act on, Mass., 25 Acworth, N. H., 23 1 Ad ams, Benjamin F., 39 5, 536, 537, 541 Adams, Ca rl H., 489 Ad ams, Dr. Charles Goldthwaite, 352, 585 Ad am s, Dr. Daniel. 48, 262, 273, 364, 446, 567, 570 Ad ams, Mr s. Daniel, 353, 369 Ad ams, Eliza, 487 Ad ams, Frank, 49 7 Ad ams, John, 38, 78 Ad ams, Sherm an, 526 Adams, Susan King, 352 Adams, B. F. & Co., 541 Ad ams, Holm an & Wood, 537, 541 Adams House, 347, 364 Ad vent Ch ristian Church, 118, 431 Aetn a Insur ance Co., 492 Agassiz, Louis, 100 Ahavas Achim Congregation, 208, 437, 438 Ahern, Martin, 135 Ahe rn, Roy, 192, 409 Alarm List,

214 Albany, N. Y o, 69, 217, 287, 532, 545, 548 Albee, John J 0' 42 0 Ald en, Lu ther P., 49 Aldrich, Ben 0., 512 Aldrich, Edwin Y., 292, 354 Aldrich, E ugene L., 49 2 Aldrich, George u., 492 Aldrich, Herbert c., 368, 492 Aldrich, Isaac, 270 Aldrich, Paul F., 97 Aldrin, Fred A., 26 7 Alexand er, E beneze r, 3, 12 Al exand er, Fos ter, 264 Alger, Joseph W., 522 Aliber, Aaron, 5 12 A liber, Phi lip, 51 2 All-A merica City, 22 1, 256, 43 4, 525, 526 Allard, Richard R., 479 A llen, Am asa, 263, 460 A llen, Chester, 93, 474, 480 Allen, Daniel, 292 A llen, F rancis E o, 492 Allen, Th eodor e J., 137 Allen, William B., 106, 568 A llen, William T, 123 All en & Bond, 263, 314 Allen & Dorr, 277, 460 A llen & Wadsworth, 492 Allen's, Les ter, Minstr els, 139 Almquist, Dr. Fred A., 380 Alstead, N. H., 52, 23 1, 446, 51 3, 563 A lumni Field, 183, 200, 205, 210, 453, 454 A madon, Frank E, 205 "America Victo rious" March, 6 18 Am erican Academy of Languages and Belles Lettres, 68 Am eri can Association of Teachers, 190 A merican Band of Claremo nt, 16 '1 A merican Ca blevis ion, 2 19, 526 A merican Express Co., 286, 324 Am erican House, 125, 27 1 A merican Insulator & Mica Co.,

215 American Legion, 178, 180, 181, 190, 192, 193, 194, 219 Cheshire County Voiture of the 40 and 8, 178 Gordon Bissell Post No.4, 178 Auxiliary, 178 Band, 21 9, 616 Building, 178, 326 Little League World Series, 222 American News, The, 89, 566, 568 American News Co., 326 American Optical Co., 526 American Red Cross, 181, 193, 195, 200, 208, 437 Disaster Committee, 194 Keene Chapter, 181, 195 New England Division, 181 New Hampshire Society, 181 American Silk Grower & Agriculturist, 73, 568 American Telegraph Co., 475, 476 Ames, Catherine Cogswell, 616 Ames, Luther, 460 Ames, Silas, 266, 462 Ames, Thomas F., 267, 268, 318, 320, 470 Ames, Timothy K., 56 Ames Mfg. Co., 124, 239 Amherst College, 139 Amsden, Harry S., 514 Amsden's Shoe Store, 326, 514 Amsterdam, Holland, 518 Ancient Order of Hibernians, 136 Anderson, Dexter, 76, 273, 318 Andover Theological Seminary, 415, 447 Andrews, Alonzo, 77, 273 Andrews, John, 7, 228 Andrews, James, & Co., 550 Angier, Silas, 351 Annals of Keene, 68, 100, 153 Anthony, Susan B., 135 Antrim, N. H., 299, 539 Apdaile, Sarah Goldthwaite, 364 Appian Way Show Grounds, 152 Applegate, Rev. Octavius, Jr., 147 Appleton, Aaron, 51, 277, 293, 464, 530, 531, 533,

216 Appleton, George J., 491 Appleton, Miss Keziah Bixby, 373 Appleton, G. J., & Co., 491 Appleton & Elliot, 58, 277, 3 16, 318, 464, 536, 53 7 Appleton Street Brickyard, 197 Ar cher, Benj amin, 34, 358, 359, 377 Archer, Ward F., 5 12 Argus, The, 42 Arl ington, Va., 184 Armistice Da y Celebrations, 178, 180, 190, 250 Armstrong Co., 509 Asbu ry, Bishop Francis, 72 Asc utney Boulder, 185 Ash Brook Meadows, 283 Ashburnham, Mass" 116, 426 Ashburnham Band, I 12 Ash Swamp, 6,8,18,1 9, 21,33, 35, 53,55,57,71,72, 76,212, 255,283, 294, 296,301,307,332,333, 335, 370, 381, 382, 419, 420, 42 1, 589, 6 10 Ash Swamp Brook, 342, 605 Ash Swamp Yard ( Burying Gr ound ), 604, 605 Ashuelot, N. H., 112 Ashuelot Bank, 79, 279, 318, 320, 333 Ashuelot Boot & Shoe Co., 135 Ashuelot Cavalry, 46, 49, 51, 56, 78 Ashuelot-Citizens Nat ional Bank, 278, 279 Ashuelot-Citizens Nat ional Bank Building, 279. Ashuelot Equ ivalent, 7 Ashuelot Fire Insurance Co., 95, 471 Ashuelot Gas & Electric Co., 166 Ashuelot Mills, 135 Ashuelot National Ban k, 112, 114, 277, 278, 322, 324, 326 Ashuelot Park way Study Co mmittee, 255 Ashuelot Railro ad, 92, 138, 302, 384, 396,397,401,402 Ashue lot River, I, 16, 39, 61, 62, 84, 85, 98, 100, 103, 125, 141, 157, 179, 194, 209, 21 2, 21 8, 22 6,227,233,250,255, 288, 293, 29 4, 29 8, 30 3, 328, 334, 335, 336, 345, 355, 381, 382, 405, 420, 444, 462, 465, 509, 530, 585, 587, 596, 597, 604 Ashu elot River Park, 21 2 Ashuelot Shoe Co., 511 Assembly of God Church,

217 ----- Associated Press, 565 Association of Keene for Discouraging the Use of Ardent Spirits, 61 Atherton, Booz, 367 Athletic Club, 183 Athol, Mass., 2, 426 Atwood, Edith Chamberlain, 434 Atwood, Harry M., 173 Aubuchon, W. F, Co., 326 Automatic Canteen Co. of America, 150, 495 Auxiliary Education Society, 73 Avery, Frank 1., 481 A vignon in Flower: , 225 b Babbidge, Paul F, 154, 189, 251 Babbidge Dam, 189, 251, 610 Babcock, Robert F., 471 Bach, Ronald P., 200, 500, 508 Bach, Mrs. Ronald P., 500 Bacon, Rev. Jacob,S, 6, 10, I I, 100,228,414 Bagley, Edwin Eugene, 149, 150, 617 Bainbridge, William, 65 Baker, David, 609 Baker, Mr s. George Pierce, 567 Baker, Hepzibah, 373 Baker, Joseph, 589 Baker, Kermit E., 514 Baker, Sarah, 609 Baker, Thomas, 19, 24, 8 I, 295, 349, 350, 354, 373, 609 Baker, E. c., & Co., 125 Baker House, 346, 349 Baker's Block, 268, 327 Balch, Arthur H., 277 Balch, Benjamin, 459 Balch, Clayton E., 277 Balch, John, 29, 283, 284, 607 Balch Brothers, 277 Baldwin, Charles,

218 Baldwinsville, Mass., 499 Ball, Emmons, 153, 491 Ball, George, 491 Ball, Mrs. George, 260 Ball, George W" 106, 125, 260, 491 Ball, Professor, 128 Ball's, George W., Sons, 491 Ball's Block, 35, 71, 121, 136, 197, 259, 260, 320, 322, 324, , 447, 469, 477 Baltimore, Md., 110, 509, 539 Baltimore Glass Works, 539 Bampton, Rose, 616 Bancroft, Amos, 494 Bank Block, 119, 132, 148,264,470,471,578 Banker's Assoc iates, 326 Banks, Anna, 100, 101 Barden, Ebenezer, 34 Barford, J. Wallace, 439 Barker, Fred A., 120 Barker, Sheldon, 379 Barker, Stephen, 608 Barker, T ijeston A., 108, 109, 110 Barker Block, 95, 25 8, 322, 325 Barker Re alty Co., 379, 466, 580 Barmen, Germany, 515 Barmen Textile Institute, 515 Barnard, Walter, 593 Barndollar, Frank, 569 Barnes, Charles S., 124, 239 Barnes, Malachi, 165 Barnum & Bailey's Circus, 154, 506 Barnum, Bailey & Hutchinson's Circus, 140 Barrett, Dorothy, 386 Barrett, Evans, 192, 331, 337, 339, 386, 409 Barrett, Fanny Colony, 380 Barrett, Fred E., 380 Barrett, Gardner, 616 Barrett, Harlan, 224 Barrett, Henry, 386 Barrett, J. W., 96 Barrett, Julia Pearl,

219 Barrett, Rev. Samuel, 422 Barrett, William A., 491 Barrett, William c., 212 Barrett, W. A., & Co., 125, 491 Barrett's Band, 210 Barrows, "Kitty," 192, 409 Barry, Jerry E., 491 Barry, John M., 322, 324 Barstow, Rev. Zedekiah Smith, 57, 59, 61, 65, 67, 72, 81, 95, 104, 115,118, 121,352,415,416,417,447,448,584,609 Barstow, Mrs. Zedekiah S., 121 Bartholomew, Rev. Almon M., 436 Bartholomew, Amos A., 509 Bartholomew, Jeanette, 509 Bartlett, Theodore, 188 Barton, Theodore S., 278 Bassett, Samuel, 608 Batchelder, Alfred T., 242, 470, 496 Batchelder, Rev. Kenn eth, 433 Batchelder, Nathaniel, 385, 496 Batchelder, Mrs. Nathaniel, 383 Batchelder House, 347, 383, 384 Batcheller, Betsey, 363 Batcheller, Breed (1), 22, 25, 28, 335 Batcheller, Breed (2), 82, 448 Batcheller, Charles, 114 Bauer, Christina, 524 Bauer, George, 524 Bay Path, 3, 282 Beal, Edda Bennett, 616 Beal, Joseph R., 477, 497 Beal, Royal, 193 Beal, William Holt, 477 Beal, J. R., & Co., 477 Beals, Mrs. Lydia, 610 Beals, Mary, 359 Bean, Richard E., 222, 257, 525 Bean, R. E., Construction Co., Inc., 326, 525 Beaver Brook, 4, 5, 6, 10, 16, 46, 53, 54, 63, 114, 156, 158, 194, 219,227,229,247,283,295,297,310,335,337,341,350, 383, 404, 419, 457, 458, 460, 542, 586,

220 Beaver Brook Sewerage and Drainage Assoc iation, 21 9 Bea ver Mills, 133, 138, 142, 144, 146, 151, 159, 164,483,484, 495, 499, 508, 573 Beckley, F. W., 262 Bedaw, Fred L., 368 Beech Hill, 27, 47, 99, 106, 114, 142, 143, 151, 189, 19 1, 197,212, 239, 242, 243, 247, 25 0, 294, 299, 331, 33 8, 34 8, 357, 375, 427, 461, 47 0, 557, 587 Beech Hill Park, 156 Beech Hill Reservoir, 117, 139, 244 Beecher, Henry Ward, 98 Beedle, Charle s c., 149, 498 Beedle, Mrs. Charles c., 6 18 Beedle, Karl D., I R3 Beedle, Karl J., 275, 49 8 Beedl e, Karl R., 149,210, 21 9,254,469,498 Beedle, C. c., Piano Co., 498 Beedl e's Military Band, 616 Beedl e's Music Store, 149, 275, 326 Beedl e's Orchestra, 149, 61 8 Beedle's String Quintet, 42 4 Belcher, Gov. Jonathan, 1, 226 Belchert own, Mass" 3 Belknap, Rev. Jeremy, 20, 42 Bell, E rnes t L., III, 22 1 Bell, Shortlidge & Kennedy, 327 Bell Shops, 326 Bellerieve, Mon sieur, 41 Bellows, Benjamin, 22, 25, 229 Bellows Falls, vi., 39, 45, 60, 8 1, 9 1,98, 107, 112, 117, 169, 174, 220,284,285, 28 6, 337, 33 8,339, 396, 402, 403, 51 8 Bell ows Falls Times, 616 Belluscio, Right Rev. Msgr. John J., 428 Bemis, Cyrus H., 491 Bem is & Ru ssell, 125 Ben eficial Finance Co., 326 Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, 166, 172, 178, 182, 192 Bennett, A. H., 447 Bennett, Asahel, 77 Benn ett, Frank J., 170, 26 1, 507 Benn ett Block, 261, 324,

221 Benn ington, Vt., 28, 30, 81, 560 Benn ington Museum, 560 Bent, James Howard, 494 Bent Ice Co., 295 Bentley, Rev, William, 44 Benton, John E., 160, 247, 507 Berger, Abe, 509 Berge ron, Edgar F., 272 Bergeron, Edw ard J., 519 Bergeron, Leon J., 526 Bergeron, Th eodore H., 5 19 Bergeron Constru ction Co., 5 19 Bergeron Machine Co., 466 Bergeron's, Ed, Inc., 272, 326 Bergh, Mrs. Elizabeth Griffin, 429 Berry, Gov. Nathaniel Sprin ger, I I I Besaw, Mrs. Cora, 434 Better TV, 2 I9, 52 6 Beverstock, Carl, 471 Beverstock, Herbert, 47 1 Beverstock, Malcolm G., 47 1 Beverstock, Oscar D., 484, 497 Beverstock, O. D., Co., 497 Bibeau's Keene Hardware Co., 326 Bickford, Mrs. Abby, 128, 24 I, 451 Biddle, Alexand er J. Drexel, 408 Bijou Th eater, 171 Bill, Harvey A., 27 8, 567 Bill, Mrs. Harvey A., 27 8 Bill, Rachel, 41 Billerica, Mass., 180 Binn ey, John Walker, 38 1, 382 Binney, Susa n, 381 Binney House, 347, 38 1 Bird, Michael, 44, 460 Biscaccianti, Signora Eliza Ostinelli, 6 I4 Bisco, Leo nard, 105 Bishop, Luther, 426 Bissell, Edwin E., 496 Bissell, James H., 178 Bixby, Dr. John, 28 1,

222 Black, James c., 518 Black, J. c., & Co., 480 Black Brook, 360 Blackmer, Rev. Lewis J., Jr., 422 Blake, Abel, 347, 370, 383, 531, 533 Blake, Abner, 609 Blake, Elijah, 385, 386 Blake, Ellery, 498 Blake, Henry, 563 Blake, Justin, 386 Blake, Mary, 13 Blake, Mary Baker, 386 Blake, Milton, 383 Blake, Nathan, 4, 5, 9, 10, II, 12, 13, 20, 100, 184, 228, 283, 296, 345, 383, 457, 458, 481, 609 Blake, Mrs. Nathan, 13 Blake, Nathan, Jr., 18 Blake, Dr. Obadiah, 6, 27, 284, 331, 337, 339, 354, 386 Blake, Dr. Obadiah, Jr., 386 Blake, Obed 228 Blake, Reuel, 77 Blake, William, I 19 Blake, William Ward, 352, 563 Blake, Henry, & Co., 39, 563 Blake (Abel) House, 370 Blind Tom, 102 Bliss Business College, 149 Blizzard of 1888, 143, 144, 495, 589, 590 Blood, Gov. Robert 0., 203, 410 Bloody Brook, South Deerfield, Mass., 4 Bloomer, Carl R., 258, 271, 325, 520 Bloomer & Haselton, 258, 327, 579 Blount, F. Nelson, 220 Boccia & Grout Shoes, 326 Bodwell Granite Co., 493 Boehm, Rev. Lester, 441 Bolster, Ray, 193 Bolton, Wilson W., 498 Bolton, Mass., 460 Bond, John G., 52, 262, 263, 273, 368, 570 Bond, William M.,

223 Bond House, Old, 349, 368, 369 Bon Ton Building, 437, 438 Booras Family, 274 Booth, John Wilkes, 193, 371 Bordeaux, France, 550 Borden, Bruce L., 490 Borden, Mrs. Grace M., 492 Borofsky, Isadore, & Son, 271 Borofsky Brothers, Inc., 274 Borofsky Block, 273 Boscawen, N. H., 448 Boston, Mass., 3, 16, 22, 25, 26, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 45, 46, 47, 49,51,52,60,62,69,70,72,73,74,81,86,90,91,92,93, 104,106,112,119,123,124,126,127,131,138,139,147, 170,171,176,198,202,209,211,212,217,220,225,234, 238, 239, 256, 266, 276, 285, 286, 287, 296, 338, 339, 353, 364, 369, 379, 386, 391, 394, 395, 396, 401, 402, 424, 429, 460,475,477,488,490,514,515,516,532,544,547,548, 550,553,557,561,562,565,583,588,614,615,616,619 Boston & Lowell Railroad, 137 Boston & Maine Railroad, 168, 177, 193, 220, 255, 294, 322, 324, 402, 405, 492, 523 Boston Brigade Band, 100 Boston, Concord & Montreal Railroad, 125 Boston Furniture Co., 473 Boston Gazette, 10 Boston Germania Band, 618 Boston Industrial Co., 403 Boston Journal, 476 Boston Marathon, 190 Boston Suffolk Brass Band, 396 Boston Symphony Orchestra, 618, 619, 620 Boston Univer sity School of Education, 454 Bowman, Albert c., 518 Bowman, Lee D., 199, 200, 203, 410, 411 Bowman Flying Service, 410 Boxford, Mass., 7 Boyden, E. W., 265 Boy Scouts, 181, 192 Bracq, Prof. John c., 354, 408 Bradbury, Captain Jennie,

224 Braddock, General, 18 Bradford, An drew, 296 Bradford, Dan iel, 47, 193, 296, 30 I, 347, 371, 372, 530, 531, 533, 534 Bradfcrd, Dr. James, 462 Bradford Inn, 193, 371 Bradford Road Ce metery, 37 3 Bradley, Homer S., 194 Brady, Re v. John, 87, 428 Branch Bridge Corp., 288 Brunch River, 45, 288, 296, 299, 309, 332, 334, 337, 4 12 Branchville (South Keene ), 93, 46 7 Brattleboro, VI., 4, 69, 8 1, 183, 186, 287,361, 394,439,474 Brattleboro Mfg. Co., 5 10 Brattleboro O verall Co., 173, 177, 510 Bridge of Joy, 179 Bridgeport, Co nn., 524 Brid ges, Styles, 203, 4 10 Bridgewater, Mass., 360 Bridgham, William T., 198, 2 1I Brid gman, Charles, 119, 26 3, 320, 472 Br idgman, Charles H., 472 Bridgman, Helen Bartl ett, 188, 454 Bridgman, Dr. Herbert, 135 Bridgman & Heb ard, 472 Bridgman, Spra gue & Mason, 472 Bridgman 's Block, 263, 322, 324, 472, 480 Briggs, Abi gail, 350 Briggs, Eliphalet (I), 3 18, 607 Briggs, Eliphalet (2 ), 58 Briggs, Eliphalet (3), 66,76, 89,93,95,261,262,268,31 6,318, 320, 35 1, 44 8, 472 Briggs, Elisha, 331, 458, 46 1 Br iggs, John W., 66, 3 16, 31 8 Briggs, Na thaniel, 261, 314, 316 Briggs, Warren S., 95 Briggs, William S., 109, 110, 165, 185, 262, 320, 322, 606 Briggs, E. & W. S., 482 Britton, Mr s. Elizabe th H., 43 5 Bro okfield, Mass., 3 Brooks, Gr osvenor,

225 Brooks, Lyman J., 49 6 Brooks, William, 330 Brook s, Wind sor G., 500 Brown, Ammi, 355 Brown, Harry B., 172 Brown, Henry W., 615 Brown, Joseph, 36, 353, 354, 355, 369 Brown, Parker A., 515 Brown, Svellon, Award, 569 Brown Uni versity, 139 Bruder, Alex S., 274 Bruder Block, 274, 324, 522 Brush, George de For est, 209, 523 Bru sh, Mary Davenport, 523 Bryant, Calvin, 481 Bryant, G. J. F., 104, 238 Bryant's Band, 481 Buckle y, Ruth Bridgman, 263 Buckminster, Dauphin W., 281, 320, 477 Buckm inster, J. Whitn ey, 26 1 Buell, Mr s. Jane, 378 Buffalo Bill' s Wild West Show, 152 Buffalo, N. Y., 69, 164, 51 3 Buffum, Caleb T., 276, 320, 322 Bu ffum, Joseph, 59, 367 Buffum Block, 37, 11 8, 146, 322, 324, 326, 435 Bullard, Asa, 40, 233 Bull ard, Asa, Jr., 39 Bullard, Edward H., 471 Bullard, John, 10, 22 8, 307 Bullard & Fos ter, 471, 480 Bullard & Shedd, 65, 28 1, 327, 471, 494 Bullard & Shedd Block, 281 Bull ard 's Coffee Hou se, 41, 233, 28 5, 304, 446 Bull ard 's Island, 7, 304, 307 Bull ock, Dr. Clifford W., 385 Bullock, Mr s. Clifford W., 385 Bundy, H orace, 99 Bu rbank, A. 1., 44 9 Burd ett, George L., 138, 482 Burdett Chair Co " 482, 499,

226 Burgoyne, General, 27 Burlington, Vt., 52, 69, 93, 286, 287 Burnap, James, 486, 496 Burnap & Hyland, 320 Burns, Charles, 576 Burns, Patrick, 87, 427 Business and Professional Women's Club, 166, 167, 191 Buss, Daniel, 473 Butler, Rev. William, 426 Buzzell, J. M., 422 c Cadiz, Spain, 14 Cady, Albe, 120, 260, 261, 532, 533, 570 Cain, Orville E., 177, 248, 470, 496 Calef, Robert G., 477 Callahan, William J., 251 Callahan's Taxi Service, 220, 482 Cambridge, Mass., 25, 223 Camp, Dresser & McKee, 256 Campbell, Lewis, 276 Cardiff Giant, The, 123 Carey, Forrest L., 188, 190, 205, 250, 511 Carey, Franklin A., 311 Carey Chair Co., 195, 482, 511 Carleton, William, 508 Carpenter, Dr. A. S., 320, 322, 324 Carpenter, Rev. Ezra, 16, 229, 414 Carpenter, Rev. Mark, 94 Carpenter, Sumner, 353 Carrick, Richard c., 520 Carrier, John, 510 Carroll, Robert F., 260 Carroll & Wilder, 324 Carter, Miss Addie, 578 Carter, Miss Eliza, 610 Carter, Merton T.,

227 Carter, Wright V., 490, 578 Carter Engineering Co., 524 Cass, D., 64 Castor, Mrs. Louis, 165 Cathedral of the Pines, 215, 254 Catholic Daughters of America, Court Josephine, 181 Causeway, The, 16, 89, 283, 310, 333, 341 Cemetery Hill, 405 Center District School, 58, 77, 83, 89, 261, 314, 316 Central Junior High School, 213, 451, 452, 453, 456 Central Pacific Railroad, 81 Central Pharmacy, 197, 491 Central Screw Co., 198, 334, 523 Central Shoe Service, 326 Central Square, 16, 36,41,44,45,50,51,58,59,62,65,67,71, 79, 81, 83, 84, 85, 88, 89, 93, 95, 99, 100, 102, 104, 105, 108,111,113,114,116,117,119,120,130,134,140,143, 151, 152, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 169, 170,171, 173, 175, 176, 178, 179, 189, 195, 197,200,201, 204, 209, 210, 211, 224, 237, 241, 243, 244, 247, 248, 250, 252, 259, 260, 262, 263, 264, 269, 270, 274, 278, 279, 280, 281, 283, 285, 287, 290, 291, 297, 298, 299, 304, 309, 310, 312,320,332,339, 341, 350, 351, 390, 403, 404, 405, 406, 414,415,416,419,431,436,437,438,447,469,470,472, 476, 477, 489, 496, 507, 508, 512, 525, 555, 574 Chace, Donald P., 367 Chace, Mrs. Donald P., 367 Chamberlain, Levi, 125, 275, 463, 470 Chamberlain, Rev. Roy B., Jr., 418 Chamberlain, William P., 143, 149, 274, 489 Chamberlain, W. P., & Co., 280, 281, 489, 521 Chamberlain Block, 166, 167, 280, 325 Champlain Glass Co., 539, 540 Champlain, Lake, 51, 588 Champney, Benjamin, 99 Chandler, Charles S., 441, 442 Chandler, Clark N., 476 Chandler, C. N., & Co., 480 Chandler, Harold 1., 477 Chandler, Lemuel, 38, 265 Chandler, Peter,

228 Chandler Hou se, 38, 44, 62, 63, 314, 316, 335 Channing, William Ellery, 100 Chapin, Aaron, 6 Chapin, Rev. Frank M., 164 Chapin, Mrs. Frank M., 164 Chapman, Betsey, 358 Chapman, Calvin, 346, 358 Chapman, Daniel, 270 Chapman, Frank, 490 Chapman, King 8., 358 Chapman, Sarah Willson, 358 Chapman-Alexander Meetings, 437 Alexander, Charles M., 180, 437 Chapman, J. Wilbur, 180, 437 Chapman Farm, 346, 358 Charlestown, Mass., 25 Charlestown Navy Yard, 172 Charle stown, N. H., 8, 10, 17, 20, 21, 29, 30, 31, 40, 46, 48, 60, 69, 231, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 29 8, 303, 607 Charlestown Woolen Co., 518 Ch app ell, Rev. C Raymond, 42 2 Charlotte, N. C, 517 Chase, A. Richard, 469 Cha se, Albert H., 277, 469 Chase, Rt. Rev. Carlton, 105, 429 Ch ase, Ithamar, 59, 60 9 Cha se, John, 76 Cha se, Joseph, 363, 606 Chase, Philander, 59, 551 Cha se, Salmon P., 59, 352, 551, 609 Ch ase, Steph en (I), 363, 604, 605, 606 Chase, Steph en (2 ), 606 Ch ase, Stephen, Jr., 363 Cha se & Fairbanks, 473 Chase Tavern, 347, 363 Chase's Block, 277 Ch ase's Book Store, 469 Chase's, Inc., 277, 326, 469 Chauncy Hall Batt alion, 123 Chautauqua Association, 172, 184, 185 Chekhov Th eatre Players,

229 Chelmsford, Mass., 462, 539 Cheshire Advertiser, The, 39, 285, 562, 563 Cheshire Agricultural Society, 73, 106, 116, 129, 371 Cheshire Athenaeum Library, 72 Cheshire Bank, 46, 89, 275, 314, 316, 320, 395, 462 Cheshire Beef & Produce Co., 500 Cheshire Block, 320, 570 Cheshire Chair Co., ] 38, 164, 392, 482, 483 Cheshire Clothing Co., 5-12 Cheshire County Agricultural Society, 60, 97 Cheshire County Automobile Association, 507 Cheshire County Bank, 92, 1] 2, 320, 477 Cheshire County Bible Society, 61 Cheshire County Council of Churches, 222, 438, 439 Cheshire County Dental Association, ] 83 Cheshire County Farm, ] 66 Cheshire County Farmer's Association, 180 Cheshire County Fire Insurance Company, 63 Cheshire County Fish and Game Club, ] 80 Cheshire County Grange Fair, 154 Cheshire County Humane Society, ] 66 Cheshire County Insurance Agency, 493 Cheshire County League of Women Voters, 221 Cheshire County Medical Association, 150 Cheshire County Musical Institute (or Institution), 106, 615 Cheshire County Mutual Fire Insurance Co., 79, 469, 492 Cheshire County Numismatic Society, 207 Cheshire County Republican and Farmer's Museum, 567 Cheshire County Sacred Music Society, 73 Cheshire County Savings Bank, 79,209,264,324,326,470,578 Cheshire County Teachers' Institute, 95 Cheshire County Telephone Exchange, 131, 493 Cheshire County Temperance Society, 74 Cheshire Fair Grounds, 574 Cheshire Farmer, The, 73, 568 Cheshire Fish and Game League, 145 Cheshire Glu e Co., 489 Cheshire Grange No. 131, ] 44 Cheshire Hall, 102, 104, 139, 320 Cheshire House, The, 38, 64, 81, 83, 87,103,104,106,112,113, 120, 124, 125, 135, 141, 151, 158, 161, 165, 174, 175, 176, 639

230 ,265,266,286,318,320, 322, 324, 352,377, 397,402, 480, 484, 611 Cheshire House Block, 136, 149, 191, 265, 266, 320, 322, 324, 326, 470, 494, 512, 576 Cheshire Light Guard, 108 Cheshire Mills, 114, 263, 377, 389 Cheshire Lunch, 326 Cheshire National Bank, 89, 112, 275, 276, 277, 322, 324, 326, 363, 445, 462, 465, 467, 494 Cheshire Provident Institution for Savings, 79, 119,275,322,470 Cheshire Railroad Co., 86, 92, 106, 116, 133, 137, 138, 146, 153, 268, 269, 273, 288, 298, 301, 320, 322, 333, 337, 339, 361, 395, 396, 397, 398, 400, 401, 402, 417 Cheshire Republican, The, 73, 84,106,110,148,160,429,567,568 Cheshire Steam Mills, 106 Cheshire Streamliner, The, 198, 402 Cheshire Tanning Co., 338 Cheshire Theological Institute, 72 Cheshire Transportation Co., 157, 220, 407 Chester, Vt., 107, 616 Chesterfield, N. H., 2,8,31,32,40,48,55,57, 61, 95, 204, 231, 287, 299, 301, 342, 343, 379, 426, 441 Chesterfield Academy, 55, 447 Chicago, Ill., 62, 109, 149, 150, 217, 424, 523, 524 Chick, Donald E., 218, 254 Chicopee, Mass., 124, 239 Children's Theater, 205 Children's Wood, 143, 243, 244 Childs, Richard S., 256 Chittenden, Gov., 31 Chorley, Rev. Richard E., 422 Christian Campus Ministry, Dept. of, 439 Church of Christ, 441, 442 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 94, 442 Mormon Church, 94, 122, 208, 442 Church of the Nazarene, 432 Bethany Mission, 119, 146, 147, 432 Methodist Camp Meetings, 432 Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, 432, 433 Pentecostal Churches in America, Association of,

231 Reynolds, Hiram H., 432 Union Evangelical Churches, 147 Cincinnati, Ohio, 93, 106, 467 Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, 619, 620 Citizens' Annual Ball, 90 Citizens Electric Light Co., 156, 480 Citizen s for Council-Manager Government, 254 Citizens Nat ional Bank, 165, 496 City Federation of Women's Clubs, 167 City Hall, 16,76,90,127,130,131,132,133,139, ISO, 151, 152, 153, 156, 159, 162, 163, 169, 170, 171, 172, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 184, 186, 191,202,205,210,215,216,237,241, 245,247,248,250,253,254,262,310,322,324,326,507,612 City Hall Block, 133, 246 City Hotel, 125, 271 City Ice Co " 494 City News, The, 123 City Park, 151, 189, 243 City Pharmacy, 511 City Savings Bank, 507 Civil War, 51,102,108,116,122,123,153,154,177,205,206, 276,298,302,308,368,427,465,476,477,481,496,612 Battles Antietam, 110 Bull Run, 110, 302 Camden, III Chancellorsville, I 10 Fair Oaks, 110 Fredericksburg, 110 Gettysburg, 110 Petersburg, 111 Richmond, 111 Vicksburg, 111 Cheshire County Christian Commission, 110 Che shire County Soldiers' Aid Society, 109 Fort Sumter, 107 National Sanitary Commission, 109 Recruiting, 108 R egiments First, 110 Second, 110, 111,

232 ----- Third, 110 Fifth, 110, 477 Sixth, 110, 111,476, 612 Seventh, 47 7 Ninth, 111 Eleventh, 111 Fourteenth, 11I Eighteenth, 11 I, 205 Berd an's, 477 Un ion League Club, 110 Claremont, N. H., 87, 107, 161, 23 1,428, 552 Claremont Junction, N. H., 432 Clark, C. Wellington, 493 Clark, George, 122 Clark, G ideon, 355 Clark, Henry E., 164 Clark, Herbert W., 494 Clark, Isaac, 228, 457, 481, 605 Clark, Mrs. Isaac, 9 Clark, Jesse, 36, 33 1, 346, 353 Clark, Jesse, Jr.,. 353 Clark, Mart in V. B., 246, 508 Clar k, Robert M., 492 Clark, Robert M., J r., 22 1, 493 Clar k Insurance Agency, 492 Clark's Tavern, 36, 307, 353 Clar ke, Clyde c., 202 Cla rke, Elbridge, 120, 26 1, 320 Clarke, Mabel, 20 2 Clar ke, R ichard W., 22 1 Clarke, Rev. William N., 115 Clarke's Block, 115,1 20, 134,1 35, 147, 16 1, 164, 197, 260, 261, 322, 50 7 Cleveland, James c., 2 16 Cleveland, Ohio, 69 Cleveland School, 454 Clinesmith, John, 539 Clinton, Mass., 526 Clippe r Mower & Reaper Co., 144, 372, 493, 500 Close, Joseph K., 523 Coates, William,

233 Coca -Cola Bottling Works of Keene, 479 Cocoanut Grove Night Club, 202 Cody, Albemarle, 96 Coffin, John E., 196, 566 Coffin, Nelson P., 168, 417, 615 Cohen, Abraham, 500 Coh en, Dr. Arthur, 438 Coh en, Loui s, 5 I 2 Colby, Kenneth P., 520 Colb y's, J. R., Quadrille Band, 123 Cole, Asa, 369 Cole, Daniel, 369, 470 Cole, Frank, 370 Cole, Sara h, 369 Collections of the Hi storical Society of Cheshire County, 191 Collections of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 68 Co lonial Club, 145, 167 Colonial Inn, 272 Colonial Theater, 37, 79, 272 Colonial Thcatcr Block, 184, 272 Colony, Alfred T. (I), 263, 378, 390 Colon y, Alfred T. (2 ), 193, 371 Colony, Mr s. Alfred T., 390 Colony, Alfred T., Ji., 390 Colony, Beatrice Booth, 193, 371 Colony, Charles T. (I), 370 Colony, Charles T. (2), 377 Colony, Mrs. Charles T., 370 Colon y, Frances, 380 Colony, Frank, 390 Colony, Fred, 390 Colony, George D., 106 Colony, Hannah Taylor, 377, 378, 389 Colony, Harry, 37 I, 390 Colony, Henry, 125, 153, 156,244,263,347,388,389,390,541 Colony, Horatio, 106, 126,239,240,332,347,362,370,376,377 Colony, Mrs. Horatio, 370 Colony, Horatio W., 208, 370, 491 Colony, James, 390 Colony, John, 33 I, 360 Colony, John, II,

234 Colony, John, III, 377 Colony, John J., 377, 463 Colony, Joshua D., 278, 380, 389, 470, 541 Colony, Josiah, 46, 106, 347, 377, 378, 382, 389, 390, 391, 395, 458, 465 Colony, Josiah D., 378 Colony, Kate, 377 Colony, Laurence, Jr., 390 Colony, Laurence D., 390 Colony, Lewis J., 347, 380 Colony, Mary, 500 Colony, Melatiah, 360 Colony, Ormond E., 380, 568 Colony, Oscar, 299, 568 Colony, Sarah, 378 Colony, Timothy (1), 328, 360, 378, 389, 541 Colony, Timothy (2), 119 Colony, J. D., & Co., 541 Colony, Joshua D., & Sons, 106, 568 Colony, L. J., Chair Co. Band, 161 Colony Block, 144, 263, 264, 320, 322, 324, 491 Colony Brothers, 389, 390 Colony House, The, 347, 390 Colony (Henry) House, 388 Colony (Josiah) House, 378 Colony (Lewis J.) House, 379 Colrain, Mass., 459 Columbia Broadcasting System, 199 Columbian Exposition, The, 149 Columbian Informer or Cheshire Journal, 39, 285, 563 Common, The, 24, 36,45, 47, 56, 58, 59, 63, 65, 71, 75, 79, 84, 88,95, 123, 157, 158, 170, 173, 198, 224, 233, 247, 248, 257,258,260,261,279,281,283,296,297,298,299,310, 350, 382, 415, 416, 434, 463, 571 Companions of the Forest, 145 Com stock, Sidney D., 492 Concord, Mass., 2, 3, 24, 25, 38, 167, 227 Concord, N. H., 29, 52, 68, 73, 74, 79, 92, 108, 109, 114, 198, 209, 231, 233, 299, 397, 475, 492, 588, 607 Congressional Medal of Honor, 11 I,

235 ---- Connecticut River, 7, 8, 17, 18,30,31,39,61,62,72, 81, 180, 233, 282, 585, 587 Connecticut River Railroad, 92, 138, 397, 402 Connecticut River Valley, 1, 3, 13, 17, 254, 597 Conrad, Rev. William 0., 431 Constitutional Convention at Exeter, 37, 232 Continental Congress, 22, 23, 230, 231 Continental Journal and Weekly Advertiser, 561 Contoocook, N. H., 10 Coogan, Arthur T., 616 Cook, Clara Josephine, 368 Cook, Don, 210, 224 Cook, John, 613 Cook, Samuel, 459 Cook, Simeon, 368 Cooke, Benaiah, 73, 77, 89, 273, 395, 567, 568 Cooke,Noah,266,274, 316, 318, 320,343,347, 362, 363, 570, 608 Cooke, Phineas, 41, 50, 365 Cooke (Noah) House, 362 Cooke Elm, The, 158, 343, 363 Coolidge, Austin J., 89 Coolidge, Calvin, 176 Coolidge, Charles A, 255 Coolidge, Henry 0., 143, 162, 163, 243, 281, 300, 375, 452 Coolidge Park, 143, 243, 300, 375 Cooper, Elijah, 564 Cooper, Bailey & Co. Shows, 140 Coppo, Ann Hiede, 613 Corbet, John, 4, 227, 457 Corbett, Jesse, 75 Corey, Mrs. Francis A, 262 Corey Block, 262, 324 Corning, N. Y., 560 Corning Museum of Glass, 560 Cornish, N. H., 209, 231 Coughlin, William c., 408, 500, 514 Couillard, Pierre, 611 County Congress at Walpole, 230 Court, Colley B., 515 Court, Eli,

236 Court House, The, 39, 41,44, 45, 48, 50, 60, 65, 67, 74, 83, 90, 104,110,161,201,216,234,235,237,238,280,281,300, 314,316,318,320,322,325,327,403,415,429,540 Court of General Sessions of the Peace, 21 Court Square, 297 Court Week, 88 Craftsbury, Vt., 618 Craig, Allen A., 135 Crane, Paul A., 522 Crane, Rev. Philip A., 427 Crescent Shoe Co., 511, 522 Crissen Family, 7 Crocker, Alvah, 86, 396 Crosby, Fanny, 174 Crossfield, Kendall, 301 Crossfield, Samuel B., 301, Crown Point, N. Y., 16, 18, 27, 28 Croydon, N. H., 231, 600 Crying Hill, 299 Crystal Restaurant, 38, 186, 273, 310, 324, 326, 336, 360 Cummings, Rev. Charles, 53, 57, 419 Cummings, E. N., 281 Cummings, Fred J., 494 Cummings, L. W., 271, 281 Cummings Lower Pond, 197 Curran, Rev. Francis L., 441 Current Events Club, 167, 174 Currier Art Gallery, 560 Cushing, Richard Cardinal, 222 Cushing, J., & Co., 322, 324, 415 Cutler (or Cutter), Thomas, 28 d Daily Tribune, 148, 268 Dakin, Ephriam, 301 Dakin Reservoir, 189, 251 Dalbolt, Inc., 466, 498,

237 Dale, Edward, 228 Dale's Fo rdway, 288 Daley, Frederick J., 498 Daley, Rev. John, 87 Dallas, Tex., 5 17 Dalton, Mass., 7 Daly, Theresa, 6 16 Damon, Elwin, 190 Damon, Marcus V., 30 1 Dan a, Nath aniel, 320 Da nce, Rev. T homas, 438 Dancing Instructor, Containing a Collection of the Newest Cotillions and Cou ntry Dances, The, 56 Daniels, Arthur N., 523, 524 Dani els, Charles B., 96 Daniels, Ebenezer, 228, 368, 462 Dani els, Ez ra, 30 1 Daniels, Jabez, 346, 35 7 Daniels, James, 30 I Da niels, John, 30 1, 342 Daniels, Jonathan Myric k, 22 3, 257, 430 Daniels, Milton E., 5 12 Daniels, Dr. Philip B., 223 Da niels, Mrs. Philip B., 223 Dani els, Samuel, 22 8, 30 1, 342 Danvers, Mass., 389 D'Arcy, George, 510 Darling, Floyd N., 180 Darrow, Clarence S., 174 Darwin M. Aldri ch Ch apter, Spanish-American War Veteran s, 166 Dartm outh College, 19, 20, 39, 48, 68, 78, 150, 164, 2 13, 303, 352, 414, 469, 495, 53 1 Nathan iel Leverone Field House, 495 Da ughters of Isabella, Court Josephin e, 181 Daughters of the American Revolution, 167, 295, 352, 605, 608, 609 Ashuel ot Ch apter No. 320, 144, 352, 608, 609 David's, 326 Davis, Aaron, 92, 302, 467 Davis, Archie, 512 Davis, Ch arles, 357, 358 Davis, E arl,

238 Davis, Ervin J., 261, 322, 324 Davis, Ethel, 358 Davis, Fr ancis, 286 Davis, Fred W., 332, 46 1 Davis, Harry W., 6 16 Davis, Herbert, 358 Davis, Jefferson, 55 1 Davis, Jesse B., 454 Davis, John Russell, 284 Davis, Miles, 368 Davis, Samuel, 32 Da vis & Wright, 273 Davoren, Thomas, 512 Davoren, William, 5 12 Day, Ebenezer, 17, 228, 303, 605, 606 Day, Rev. John, 427 Declaration of Independence, 27, 64, 68, 236 Deerfield, Mass., 3, 4, 350 Deering, N. H., 52 DeGogorza, Emilie, 615 DeLancey's Men' s Store, 326 Delay, Albert P., 514 Delay Mfg. Co., 514 DeMar, Clarence H., 190 Democratic Party, 78, 84, 110, 122, 126, 160,235, 236, 302, 367, 568 Denney & Briggs, 472 Dennie, Joseph, 40 Dennis, J. Alfred, 212, 254, 255, 513 Dennis, William H., 202 Dennis, Mrs. William H., 202 Depot Circu s Grounds, 335, 336, 337 Depot Square, 350 Derby 's of Keene, Inc., 326 Detro it, Mich., 506 Dexter, Dr. Richard, 522 Dexter, Dr. William E., 522 Dexter Optometrists, 522 Diamond Match Co., 484 Dickenson, Daniel H., 492 Dickerm an, Alva W., 507,

239 Dickinson, LaFell, 203, 206, 499, 508 Dickinson, Louisa, 363 Dickinson, Lucy, 191, 203, 204 Dickinson, Milan, 408 Dickinson, Oren, 244 Dickinson, Ansel, & Sons, 499 Dick's Barber Shop, 326 Dickson, John, Jr., 74 Dictionary of American Biography, The, 73 Dilboy, George, 177 Dillant, Thomas David, 203, 252, 410 Dillant-Hopkins Municipal Airport, 193, 203, 210, 216, 224, 252, 408, 410, 411 Dillon, R. S., & Co., 125 Dinsmoor, Mary, 387 Dinsmoor, Miss Mary B., 138, 179, 242, 249 Dinsmoor, Samuel, 47, 50, 51, 70, 72, 74, 79, 234, 235, 236, 268, 272, 306, 314, 316, 318, 345, 367, 387, 470 Dinsmoor, Samuel, Jr., 78, 84, 108, 237, 268, 272, 387, 395 Dinsmoor, William, 163, 272, 453 Dinsmoor, White & Lyon, 76 Dinsmoor Woods, 138, 142, 179, 194, 249, 252 Dinsmore, Rev. Cadford, 426 Dix, Dr. Jonas, 459 Dixon, Mal, 192, 409 Dodds, Earle C., 514 Dodge, Lewis H., 433 Dodge, Nahum c., 512 Dodge's Pharmacy, 512 Doherty, Joseph, 509 Dorney, Robert L., 521 Dominick & Dominick Co., 326 Donati's Comet, 82 Don Cossack Chorus, 454 Dorchester, Mass., 363 Dorman, Ephraim, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 19, 24, 228, 348, 349, 609 Dorman, Hephzibah, 609 Dorr, Abigail (or Rebecca), 259, 278, 281 Dorr, Henry, 369 Dorr, Joseph, 89, 236, 259, 278, 280, 281, 314, 316, 460 Dorr, Thomas W.,

240 Dorr Rebellion, 96 Dort, Arthur, 110 Dort, Eli, 301, 302 Dort, Frank G., 476 Dort, Julia Nancy Wakefield, 110 Dort, abed G., 110, 476, 496 Dort, Mrs. Sarah Haile, 159 Dart, Frank G., & Co., 476 Dort & Chandler, 476 Dostilio, Orlando, 471 Doucoumes, George J., 278 Douglas, Stephen, 302 Douglas Co., 466, 525 Douglas Street Journal, 123, 302 Douglas Toy Co., 525 Douglass, Frederick, 302 Douglass, Samuel E., 302 Douglass, Thomas, 302 Doukas Brothers, 272, 361 Draper, John, 376, 460 Draper's Bake Shop, 376 Dreamland Theater, 171 Drenan, Sprague W., 215 Drew, Dorothy C, 210 Drew, Harold F., 183, 210 Drewsville, N. H., 45, 69, 286, 298, 552 Drolette, John F., 484 Drummer, John A., 179, 248 Drummer Hill, 197 Dublin, N. H., 51, 74, 81, 95, 103, 147, 173,271,277,339,370, 387, 464, 472, 523, 591 Dubois, Henry L., 514 Duffy, Miss Anna, 267 Duffy, F. P., 322 D4ffy, John M., 267, 303, 497, 514 Duffy Block, 267, 324 Dunbar, Asa, 38, 43, 273, 314, 346, 360, 361 Dunbar, Cynthia, 38, 98, 273, 361 Dunbar, Elijah, 46, 234, 235, 303, 463, 570 Dunbar, John D., 279, 472 Dunbar, Mary, 38, 314,

241 Dunham, George Sawyer, 615 Du Pont, Henry Francis, Winterthur Museum, 560 Durant, Mr. 41 Durant, Joshua, 354 Duren, Asa, 267, 478 Dustin, Samu el C., 93, 480 Dutton, Dollie, 102 Dutton, Edw ard Payson, 74 Dutton, Ormond, 537 Dutton, Salmon F., 512 Duval, Rev. Edw ard, 42 8 Duxbury, Ma ss., 371 Dwane, Thomas E., 221 Dwight, Nathaniel, 2 Dwight, Timothy, 530 Dwinell Mill, 45 8 e Eagle Hall, 436 Eagle Hotel, 38, 64, 70, 74, 75, 78, 81, 87, 103, 106, 125, 135, 178,270,271,304,310,428,458,462,481,490,494,507, 549 Eagle Hotel Block, 47, 258, 270 Eames, Aaron, 38, 138, 269, 273, 312, 314 Eames, George H., 244 Eames, George H., Jr., 248 Eames, Luther, 38, 138, 232, 268, 269, 312, 314 Eames, Maria, 370 Earth's Shifting Crust, a K ey to Some Basic Problems of Earth Science, 225 East Medway, Mass., 71, 423 Ea st Northfield, Ma ss., 204, 403 Ea st Sullivan, N. H., 185, 201 E ast Swanzey, N. H., 116, 590 East Westmoreland, N. H., 220, 255, 434, 509 Eaton, Rev. William H., 119,146,421,422 Echo Lake,

242 Edgewood, 128, 144, 162, 219, 247, 303, 309, 40 8 Edgewood Civic Association, 219 Edgewood Club, 219 Edison, Thomas A., 171, 176 Edwards, Dr. Thomas, 38,46, 263, 295, 303, 314, 316, 335, 383, 61 I Edwards, Thomas M., 86, 91,100,107,114,238,316,318,320, 394, 395, 491, 492 E els, Edward C., 77, 447 E.F.L. Block, 322, 324 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 21 I Eld er, Rev. Charles B., 424, 425 Elegia, de Originate Peccato, 40, 563 Elk Grove Village, I I I, 5 17 Ellingwood, Edward, 207 Elliot, James Bixby, 278, 3 18, 372, 373, 493 Elliot, John (1 ),51,71, 85, 277,324,423,463,464,531,536,537 Elliot, John (2 ), 276 Elliot, John Henry, 150, 243, 277, 320, 322, 373, 395, 464 Elliot, William Henry, 463 Elliot, John, & Co., 464, 537 Elliot Block (St. John's Block ), 105, 121, 151, 161,276,437,452 Elliot Community Ho spital, 6, 150, 192, 209, 216, 244, 370, 372 Elliot Mansion, 150, 243, 347, 371, 372, 373 Elliot School, 128, 162, 45 I, 452, 453 Ellis, Abner, 22 8 Ellis, Mrs. Alice Haywood, 266 Ellis, Austin A., 244, 433, 499 Elli s, Bertram, 385, 566 Ellis, Calvin H., 272 Ellis, Carleton, 186 Elli s, Edwin, 36 8 Ellis, Eugene, 355 Ellis, Henry, 12, 21, 346, 354, 355 Ellis, Joseph, 7, 22 8, 457, 481 Ellis, Marcus, 490 Ellis, Melatiah, 21, 91 Ellis, Priscilla, 20, 444 Ellis, Sarah Elizabeth, 375 Ellis, T imothy, 26, 230, 231, 355, 373 Ellis Bros. & Co., 459, 490,

243 Ellis Hotel, 96, 103, 125, 126, 271, 304, 402, 520 Ellsworth, Frederick, 353 Ellsworth, Leon, 513 Elm City Grain Co., 522 Elm City Restaurant, 278 Elwell, Oscar L., 181, 192 Elwell, Mrs. Oscar L., 181 Emerald House, 96, 97, 103, 126, 271, 304 Emerson, George W., 75 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 52, 98, 99, 209 Emerson, Sophronia, 364 Emmond's Luncheonette, 326 Emporia, Kansas, 164 Endicott-Johnson Shoe Store, 326 Enfield, Conn., 6 Englewood Rest Sanatorium, 163 English, Arthur L., 526 Enterprise, The, 61, 62 Epi scop al Th eological Seminary, 223 Erskine, B. Harold, 366, 519 Erwin, James, 496 Erwin, James M., Co., 496 Euers, Samuel, 47 Evans, Harriet Keyes, 278 Evans, Nathaniel, 278 Eveleth, Perley, 359 Eveleth, Sarah, 460 Evers, Samuel, 462 Ewing, James D., 216, 566, 569 Exchange Block, 161, 272 Exeter, N. H., 22, 23, 26, 31, 57, 69, 232, 287 Experiment in International Living, 222 I Fairbanks, Albert W., 514 Fairbanks, Betsey, 609 Fairbanks, Edward,

244 Fairbanks, Lester, 527 Fairbanks, Madison, 309, 368, 480 Fairbanks, Nathan, 228, 609 Fairbanks, Nathaniel, 20 Fairbanks, Orvis B" 514 Fairbanks, Orvis K, 514 Fairfield, Charles H., 494 Fairfield, Guy F., 324, 507 Fairfield Reservoir, 595 Family Shoe Store, 514 Fanny Hill: M emoirs of a Wonum of Pleasure, 567 Farina, Gino, 522 Farina, J. S., 95 Farina, Luigi L., 522 Farina, Mario, 526 "Farm Bureau March," 618 Farmer, James c.. 203, 252, 253, 520 Farmer's Museum, The, 41, 73 Farnum Mill, 132 Farr, Norman H., 512 Farr's Pharmacy, 512 Farrar, Charles S., 205, 253 Farrar, Edward, 93, 240, 241 Farrar, Frederick A., 363, 522 Farrar, Mrs. Frederick A., 363 Farrar, Frederick A., Inc., 522 Fast Day, 88 Faulkner, Barry, 103, 208, 209, 214, 396 Faulkner, Charles S. (I), 106, 382 Faulkner, Charles S. (2), 355 Faulkner, Mrs. Charles S., 355 Faulkner, Francis, 46, 106, 378, 458, 465 Faulkner, Francis c., 470 Faulkner, Frederic A., 243, 244, 392, 463 Faulkner, John, Jr., 466 Faulkner, John, III, 466 Faulkner, Mary, 208 Faulkner, Philip H., 250, 392 Faulkner, Robert E., 355 Faulkner, Winthrop,

245 Faulkner & Colony, 28, 61, 67, 76, 106, 119, 138, 142, 146, 177, 179, 201, 215, 249, 285, 343, 344, 377, 378, 379, 404, 458, 462, 465, 466, 467, 580, 585 Fay, Herbert E., 247, 493 Fay, Mrs. Herbert E., 615 Fay, Jemb A., 467 Fay, J. A., & Co., 93, 106, 467, 473 Federal Aviation Administration, 217 Federal Bureau of Investigation, 198 Federal Communications Commission, 291 Federal Party, 235 Federal Row, 37, 41, 43, 64, 233, 304, 310, 365, 458, 460 Federal Union, 31, 37 Felch, J. Eugene, III, 463 Felt, Charles F., 92, 421, 475 Ferriter, James F, 514 Ferry, Mark, 7, 304, 307 Ferry Meadow, 304 Ferrysburg, Mich., 524 Fessenden, S. W., 147 Festival of the Arts, 222 Field, Captain, 9 Fielders, Earl L., 440 Filter Queen of Northern New England, 326 Findings Industries, Inc., 524 Fine, Abraham N., 519 Finkelstein, Samuel, 437 Firestone, Harvey, 176 First All-Electric Home, 347 First Church of Christ, 326, 438 Surry Congregational Church, 438 First Church of Christ Scientist, 436 Christian Science Journal, 437 Christian Science Quarterly, 436 Christian Science Society, 166, 208, 436 Fish, Albert E., 473, 483 Fish, Frank A., 483 Fish, A. E., & Co., 483 Fisher, Ichabod, 19, 332, 376, 457 Fisher, James B., 278 Fisher, Joseph,

246 Fisher, Josiah, 3, 8, 191, 228, 333 Fisher, Samuel, 228 Fisher & Jackson, 480 Fisher, Kirk & Sewall, 278, 322 Fisher Brook, 50, 494, 604 Fishman, M. H., Co., 269 Fiske, Miss Catherine, 52, 56, 77, 82, 164, 446, 447, 609 Fiske, Phineas, 264, 447 Fiske's, Miss, Young Ladies Seminary (or Female Seminary), 55, 70, 79, 82, 368, 38 I, 446, 447, 475, 552, 609 Fit and Wear Co., Inc., 5 I0 Fitch Motor Co., 324 Fitchburg, Mass., 86, 134, 286, 394, 396, 40 I, 426, 489 Fitchburg, Keene and Connecticut River Railroad, 86, 395 Fitchburg Railroad Co., 153, 168, 401, 402 Fitzwilliam, N. H., 26, 45, 69, 107, 284, 286, 296, 339, 359 Five Mile Drive, 142, 194, 210, 304, 305, 331 Fleming, Edmund F., 522 Fletcher, Fred, 281 Flint, Elmer M., 49 I Flower, A., & Co., 271 Floyd, Rolfe, Jr., 201 Folk Dance Co., 619 Folklore Pottery, 527 Follansbee, Ralph, 494 Foote, Mrs. Doris, 190 Footwear Center, 326, 513 Forbes, David, 3 I4 Force, Ebenezer, 228 Ford, Henry, 176 Ford, Dr. Leroy S., 254 Ford, Sewall, 186, 377 Ford's Theater, 113 Forepaugh's, Adam, Circus, 140 Forest Tree Society, 87, 88, 237, 297, 298, 382 Foresters of America, 145 Fort No.4 (Charlestown, N. H.), 10, 17, 234, 282 Fort Dummer, 4, 8, 11 Fort Duquesne, 18 Fortnightly Club, 167, 191 Foss, Eugene Noble, 514,

247 Foss, Sam Walter, 174 Foster, Abijah, 36, 307, 465 Foster, Alvin c., 135 Foster, Amos, 20, 228, 294, 605 Foster, David, 228, 342 Foster, Ephraim, 92, 475 Foster, Geo rge W., 475 Foster, Joseph (I ), 92, 93, 110, 421, 475, 476 Fos ter, Joseph (2), 557, 559 Foster, Josiah, 18 Foster, Marium E., 402 Foster, Samuel, 342 Foster, J. & E., 475 Fos ter & Felt, 475 Foster's Store, 307, 465 Fo urth of Jul y Celebrations, 46, 48, 50, 86, 89, 116, 130, 133, 157, 161, 179, 210, 245, 247, 252, 574 Fowler, Herschel J., 306, 499 Fow ler, Prof. L. N., 61 Fowler-N orwood-green Co., 499 Fo x, Kay, 224 Fox Circle, 205 Fram ingham, Mass., 197 Frankfort-an-Main, Germany, 567 Franklin Chemical Co., Inc., 482 Franklin Glass Factory, 531 F ranklin School, 162, 453, 456 Fraternal Ord er of Eagles, 166 F rechette, H enry, 371, 506 Frechette, Mr s. Henry, 371 Frechette, Henr y A., 201 Fred's Fixit Shop, 267, 326 Free Fellows' Society, 73 Freeman & Bridgman, 472 Free Soil Palladium, Th e, 89, 568 French and Ind ian Wars, 8, 19, 22, 360, 604, 605 French, Francis, 474 French. Ja son, 92, 474 French, Jotham A., 93, 480 French, O. 1., 566 French, Stillman, 261, 318,

248 French, Whitcomb, 261 French, William, 92 French, J. & F., Co., 322, 324, 474, 487, 609 French's, J. M., Oriental Circus and Egyptian Caravan, 123 Fresco Stencil Co., 499 Fresh Air Children, 181, 221 Frink, Thomas, 19, 20, 27 Froebel Club, 167 Frog Pond, 244 Francis Beauty Shoppe, 326 Frost, Robert, 454 Frye, James A., 362 Frye, Kate Colony, 362 Full Gospel Mission, 166, 435 Fuller, John H., 92, 188, 189, 271, 273, 316, 318, 320, 352, 361, 384, 396, 415, 483 Fuller-Bartlett Fund, 188, 454 Fuller Park, 53, 54, 92, 135, 158, 178, 179, 189,201,219,242, 250, 341, 493, 533 Fuller School, 190, 192, 33 I, 454 Furnace Village (South Keene), 76, 467 g Gail, Marzieh, 255 Galamian, Ivan, 619 Gallup, John S., 512 Gallup's Pharmacy, 5 I 2 Galveston, Tex., 164 Gardner, Mass., I 16, 500 Garfield, J ames A., 124, 132, 140 Garrison, William Lloyd, 98, 107 Gas Service,.Inc., 326, 480 Gates, Samuel 0., 306 Gay, Rev. Ebenezer, 16 Gay, Edward L., 480 Gaylord, Rev. William, I 16 Gazette, The,

249 Gellendre, Herbert V., 193 Gemmell, Rev. Fay L., 22 2, 443 General Assembly at Portsmouth, 230 General Mon adnock Society for the Promotion of Morals, 53 Geneva, N. Y" 543 George, Christopher, 306 George, Ephraim, 306 Georges, Max, 272 Gerould, Edwin R., 496 Gerould, Samuel A., 58, 59, 67,178,259,280,281,316,318,320, 322 Gerould's Block, 259, 322, 325, 431, 474, 489, 572 Gibbs, Mrs., 97 Gibney, Ida Maude, 375 Gibney, William, 375 Gid's Cut Rate Drugs, 326 Giffin, George, 494 Giffin, Henry, 494 Giffin & Son Coal Co" 494 Giffin Co al Co., 494 Giffin's Mills, 164, 458 Gilbert, Horace D., 524 Gilbert, Lemuel, 93, 472 Gilbert and Trowbridge Theatrical Company, 70 Gilbo, Lawrence E., 507 Gilbo, Richard P., 221, 255 Gilbo Avenue, 221, 306 Richard P. Gilbo Council Knights of Columbus, 221 Gillett, Orville H., 278 Gillett Place, The, 353 Gilmore, Patrick S., 100 Gilmore, Rob ert, 28 Gilmore's Store, 498 Gilpin, William H., 481 Gilson, Frederick A., 540 Gilsum, N. H., 24, 29, 85, 94, 131, 173, 189, 231, 232, 246, 305, 306, 307, 337, 369, 426, 428, 513, 586, 590 Giovannangeli, Arthur J., 594 Giovannangeli, Ottavio, 292, 345 Giovannangeli, Waldo J.,

250 Girl Scouts, 181, 205 Ca mp Carey, 205 Gla zier, Frank, 45 5 Gleason, Frank P., 147, 514 Glue Shop House, 357 Goddard, G. A., 271 Goder, Harold A., 375 Goder, Mr s. Harold A., 375 Godey's Lady's Book, 76 Godfrey, Albert, 565 GOlden Age Club, 205, 542 Golding, Charles E., 5 13 Goldin g-keene Co., 20 I, 513 Goldthwaite, Martha, 353 Goldthwaite, Susan, 369 Gonyou, Camille, 322 Good Roads Association, 145 Goodale, Oliver, 59 Goodnow, Henry, 359 Goodn ow, Henry F., 205, 253 Goodn ow, Hor ace L., 142, 357 Goodn ow, John R., 208 Goodnow, Walter, 464 Goodn ow, Walter L., 500 Goodn ow, William ( I), 292, 471 Goodn ow, William (2), 292 Goodn ow, Windsor H., 500 Goodn ow Tav ern (or Eagle Tavern), 330, 346, 358 Goodn ow's Department Store, 131, 326, 493, 578 Goodri ch, Merton T., 410, 593, 594 Goose Pond, 117, 189, 204, 23 8, 305, 457, 572, 607 Gordon, Grant H., 178 Gor finkle & Bark in, 266 Gough, John B., 139 Goulet, Karl F., 479 Gove, John, 426 Gr af, Frederick W., 515, 5 16 Gr and Army HaIl, 191, 438, 439, 44 2 G rand Army of the Republic, 121, 124, 145, 154 John Sedgwick Post No. 4, 12 1, 157, 206 Gr and Citizens' Ball, 90,

251 Granite Club, 145, 167 Granite State Auto Body Welding Co., 326 Granite State Flying Field, 192 Granite State Flying School, 186 Grant, Alexander D., 272 Grant, Samuel, 463 Grant, Stephen, 494 Grant, Ulysses S., 117, 305 Grantham, N. H., 231 Gray, Isaac, 383 Great Britain, 14, 33, 50, 229, 230, 530 Great Depression, The, 188, 409, 453, 518 CCC, 188 CWA,454 Emergency Educational Program, 453 Federal Emergency Relief Administration, 453, 454 WPA, 291 Greater Keene Chamber of Commerce, 525 Greeley, Horace, 107 Greely, Amos c., 277 Green, The, 24, 27, 29, 32, 34, 283, 297, 310 Green, Alfred W., 305 Green, Hetty, 174 Green, Jacob, 368 Green, Joseph, 6 Green Acres, 205 Green Acres Realty, 326 Greene Mineral Paste, 523 Greenfield, Mass., 69, 394, 500, 575 Greenfield, N. H., 137 Greenlawn Cemetery, 132, 159, 243, 331, 611, 613 Green Mountains, 142 Green Mountain Boys, 30 Greenwood, Grace, 102 Grenier Field, Manchester, 216 Griffin, Charles L., 274, 277 Griffin, Glen D., 512 Griffin, Simon G., 111, 124, 125, 153, 165, 185,239, 244, 265, 322, 390, 392, 429, 583, 612 Griffin, Mrs. Simon G., 144, 429 Griffith, James D., 36, 37, 39, 561, 562,

252 Grimes, Alexander, 3rd, 306 Grimes, George, 305, 306 Grimes, John, 305, 347, 366 Grimes, Mary, 366 Grimes (John) Homestead, 366 Griswold, Stephen, 461 Groton, Mass., 25 Groton Bridge Co., 248 Grout, Jehosophat, 365, 380 Grout, Sophia, 365 Grower, Harry, 513 Grube, Emil, 515, 516 Grueby Co. of Boston, 488 Guaranty Savings Bank, 496 Guild, Benjamin, 14, 228 Guild, Dan, 30, 603 Guild, Hope Mason, 616 Guild, Joseph, 228 Gurnsey, Annie G., 479 Gurnsey, Charles, 478 Gurnsey, Edward, 478, 479 Gurnsey, Frank, 478 Gurnsey, John E., 479 Gurnsey, Norris G., 307, 322, 325, 478, 479 Gurnsey, Robert Frank, 479 Gurnsey, N. G., & Co., 479 Gurnsey, N. G., Co., Inc., 479 Gurnsey, N. G., & Sons, 267, 268, 478, 479 Gurnsey & Son, 479 Gurnsey Bros. & Co., 267, 324, 479 Gurnsey Block, 267, 322, 324, 479 Gustine, Edward, 241 Guyette, Albert L., 520 It Hackett, Thomas F., 496 Hadley, Rev. Willis A., 431, 435 Hadley, Mass., 3 662

253 Hale, Rev. Edward, 71, 420 Hale, Edward Everett, 107, 425 Hale, Moses H., 462 Hale, Salma, 52, 59, 68, 79, 85, 100, 125, 153, 276, 395, 446, 450, 463, 470 Hale, Samuel W., 137, 139, 142, 148, 163,242,246, 387, 388, 400, 467, 473, 477, 482 Hale, Thomas, 566 Hale, Timothy, 448 Halifax, N. S., 22, 539 Hall, Aaron, 276, 294, 376, 377, 465 Hall, Rev. Aaron, 28, 29, 36, 37,39,41,42,47,53,232,332,386, 388, 414, 415, 429, 443, 562 Hall Ann E., 377 Hall, Benjamin, 20, 22, 25, 269, 341 Hall, Betty, 269 Hall, Rt. Rev. Charles F., 223, 430 Hall, Dr. Ebenezer, 531, 536 Hall, Florence, 168 Hall, Forest J., 207 Hall, Frederick, 543, 547, 551 Hall, Gardner E., 91, 286 Hall, Jeremiah, 3, 6, 14, 228 Hall, Jeremiah, Jr., 228 Hall, Jonathan, 426 Hall, Julia E., 388, 389, 429 Hall, Timothy, 265, 276, 376, 377, 465 Hall, William, 169 Hall, William C. (l), 168, 509 Hall, William C. (2), 433 Hall, Dr. Ziba, 20, 38, 41, 42, 234, 269, 312, 415 Hall, A. & T., 58,146,265,275,276,277,316,318,320,324,376, 377, 465 Hall's Boston Orchestra, 123 Hall's Tavern, 29 Halley's Comet, 81 Hamilton, Rev. John A., 104, 111,115,417 Hamilton, N. Y., 532, 534, 543 Hamilton Manufacturing Society, 543 Hampshire Gazette, 40 Hampshire Pottery, 125, 485, 486, 488,

254 Hampshire Press, 191 Hancock, N. H., 52, 214, 397 Handel & Haydn Society of Boston, 614 Handerson, Ellen, 379 Handerson, Henry C., 108, 126 Handerson, Mrs. Lydia M., 126, 240 Handerson, Phineas, 103, 379 Handerson House, 347, 379 Hannon, W. Kelley, 526 Hanover, N. H., 69, 213, 285, 286 Hapgood, Charles H., 225 Hardy, Silas, 333 Hardy, Thomas, 55, 447 Hargo Woolen Mills, 519 Harper, Mrs. Elizabeth, 427 Harper, Louis N., 157, 407 Harper, Roland L., 514 Harrington, Asaph, 103, 125,271 Harrington, Sarah, 20 Harrington, Stephen, 64, 74, 178, 270, 271 Harrington's Coffee House, 64, 270, 286 Harrington's Tavern (or Hotel), 67 Harrisville, N. H., 189, 264, 377, 389 Hart, Lee P., 518, 522 Hartford, Conn., 63, 93, 107, 492 Hartman, Rev. William A., 418 Hartwell, Charles, 265 Harvard University, 19, 44, 78, 100, 164, 209, 414, 455 Harvey, Ezra, 354, 609 Harvey, Zipporah, 609 Haselton, Fern D., 520 Haskell, Sylvester, 273 Hastings, Blanche Bassett, 374 Hastings, Harry c., 374 Hastings, Stewart, 307 Hatch, John, 236, 265 Hatch's Tavern, 286 Hatfield, Mass., 3 Havana, Cuba, 154 Haverhill, Mass., 29 Hawkes, Rev. Howard B.,

255 Hawkins, J. H. W., 86 Hawkins, Mrs. James W., 374 Hawks, John, 13 Haws, Daniel, 228 Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 100 Hayden, Lieutenant-Governor, 377 Hayneville, Ala., 223, 257 Haymarket, The, 304 Hayward, George 0., 267, 478 Hayward, Mary L., 389 Hayward, Peter B., 267, 320, 322, 324, 478 Hayward, Robert P., 592, 593 Hayward, Rev. William W., 432 Heald, Glenn E., 520 Healy, Marie, 616 Heaton, Isaac, 3 Heaton, Oliver, 236, 383 Heaton, Samuel, 348, 608 Heaton, Seth, 3, 4, 5, 19, 167, 228, 283, 294, 328, 346, 348, 581 Heaton, William, 348 Heaton, Anderson & Metcalf, 273 Hebard, Alfred, 472 Hebert, Rev. William, 428 Hendrickson, Fredyum, 619 Henkel, August, 515 Henkel, A., & Son, 515 Henkel Mfg. Co., 515 Henry, James H., 521 Henry & Johnson, 262, 326, 521 Herbert, Thomas F., 496 Herbert, Rev. William, 118 Herrick, Osgood, 77 Hersey, Charles H., 242 Heshbon Society, 74 Hewitt, Rev. Samuel J., 441 Heywood, Samuel, 227 Hickey-Desilets Park, 190 Hickock, Fred, 470 High Acres, 347, 375, 376 High Point, N. c., 518 Hildreth, Elmer S.,

256 Hildreth, George A., 147 Hill, Ebenezer, 228 Hill, Gale F., 326 Hill, Gardner C., 126, 306, 322 Hill, Dr. George, 507, 508 Hill, Jabez, 228 Hill, Dr. Rebecca F., 126 Hills, Miss Ellen, 452 Hills & Bullard, 471, 494 Hillsboro, N. H" 92, 287 Hillsboro Bridge, 397 Hilt, Maria, 539 Hilt, Nicholas, 539, 540 Hinsdale, N. H., 2, 3, 10, 11, 231, 282, 439 Hirsch, Charles, 539 Historical Notes With Keyed Map of Keene and Roxbury, 189 Historical Society of Cheshire County, 64,185,189,191,213,224, 352, 402, 45 I, 582 History and Description of New England, 89 History of the Town of Keene from , 165, 185, 265, 392, 583, 612 Hitchcock, George L., 511, 512 Hoar, Daniel, Jr., 3 Hobart, James C, 218, 256 Hobart, Peter, 370 Hodgkins, Bert W., 511, 512 Hodgkins, George, 499 Holbrook, Adin, 458, 461 Holbrook, Amos, 64, 178, 270 Holbrook, Mrs. Clara A., 382 Holbrook, Edward F" 417, 615 Holbrook, George E., 379, 470, 484 Holbrook, George W., 484 Holbrook, H., 71, 423 Holbrook, John R., 214 Holbrook, Richard L., 193, 194,203,251,252,408,409,484, 508 Holbrook, Sidney W., 193, 409 Holbrook, William F., 433, 484, 511, 516 Holbrook, George E., & Co., 484 Holbrook Grocery Co., 164, 322, 324, 484 Holden, Harold L.,

257 Holden, Mrs. Wilhelmina, 520 Holden, H. L., Co., 520 Holden, Mass, 418 Holman, Alvan, 470 Holman, Oliver, 537 Holmes, Burton, 454 Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 100 Holmes, George, & Brother, 92 Holt, Clarence G., 523 Holt, Grant J., 523 Holton, Herbert G., 484 Homeopathic Advocate and Guide to Health, The, 89 Homer & Goodale, 459 Homestead Villa Development, 340, 345 Hood, Talbot R., 527 Hooper, Franklin, 450 Hope Steam Mills Co., 482, 573 Hopkins, Benjamin F., 509 Hopkins, Carl W., 492 Hopkins, Edwin Chester, 203, 252, 410 Hopkins, Harry D., 509, 514 Hopkinton, Mass., 366 Horatian Park, 142, 357 Hospital Aid Society, 150, 163 Hot Tongs Society, 60 Hough, Dan, 59, 447 Houghton, Israel (]), 605 Houghton, Israel (2), 39 Houghton, John, 24, 605 Houpis, Dina, 273, 361 Houpis, Nicholas J., 273, 361 Houran, Daniel F., 496 Hovey, John M., 500 Hovey, C. F., Store, 488 Hovhannesian, Arshag M., 526 Howard, Emmons, 431 Howard, Leonard L., 513 Howard, Oscar J., 486 Howard Company Street Clock, 148 Howe, Fred E., 258 Howe, Julia Ward, ]

258 Howe, Reginald F., 172, 276, 278 Howe Block, 278, 325 Howes,.Tean P., 150, 508, 509 Howes, Van, 509 Howe's Jewelry Store, 280, 326 Howlett, Cornelius, 357 Howlett, Davis, 346, 356, 608 Howlett, Jemima, 357 Howlett, Mary, 356 Howlett House, 356 Hubbard, Elbert, 174 Hubbard, Father (The Glacier Priest), 454 Hudson, Rev. Henry N., 105 Hudson River, 4 Humphrey, Hubert H., 224 Humphrey, John, 106, 117, 480 Humphrey Machine Co., 480, 484 Hungarian Gypsy Band, 145 Hunt, Roger, 480 Hunt, Samuel, 37, 284 Hunt, Seth, 550 Huntington, Webster P., 148 Huntress, Mrs. Berdia c., 615 Huntress, Frank, 463, 489, 490 Huntress, Frank c., 490 Hurricane Farm, 346, 355 Hurricane of 1938, The, ] 94, 418, 586, 596, 597 Hutchins, William 0., 464 Hutchins, William S., 95 Hutchinson Family Singers, 97 ' t Ideal Taxi Service, Inc., 220, 326, 482 Impervious Package Co., 138, ]44, 362, 368, 495, 496, 576 Indians,], 3,4,6,7,8,9,10, ]], ]2, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18,19,26,28,53, 60,72,96, ]36, ]52, 164, 191,228,229,282,283,307,333, 348, 350, 4] 4,

259 Cherokee, 82 Mohawk, 4 Schaghticoke, 4 Squawkheag, 4 Indurated Paper Co., 497 Inferior Court of Cheshire County, 21, 32, 37, 230, 351, 415, 445 Ingalls, Charles, 64, 270 Ingalls, Joseph, 374 Ingalls Crossing, 374 Ingersoll, Allan, 143, 298 Ingersoll, Miss Caroline Haskell, 143, 244, 398 Ingersoll, George, 353, 608 Ingersoll, Mrs. George, 353, 369 Ingersoll (Allan) Fountain, 158, 244, 247, 297, 323 International Narrow Fabric Co., 515, 579 Invalid's Home, 122, 135, 136, 173, 425 Investigator, The, 480 Island House, 98 Island Street Grounds, 161, 172, 183 It Did Happen Here!, 196. J J. & Z. Coffee Shop, 326 Jackson, Andrew, 51, 78, 79 Jaffrey, N. H., 45, 284, 338, 500 Jailer's House, 80, 347, 385 Jameson, Isabelle Macauley, 539 Janauschek, Mme. Fanny, 151 Janney, Reynold, 169, 506 Janney, Russell, 169 Jaquith, Collins, 67, 268 Jarley's, Mrs., Waxworks, 139 Jarvis Engineering Co., 248 Jeanie's Martinizing, 326 Jefferson, Thomas, 48, 234, 530 Jeffery, Peter, 611 Jehovah's Witnesses, 439,

260 Hopkins School, 439 Kingdom Hall, 439 Jennings, David S., 523 Jennings, JOhn H., 404, 407 Jennings & Perkins, 470 Jennison, Dr. John F., 308 Jennison, Myrtle, 2 I0 Jensen, Rev. William, 44 Johns-Manville, Inc., 491 Johnson, Andrew, 551 Johnson, Alfred, 492 Johnson, Carl W., 521 Johnson, Edward, 615 Johnson, Ernest A., 491, 492 Johnson, Henry J., 499 Johnson, John Holland, 607 I Johnson, Joseph H., Co., 326 Johnson, Jotham, 285 Johnson, Lyndon B., 223 Johnson, Matthew (Matt), 540, 541 Johnson, Moses, 37, 268, 276, 297, 310, 312, 314, 368, 459, 460, 462, 607 Johnson, William, 118 Johnson & Mann, 460 Johnson Motor Parts Co., 326 Johnson's Drug Store, 326 Johnston, Dr. Albert C, 208 Johnston, Mrs. Albert C, 208 Jones, Adelzia, 369 Jones, Arthur R, 189, 250, 518 Jones, Ashley, 271, 302 Jones, Charles A., 179, 324, 474 Jones, Ephraim, 3 Jones, Young, 322 Jordan Hall, 619 Josephine, Sister Mary, 181 Joslin, Charles E., 347, 39 I, 392 Joslin, Edward, 163, 373, 467, 477, 482, 483, 500 Joslin, Edward Herbert, 392 Joslin, Edwin, 392 Joslin, Elias,

261 Joslin, Emeline, 370, 377 Joslin (Charles E.) House, 391 Joslin (Edward) Home for Nurses, 373 Joy Ball & Roller Bearing Co., 524 Judson, Adoniram, 53 Juilliard School of Music, 619, 620 Jupiter Discount Store, 266, 326 Juvenile Library, 73 k Kafelt Mfg. Co., 519 Kalb, Theodore, 356 Kane, James, 532, 545 Kazanas, Paul c., 191 Keene, Sir Benjamin, 14, 100, 191,229 Keene, Laura, 113 Keene Academic School, 77 Keene Academy, 82, 83, 94,127,377,385,433,448,449,450,451 Keene Academy Boarding House, 347, 385 Keene Academy Fund, 454 Keene Adult Education Program, 213 Keene Art Association, 219 Keene Art Festival, 219 Keene Artistic Narrow Web Co., 515 Keene Associated Charities, 161 Keene Auto-Cycle Co., 169 Keene Baptist Church, 42, 53, 55, 57, 65, 67, 71, 76, 83, 93, 94, 100,115,119,120,128,146,179,208,235,236,307,318, 320,322,324,325,326,417,419,420,421,422,432,435,443 Baptist Society, 258, 420, 421, 614 Carter & Woodruff, 422 Dublin Baptist Association, 419, 420 Eaton Memorial Organ, 421, 422 Hook & Hastings, 422 Sally Kingsbury Parish House, 422 Sally Kingsbury Parsonage, 422 Union Baptist Church, 71, 72,

262 Keene Bicentennial Celebration, 210 Bicentennial Baby, Laurence Henry Russell 3rd, 210 Bicentennial March, 210, 254 Bicentennial Parade, 210 Bicentennial Tree, 210 Happy Valley Pageant, 210 Miss America, 210 Keene Bicycle Club (or Cycle Club), 136, 145 Keene Blizzard, 148 Keene Board of Trade, 144 Keene Book Society, 72, 469 Keene Book Store, 279 Keene Brass Band, 90,104,117,121,123,124,125,136,140,425, 616 Keene Brick Co., 491 Keene Building & Loan Association, 514 Keene Business Bureau, 211, 525 Keene Business College, 149 Keene Business Directory, 125 Keene Centennial Celebration, 100, 237 Keene Chair Co" 473, 482, 509 Keene Chamber of Commerce, 186, 187, 189,211,218,221,224,408, 409 Keene Chorus Club, 161, 168, 193, 615, 616 Keene Circulating Library, 72 Keene, City of Board of Aldermen, 126, 239, 251, 254 Board of Assessors, 247 Board of Education, 241, 257, 449, 451, 453 Board of Health, 183, 245, 248, 251 Board of Selectmen, 126, 239 City Charter, 126, 239 City Councils, 126, 153, 156, 170, 224, 239, 242, 246, 248, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 403, 613 City Manager Plan, 205, 254 City Seal, 126, 240 General City Ordinances, 240, 242 Highway Dept., 159, 179, 247, 290, 324, 577 Housing Authority, 218, 223, 256 Park Corporation, 162, 181, 243, 303, 334 Park Development Project,

263 Planning Board, 189, 198, 211, 223, 257 Public Works Dept., 188, 197, 204, 215, 253, 254, 291 Recreation Dept., 542 Water & Sewer Dept., 159, 179,238,239,242,246,247,255,301, 324 Welfare Committee, 255 Zoning Ordinances, 180, 250 Keene City Band, 219, 616 Keene Civil Defense Organization, 215 Keene Clinic, 207 Keene Commercial Club, 161, 185, 402, 516 Keene Community Chest, 221 Keene Community Concerts, 207, 620 Keene Community Forum, 203, 204 Keene Cooperative Bank, 269, 278, 514 Keene Council of Churches, 438, 439 Keene Country Club, 145, 183, 194, 453 Keene Daily News, 160 Keene Debating Club, 98, 136 Keene Debating Society, 72, 74, 80 Keene Development Co., 166, 189, 374, 514 Keene District Court, 211 Keene Drive-In Theater, 207 Keene Driving Park, 128, 130, 140, 144, 161, 162, 172, 219, 303 Keene Electric & Plumbing Supply, 466 Keene Electric Railway, 165, 185, 250, 291, 343, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407 Keene Emblem Club, 192 Keene Evening Sentinel, 148, 165, 170, 172, 173, 195,208,209,216, 217,221,279, 378, 386, 387,472,561,564, 565, 566, 568, 569, 584, 586, 588, 593, 600, 619 Keene Fire Dept., 215, 322, 324, 570, 571, 573, 574, 575, 577; 579 Board of Engineers, 571, 573 Deluge Engine and Hose Co., 322, 570, 617 Deluge Hose Co., 95, 96, 100, 113, 133, 150,571,572,573 Fire Fencibles, 63, 77 Fire Prevention Week, 574 Fire Station, 164, 179, 215, 326, 571, 576, 577 Fireman's Relief Association, 150 Firemen's Ball, 574, 616 Firemen's Muster, 95, 573,

264 Firewards, 45, 62, 570 Keene Engine Co., 47, 63, 235, 570 Keene Fire Society, 63, 77, 95, 237, 570 Ladies Auxiliary, 574 Lion Fire Co., 95, 100 Neptune Co., 95, 113, 133, 150, 320, 572 Niagara Co., 113, 117, 572 Phoenix Hose Co., 113, 133, 617 Phoenix Hose and Ladder Co., 571 Proprietors of the Fire Engine (or Proprietors for an Engine), 363, 570 Saturday Test Box Signals, 150 Southwestern New Hampshire District Fire Mutual Aid System, 215, 576 Steam Fire Engine & Hose Co., 571 Steamer Hose Co., 573 Stevens Box System, 133 Subscribers for an Engine, 570 Tiger Co., 95, 100 Washington Hook & Ladder Co., 133, 571, 573, 577 Keene Five Cents Savings Bank, 125, 131, 275, 322, 324, 384, 483 Keene Food Mart, 260, 326, 496 Keene Forensic Society and Lyceum, 61, 72 Keene Forestry Association, 219 Keene Fortnightly Club, 145 Keene Forum, 219 Keene Free Press, 160 Keene Fremont Club, 84 Keene Furniture Co., 138, 144, 146, 483 Keene Garden Club, 191 Keene Gas Co., 262 Keene Gas & Electric Co., 151, 156, 261, 436, 480, 600 Keene Gas Light Co., 132, 156, 479, 480 Keene Girls' Drum & Bugle Corps, 192 Keene Glue Co., 357, 489 Keene Granite & Terra-Cotta & Tile Co., 497 Keene Harmonic Society, 73, 614 Keene Hebrew Community, 437 Keene High School, 77, 149, 183, 186, 188, 190, 191, 192,213, 324, 447, 448, 455 A Cappella Choir,

265 Alumni Association, 451 Band, 182, 183 Cadets, 127, 137, 139, 140 Drum Corps, 154 Keene History Committee, 224, 256 Keene Hoop Co., 481, 484, 497 Keene Horse Thief Detecting Society (or Keene Thief Detecting Society), 73, 137, 378 Keene Hotel, 64 Keene Humane Society, 135 Keene Ice Co., 494 Keene Industrial Foundation, 526 Keene Industrial Park, 193, 206, 520, 526 Keene Junior High School, 51, 64,80, 143,300,326,374,375,441, 442, 446, 456 Keene Light Guard, ]36, 141, 146, 154, 172,258,268,392,617 Keene Light Infantry, 46, 51, 56, 57, 68, 78, 79, 87, 122, 124, 272, 276, 294, 549 Keene Light Opera Co., 207, 619 Keene Lions Club, 192 "Eyes-A-Poppin," 207 Lebanon Lions Club, 192 Keene Long Pasture, 45, 310 Keene Lyceum, 98, 102 Keene Manor, 228 Keene Mental Health Association, 221 Keene Mica Products Co., 513 Keene Military Band, 150, 154, 390, 616 Keene Mineral Club, 207 Keene Music Club, 615 Keene Musical Association, 73 Keene Musical Society, 61, 68, 73, 614 Keene National Bank, 92, 112, 209, 260, 261, 275, 276, 324, 325, 47], 593 Keene Natural History Society, 122, 136, 163, 185 Keene Orchestral Society, 193 Keene Police Department, 63, 210, 326 DeRosa, William F., 198 Junior Police, 198 Junior Police Band and Drill Team, 198 Porter, Norman,

266 Keene Precision Park, 528 Keene Public Library, 29, 47, 105, 125, 126, 131, 167,209,217, 240, 332, 347, 388, 389, 390, 443, 593 Keene Quadrille Band, 104, 123, 616 Keene Railroad Co., 81, 137, 394 Keene Regional Industrial Foundation, 207, 221, 519 Keene Rotary Club, 182, 183 Keene Sacred Music Society, 614 Keene Sand & Gravel, Inc., 522 Keene Savings Bank, 76, 279, 326, 507 Keene Savings Bank Block, 278, 279, 324 Keene Scientific Association, 136 Keene Senior Citizens' Center, 379, 380 Keene Shopper News, The, 208, 216, 568, 569 Keene Silk Fibre Mills, 518, 519 Keene Soap Manufacturing Co., 479 Keene Social Union, 122 Keene Steam Laundry, 492 Keene State College, 39, 52, 214, 222, 223, 225, 255, 345, 368, 387, 446, 455, 594 Administration Building, 345 Alumni Association, 215 Blake House, 184, 347, 383 Campus Ministry, 222, 442 Fiske Hall, 182 Hale House, 347, 368, 387, 388 Huntress Hall, 184 Keene Normal School, 163, 182, 184, 190, 191,247,368,387, 443, 452, 600 Keene Teachers College, 198,204,207,213,214,616 Lloyd P. Young Student Union, 214 Louis Cabot Preserve, 214 Mason Library, 190, 214 Monadnock Hall, 213, 214 Newman Center, 215, 439 Newman Club, 222, 439 President's House, 368 Spaulding Gymnasium, 39, 184, 197, 446 Thorne Art Gallery, 214 Keene Street Railway Co., 153, 157, 290, 403 Keene Summer Theater, ] 93, 37] 676

267 Keene Teachers' Association, 190 Keene Telephone Exchange, 151 Keene Temperance Association, 74 Keene Temperance Reform Club, 136 Keene Temperance Union, 143 Keene Toboggan Club, 145 Keene Visiting Nurse Association, 183 Well Baby Clinic, 183 Keene Window Glass Factory, 52, 53, 537, 540, 551, 559 Keene Woman's Club, 167, 181, 191 Keene Wood Heel Co., 515 Keene Woodenware Co., 358, 498 Keene Youth Center, 197 Keene's ZIP Code, 256 Keentiki Restaurant, 326 Kelleher, Timothy, 308 Kelly, George, 491 Kelsey, Rev. Philip, 418 Kendall, A. Harold, 518 Kendall, Pauline, 212 Kendall Green, 205 Kendall's Band, 90 Kennebec River, 588 Kennedy, John F., 223 Kennedy, Mrs. Joseph P., 223 Kent, Duke of, 37 Keyes, Charles, 320 Keyes, Elbridge, 278, 470 Keyes, Francis E., 278, 320 Keyes (Kise), Zebadiah, 236, 278, 318, 320 Keyes, F. E., & Co., 470 Keyes & Colony, 76, 278, 279, 318 Keyes & Stratton, 278 Keyes Block, 113, 278, 279 Kharfen, Harry M., 519 KHS Enterprise, 127, 149, 206 KHS Index, 127 KHS Salmagundi, 183 Kidder, Mrs. Ruth, 39, 444, 445 Kidder & Winchester, 482 Kiddie Korner,

268 Kilburn, John, 18 Kilpatrick, Judson, 124 Kimball, Horatio, 106, 241, 242, 243, 320, 567 Kimball Union Academy, 123 King George II, 14, 229 King George III, 38 King Philip, 4 King Philip's War, 1 King, Gov. John W., 223 King, Mrs. John W., 223 King, Samuel, 31 King, Wallace L., 487, 488 King, William, 47 Kingman, Albert H., 477 Kingsbury, Abijah, 274, 316, 318 Kingsbury, Albert. 320 Kingsbury, Charles, 274 Kingsbury, Chester L., 493, 506 Kingsbury, Daniel, 79, 232, 292, 346, 354, 355, 607 Kingsbury, Edward J., 212, 216, 505 Kingsbury, Frank 8., 185 Kingsbury, Frederick H., 400 Kingsbury, George, 274 Kingsbury, George Tilden, 469 Kingsbury, Harry T., 169, 493, 500, 507 Kingsbury, Joel, 355 Kingsbury, Josiah, 308 Kingsbury, Molly Thurston, 355 Kingsbury, Nathaniel, 308 Kingsbury, Olive, 355 Kingsbury, Robert Tilden, 183, 249, 250, 365, 469, 470 Kingsbury, Reuel H., 477 Kingsbury, Samuel, 308 Kingsbury Machine Co., 506 Kingsbury Machine Tool Corp., 20 I, 506 Kingsbury Toy Co., 500 Kingsbury Toys, 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505 Kingsbury Trust Fund, 380 Kingsbury's Block, 274, 320, 322, 324 Kipling, Rudyard, 186, 361 Kiritsy, Perry A., 365,

269 Kirk, Mrs. Howard W., 206, 455 Kirk, Reuben S., 278 Kirk, Walter, 494 Kirk & Sewall, 278 Kise (Keyes), Zebadiah, 462 Kittredge, Dr. Jesseniah, 380 Kittredge, Sarah, 380 Kittredge, Dr. Thomas, 384 Klunder, Hans, 257 Knight, Charles H., 111 Knight, Marcus W., 612 Knight, Sumner, 612 Knights of Columbus, Keene Council, 166 Knights of Pythias, Roaring Brook Lodge, 145 Knowlton, Rev. Isaac Case, 432 Knowlton, Joseph Berry, 478 Knowlton, William H., 478 Knowlton & Stone, 262, 263 Knowlton & Stone Block, 262, 324 Kononan, John, 192 Korean War, 2]5, 506 Kresge, S. S., Co., 266 Kresge Block, 266 Kdps, Alfred, 619 f Labor Day Observances, 161 Labor Organizations Ancient Order of United Workmen, 144 Sovereigns of Industry, ] 16 United Garment Workers of America, Local 132, 173 Ladam, Harold c., 513 Ladies' (or Female) Cent Society, 60, 74 Ladies' Charitable and Reading Society, 60, 73 Ladies' Charitable Society, 60, 86, J09, 135, 167 Ladies' Reading Circle, 60 Ladies' Wildwood Park, 143, 159, ]90, 243, 252,

270 Ladin, Sidney S., 508 LaFortune, Arthur A., 512 LaFortune's Pharmacy, 512 Lamour, Dorothy, 200 Lamson, Charles, 318, 320 Lamson, William (1),36,71, 165,247,274,275,277,308,310, 314, 316, 322, 423, 448, 458 Lamson, William (2), 58, 67, 75, 263, 264, 267, 316, 318 Lamson & Kingsbury, 274 Lamson Block, 270, 274, 322, 324, 458 Lamson Building, 263 Lancaster, C. B., Shoe Factory, 146, 173, 617 Lancaster, Mass., 359 Landers, John J., 189, 251 Lane, Abbott A., 251 Lane, Elisha F., 188, 266, 267, 268, 272, 423, 477 Lane, Farnum F., 281, 322 Lane, Fred E., 482, 494 Lane, Henry W., 433 Lane, Howard B., 272, 412 Lane, Lily Lofgren, 616 Lane, Mary P., 251 Lane, Raymond L., 510 Lane, C. c., Bucket Co., 510 Lane Buckets, Inc., 510 Lane Block, 281, 325, 489 Lane,E. F., Block, 144, 151,266,267,322,324,326,464,477,578 Laneri, Jimmie, 192, 409 Lange, Henry, 539 Langley, Neva Jane, 210 Lanman, James, 369 Lanman, Mrs. James, 353 Lantz, Robert W., 358 Lantz, Mrs. Robert W., 358 Lantz Jewelers, 326 Lapham & Rawson, 587 Laplant Moving & Storage Co., 267 Larsen, Charles L., 359 Latchis, Demetrius P., 184, 274, 324 Latchis, D., Inc., 272, 274 Latchis Block,

271 Latchis Theater, 176, 180, 184, 274, 324, 326, 512 Laughton, Charles, 454 Laurent, Fred D., 525 Lawrence, John, 357 Leach, Dr. J. Holmes, 241 Leach, Rev. Joseph Allen, 115, 117, 118,417,430,431 League of Women Voters, 207 Leavitt's Bell Ringers, 618 Lebanon, Maine, 1 Lebanon, N. H., 217, 523 LeBeau, Lawrence C., 508 Lebourveau, John, 382 Lee, Robert E., 112 Lee, William, 550 Lee, Mrs. William, 551 Legere, Emile, 380 Legere, Henry, 522 Lempster, N. H., 231 Leominster, Mass., 42, 285, 446, 564 Leonard, George 0., 93, 320, 325, 476, 477 Leonard, John, 608 Leonard, Robert P., 123, 302 Leonard, Roy 0., 197 Leonard, Welcome, 123 Leonard, A., & Son, 476 Leonard's Tavern, 50 Leonowens, Anna Harriette, 122 Lesure, John G., 496 Lesure, J. G., & Co., 497 Leverett, Miss Sarah M., 448 Leverett, Thomas L., 384 Leverone, Nathaniel, 150, 495 Leveroni, Lawrence P., 495 Leveroni, Robert, 308, 495 Leveroni's Fruit Store, 520 Lewis, Edwin J., Jr., 424 Lexington, Mass., 24, 100, 351 Libbares, Fred, 261 Libbares, George, 261 Liberty Hall, 128, 135, 147,

272 Life of Fremont, The, 109 Lilla, George, 39 Lincoln, Abraham, 59,107,110, Ill, 112, 113,302,336 Lincoln and Hamlin Wide Awakes, 107 Lincoln School, 162, 452 Lindbergh, Charles A., 185 Lindy's Diner, 326 Lippincott, Sara Jane, 102 Lipsky, Florence, 512 Lipsky, Rubin, 512 Litchfield, George, 464, 477 Literary and Philosophical Repertory, 536, 547 Little, Fred, 507 Little, Rev. Robert W., 418 Little Folks Shop, 326 Little League Baseball, 205 Littleton, Mass., 25 Livermore, Rev. Abiel A., 71, 72, 73, 74, 94, 95 Loco Foco Matches, 75, 471 Loiselle, Edward, 103, 482 London, England, 7, 22, 23, 49, 68, 494 Look Magazine, 221 Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 552 Lord, Edward H., 201 Lord's Candy Store, 437 Los Angeles, Cal., 517 Lost Cemetery, The, 604, 608, 609 Lover's Lane, 103, 293, 294, 309 Low, Daniel, 487 Lowell, Mass., 69, 81, 96, 401 Lower Ashuelot (Swanzey), 6, 8, 9, 303, 336 Loyalist Party, 22, 23, 29, 448 Lunenburg, Mass., 25 Luoma, Rev. Robert, 441 Lyman, Edward L., 357, 489 Lyman, Henry, 273, 463 Lyman, Thomas, 273, 463 Lyman's Hat Store, 273, 316 Lynn, Mass., 37, 522 Lynn Wood Heel Co., 515 Lyscom, John, 64.'" 682

273 m M-A-C Finance Plan, Inc., 326 Maccaney, Beriah, 228 Maccaney Plain, 328, 343 Maccarty, Dr. Thaddeus, 460 MacDonald, H. Leigh, 526 MacDowell Colony, 209 MacDowell Male Chorus, 616 Macdonough, Thomas, 51 Mack, Elisha, 29 MacKenzie, Lawrence, 358 MacKenzie, Mrs. Lawrence, 358 MacKenzie Dairy, 256 Mackintosh, Henry S., 142, 592 MacLaughlin, Edward J., 270 MacLaughlin, Mildred Whipple, 270 Maclaughlin Block, 269 MacMillin, Guy E., 525 MacMillin Co., Inc., 525 Mac's Cut Rate, 520 Mac's Fruit Store, 520 Madison, James, 51 Madrid, Spain, 51 Maentz, Claire, 616 Main Street Cemetery, 167 Majestic Theater, 171, 184, 324 Makin's Dining Room, 508 Malden, Mass., 513 Mallat, Robert L., Jr., 221, 255, 256 Manchester, N. H., 173, 201, 216, 560 Manchester & Keene Railroad, 387, 397 Mann, James, 266, 276, 570 Mann & Wood, 276, 314 Manning, Julia Ann, 392 Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, Evidences of Advanced Civilization in the Ice Age, 225 Mark, Emily Z.,

274 Markem International, Inc., 518 Markem Machine Co., 516, 517, 518 Marlboro Manufacturing Co., 499 Marlboro Street (Glass) Factory, 375, 553, 555, 557, 559 Marlborough, N. H., 33, 45, 48,51,79,81,131,140,157,161,162, 189,250,263,284,285,301,303,338,383,386,403,404,405, 406, 426, 430, 500, 532, 555, 610 Marlborough Fire Department, 577, 578, 580 Marlow, N. H., 85, 97, 136, 173, 231, 287, 369, 426, 428, 486 Marrion, Peter G., 273, 361 Marrion's Restaurant, 186, 273, 361 Marshall, Thomas R., 177, 186 Martell, Arthur E., 515 Martell, A. E., Co., 514, 515 Martin, Henry S., 239 Martin, Laton, 272, 481 Mason, Andrew, 471 Mason, Andrew R., 271 Mason, Henry, 322 Mason, Herbert Delavan, 540 Mason, John, 1 Mason, John c., 75, 470 Mason, Laura E., 181, 248 Mason, Wallace E., 164,214 Mason, Wallace L., 408, 471, 477, 494, 497 Mason & Wheeler, 480 Mason Insurance Agency, 471 Masonic Hall, 67, 181, 199, 245, 277, 347, 364, 365 Masonic Hall, Old, 364 Masonic Organization, 37,43,47,73,89, 121, 136,392,553,554 Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite, 121 Asteria Chapter of Eastern Star, 166 Cheshire Royal Arch, 181, 371, 553 Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 43 Hugh de Payens Commandery, Knights Templar No.7, 121 Lodge of the Temple No. 88, 121 Masonic Hall, 43, 67, 121, 160, 161 Keene Council Princes of Jerusalem, 166 Keene Lodge of Perfection, 166 Keene Order of Free and Accepted Masons, 386 Knights Templar Convention,

275 Refuge Lodge of the Independent Order of Good Templars, 136 Rising Sun Lodge, 43, 360, 364 St. John's Council No.7, 136 Shriners, 180 United Order of the Golden Cross, Keene Commandery No. 90, 136 Winslow Lewis Lodge of Perfection, 121 Masonic Temple, 347, 386 Massachusetts Bay Colony, 7, 11 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 186, 505 Masters, E. H., 441 Matthews, Levi, 329 Maxham, Laura May, 390 May, Elinor, 380 Maynard & Holton's Quadrille Band, 616 Maynard & Merrill's Orchestra, 616 Maynard & Wheeler's Orchestra, 616 Maytag Washette, 326 McCarty, Rev. Chandler H., 429 McCormack, James, 140 McCullough, Edith A., 616 McDuffee, George W., 244, 392, 482 McGowan, William W., III, 221, 525 McGregor, Daniel, 477 McKearin, Helen, 529, 553 McKearin, George S., 529, 553 McKenney, Daniel, 10 McKenney, Mrs. Daniel, 9 McKinley, William, 164, 245, 329 McLaughlin, Samuel C, 480 McLaughlin, William A., 135 McLaughlin Moving & Storage Co., 326 Meadowbrook Fire Department, 580 Mechanic's Phalanx, 96 Mechanicville, N. Y., 161 Medemblik, Holland, 524 Medford, Mass., 25 Medical Hall, Inc., 273, 326, 512 Medical Society of Cheshire County, 61 Medvidofsky, Charles, 440 Medvidofsky, Morris, 324, 440 Medway, Mass., 6 685

276 Meetinghouse, The, 2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11,15, 19,20,21,24,27,29,32, 34,35,36,38,40,44,46,55,56,58,59,63,65,67,68,71,167, 229, 232, 233, 236, 261, 265, 283, 285, 299, 300, 303, 310, 312,314,316,318,324,332,350,359,363,374,413,414, 415, 416, 417, 460, 565, 603, 608 Meeting House Hill, 16 Mellen, Gilbert, 531, 533 Melody Shop, Inc., 526 Melvin, James T., 324, 332 Memorial Day Observance, 121, 172, 206, 612 Memorial Flag Pole, 250 Memphis, Tenn., 500 Mendon, Mass., 2 [, 354 Men's Hospital Benefit Club, 150 Mercy, Convent of, 181 Mercy, Sisters of, 208 Merriam House, 270 Merrimack River, 62 Messer, Walter R, 215 Metcalf, Albion E., 211 Metcalf, Anna, 373 Metcalf, Edwin G., 587 Metcalf, Eli, 232 Metcalf, Michael (I), 373 Metcalf, Michael (2), 15, 347, 377, 378 Metcalf, Michael (3),377,378 Metcalf, Michael (4), 378 Metcalf, Thaddeus, 347, 373 Metcalf (Michael) House, 377 Metcalf (Thaddeus) House, 373 Methodist Church, 72, 94, 119, 120, 146,206,222, 322, 325, 327, 419, 426, 427, 430, 432, 435, 443 Ashburnham Circuit of the Methodist Church, 426 Bishop Baker, 426 Epworth League, 427 Grace Methodist Episcopal Church, 426, 427 Men's Club, 427 Methodist Episcopal Church, 427 Mission Endeavor, 427 Norris Brotherhood, 427 Northfield Bible School,

277 Steer & Turner Organ, 119 Wesleyan Club, 427 Winchester Circuit of the Methodist Church, 426 Woman's Society of Christian Service, 427 Metropolitan Museum of Art, 560 Metropolitan Telegraph Co., 131 Meury, Rev. Edward W., 418 Mexican War, 96 Cody, Captain Albemarle, 96 Daniels, Captain Charles B., 96 EI Molino del Rey, 96 Meyers, Rev. Edwin, 433 MGF Melody Shop, 526 Michaels, Harry J., 434 Michaels, Mrs. Harry J., 434 Michel's Studio Shop, 326 Middleboro, Mass., 419 Middlebury, Vt., 69, 286, 447, 547 Middlebury College, 77, 123, 447, 543 Middlesex Canal, 62 Milestone Mills, 486 Milford, N. H., 97 Mill Brook, 457 Mill End Store, 466 Mill House, 347, 379 Mill Pond, 344 Miller, George R., 176 Miller, Jack B., 515 Miller, William, 427 Miller Bros.-Newton, 326, 478 Millerites, The, 94, 427, 431 Millers Forge Mfg. Corp., 515 Milmore, Martin, 124, 239 Milwaukee, Wis., 139 Miniature Precision Bearings, Inc., 333, 523, 524 Ministry Fund, 419 Ministry Lot, 105, 419 Mississippi River, 72 Mitchell, Frederick c., 205, 253 Mohawk Airlines, 216, 217, Monadnock Area Family Service,

278 ---- Monadnock Broadcasting Corp., 220, 527 Monadnock Children's Special Service Center, 221 Monadnock Club, 145 Monadnock Cutlery Co., Inc., 526 Monadnock Cycle Club, 149 Monadnock Mountain, 1,99, 100, 103,209,218,355,373 Monadnock No.6, 334 Monadnock Region, 189, 199 Monadnock Region Association, 189 Monadnock Stamp Club, 207 Monadnock View Cemetery, 192, 204, 223, 409, 613 Montagne, Cecile M., 476 Montague, Richard, 76 Montague, Samuel S., 81 Montpelier, Vt., 69, 165, 286, 519 Montreal, Canada, 12, 13, 49, 50, 69, 92, 286, 339, 616 Moore, Ferris (or Forris), 57, 420 Moore, Frank C., 359, 360 Moore, Frederick, 360 Moore, Jacob B., 68 Moore, Walter, 359 Moran, Philip, 349 Morgan, Clarence A., 512 Morgan Mfg. Co., 516 Morse, David, 309 Morse, Julius N., 106, 429, 568 Morton, George, 488 Morton, Rev. Hugh Q., 422 Mother's Clubs, 183 Mountain View Farm, 373 Mt. Pleasant Tavern, 347, 369 Muchmore, H. P., 609 Mugford, James, 392 Mulvaney, Arthur D., 183 Munsonville, N. H., 161, 380 Murphy, Rev. Daniel W., 118 Murray, Dr. J. O. Stuart, 327 Museum Block, 201, 259, 469, 498 Music Hall, 67, 114 Muster Field,

279 Mutual Fire Insurance Association of New England, 510 Myers, George H., 159 Myers', Jim, Circus, 102 n Narragansett Bay, 597 Nasby, Petroleum V., 122 Nashua, N. H., 81, 94, 140, 193, 198, 328, 402, 422, 489 Nast, Thomas, 122 Nation, Carrie, 174 National Association of Advertising Publishers, 216, 569 National Cash Register Co., 470 "National Emblem March," 149, 618 National Grange Mutual Insurance Company, 201, 520, 527 National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, 519, 520 National Honor Society, 191 National Horseshoe Tournament, 222 National Keg & Box Co., 499 National Municipal League, 221, 256 Naylor & Vickers Co., 120 Neal, Zebulon, & Co., 36 Nelson, N. H., 22,33, 109, Ill, 138, 153,214,232,270,299,359, 486 Netherlands Insurance Company of The Hague, 510 Newark, N. J., 515 Newberry, J. J., & Co., 267 Newberry Block, 47, 268, 326, 479 New Brattleboro Overall Co., 510 Newburyport, Mass., 510 Newburyport Silver Co., 510 Newcomb, Charles King, 99 Newcomb, Daniel, 29, 36, 37, 39, 42, 46, 99, 231, 233, 235, 314, 338, 347, 367, 445, 463 Newcomb, Rev. Edward H., 418 Newcomb, Everett, 470 Newcomb, George, 609 Newcomb, Gideon, 76,

280 Newcomb, Seth, 609 Newcomb's Law Office, 367 Newell, Ralph W., 569 Newell, Zebina, 477 New England Box Co., 499 New England Conservatory of Music, 619 New England Cycle Co., 507 New England Explosives Corp., 482 New England Magazine, 615 New England Medical College, 126 New England Mercantile Union Business Directory, 482, 492 New England Observer, The, 73, 148 New England School Development COL/ncil, 456 New England Screw Co., 198, 523 New England Survey Service, Inc., 254 New England Telephone & Telegraph Co., 131, 493 New England Telephone Exchange, 494 New England Video, 219, 526 New England Zoological Exhibition, 70 New Era Tea Co., 496 Newhall, John, 37 New Hampshire Agricultural Society, 97 New Hampshire Art Press, 160 New Hampshire Bible Society, 109 New Hampshire Board of Education, 183 New Hampshire Civil Air Patrol, 216 New Hampshire Constitutional Convention, 30 New Hampshire Department of Education, 213 New Hampshire Firemen's Association, 180 New Hampshire General Court, 21, 450 New Hampshire Glass Co., 492 New Hampshire Glass Factory, 52, 361,371,533,535,536,546,547 New Hampshire Grants, 231 New Hampshire Historical Society, 68, 475 New Hampshire Horticultural Association, 180 New Hampshire House of Representatives, 125, 153, 239, 533 New Hampshire Liquor Store, 326 New Hampshire Medical Society, 48 New Hampshire Moulded Granite & Tile Co., 497 New Hampshire Mutual Fire Insurance Co.,

281 New Hampshire National Guard, 136, 162, 1(7,255,258 Battery G, 197th Coast Artillery, 199 Company G and Company H of the Second Regiment, 136 First Infantry Regiment, 177 Mexican Border Dispute, 177 New Hamp5:hire Profiles, 376 New Hampshire Recorder and Weekly Advertiser, 36,265, 561, 583 New Hampshire Senate, 189, 533 New Hampshire Sentinel, 42, 49, 73, 84, 89, 105, 106, 112, 126, ]32, ]48, 160,2]6,217,279,284, 352, 379, 380, 460, 475, 486, 531, 533, 534, 54], 561, 564, 565, 583 New Hampshire State Grange, 180 New Hampshire State Library Commission, 217 New Hampshire State Planning and Development Commission, 2]2 New Hampshire State Police, ] 98 New Hampshire State School Science Fair, 2] 3 New Hampshire State Teachers' Association, 454 New Hampshire Supreme Court, 208, 403 New Hampshire Tool & Die Corp., 515 New Hampshire Union Railroad, 92, 397 New Hampshire, University of, 183, 214, 215 Newington, Conn., 257 New Ipswich, N. H., 24, 45, 284, 285, 338, 381 Newman Apostolate, 439 Newport, N. H., 85, 173, 231, 615 Newport, R. I., 516 Newport News, Va., 110 Newton, William, 478 New York City, 68, 69, 73,180,185, 193,203,204,209,217,386, 411,466,514,515,517,551,560,616,619 New York Times, 498 New Yorker Magazine, 176 Nichols, George G., 520, 521 Nims, Abigail, 350 Nims, Ainsworth M., 493 Nims, Alpheus, 350 Nims, Arthur, 520 Nims, Asahel, 368 Nims, Brigham, 266, 320 Nims, Charles Roswell, 362 Nims, Chester,

282 Nims, Coolidge, 557 Nims, Mrs. Dauphin, 244 Nims, David, 15, 19, 228, 244, 295, 331, 346, 350 Nims, Ebenezer, 228 Nims, Francis 0., 141 Nims, Fred, 362 Nims, Fred c., 277 Nims, Hattie, 362 Nims, Lanmon, 473 Nims, Louis A, 277 Nims, Lucy, 367 Nims, Roswell, 330, 361 Nims, Sally, 361 Nims, Sidney A, 479 Nims, F. C. & L. A, Livery Stable, 322, 324 Nims & Crossfield, 473 Nims Brothers Market, 151, 480 Nims Plumbing Co., 324, 430, 520, 521 Nims, Whitney & Co., 138 Nims Homestead, 361 Nims Block, 161, 277 Nine Lot Plain, 303, 337 Norden, Carl, 523, 524 Norfolk, Va., 565 Northampton, Mass., 69 North Branch River, 76, 461, 469, 604 Northeast Airlines, 203, 216, 217, 411 Northeast Division Cemetery, 611, 612, 613 Northfield, Mass., 1,2,3,5,6,9,12, 13, 14,226,282,444,581 North Reading, Mass., 433 North Swanzey, N. H., 203, 252, 296, 440 North Walpole, N. H., 92 North Yard Burying Ground, 189, 605, 606 Norwich, Conn., 69, 93, 106, 467 Norwood, Charles M., 484 Norwood, Leon c., 499 Norwood & Weeks, 381 Norwood Calef & Co., 484 Nourse, Charity, 359 Nourse, Luther, 308, 346, 356 Nourse (Luther) Place,

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