4 / (3 May 3, Mr. P. G. Spilsbury, President, Arizona Industrial Congress, Phoenix, Arizona. Dear Sir: Pursuant to your request for an economic survey of lands comprising the Gila Valley Irrigation District, the principal office of which is at Safford, Arizona, there is submitted for your consideration the attached report. Certain data has been taken from reports made by Frank H. Olmsted, who submitted a report in 1917 on flood control and prevention of further erosion of the banks of the Gila for the Secretary of the Interior, and W. R. Parkhill, Federal Land Bank Appraiser for the Federal Land Bank at Berkeley, under date of Noveinber, Acknowledgment is also made to Mr. Hiram Weach for his version of the early settlement ; Mr. J. W. Wright. County Agricultural Agent, for crop report and yields ; Mr. J. P. Condrey, Secretary of the Graham County Chamber of Commerce, for his untiring efforts in making it possible to procure data pertaining to the population, schools and taxable wealth; and to the President, Secretary and Board of Directors of the District for their support which makes this report possible. Yours very truly, P. J. LYNCH, (Mem. AM. SOC. C. E.)
5 OFFICERS OF THE DISTRICT: Gila Valley Irrigation District President Wm. Ellsworth Secretary J. M.. Wilson BOARD OF DIRECTORS Richard G. Layton S. S. Marshall Milton Hines LEGAL ADVISORS Kibbey, Bennett, Gust, Smith and Lyman ENG INEER W. R. Elliott CANAL COMPANIES Union Canal Curtis Kingston Sunflower Brown Union Extension Tourness S outhv ill e Dodge Ft. Thomas Nevada Graham Oregon Layton Layton Extension Michelena San Jose San Jose Extension Safford San Jose Mont ezuma
6 STATISTICS Irrigable area 40,000 acres Now irrigated 32,000 acres Number of farms 890 Average size of farm 36 acres Population of District 14,500 Population of farms 4,450 Annual gross value of crops produced for past 8 years $ 2,050,000 Value of livestock, including sheep, goats, and cattle, poultry and dairy products Estimated valuation of irrigated land, including improvements Annual charge per acre for all water delivered to land, which includes cost of operation and maintenance and betterments $ 3,350,000 13,000,000 $1.50 The canal companies have expended over $400,000 on diversion dams and canals, and these works stand to-day at the mercy of the Gila River when in flood $400, 000 It is unnecessary to provide drainage at this time, as underlying the rich soil is a layer of coarse gravel which permits a return flow of 50% of the water to the river, There is no bonded or other indebtedness against the District.
7 LOCATION: The Gila Valley Irrigation District in Graham County, Arizona, embraces a narrow strip of land approximately2miles in width by 35 miles in length, through which the Gila River winds its way to the lower elevations. HISTORY: Some 50 years after the discovery of America by Columbus, Jesuit priests from Mexico explored the valley and found an irrigation system that was evidently constructed long before the advent of this expedition, which proved that ancient people had attained an advanced degree of civilization in their effort to augment a water supply that nature had not provided. At this time no evidence remained to identify the character of these people. The land had reverted to the desert, but the outline of the canal system still remained. This system was utilized in a small way by Mexicans, who, through the religious influence of the priests, were on rather friendly terms with the Indians. The land north of the Gila River was ceded to the United States Government by Mexico after the war of The area south of the river to the Mexican border was acquired by the Gadsden Purchase in SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT BY THE WHITE PEOPLE: It was not until 1860 that white trappers from Utah and Colorado, in their quest for beaver fur, entered the valley and spread the information on their return to their native states of the wonderful productivity of the soil. Rugged and hardy men from the Mormon settlement in Salt Lake City established a small settlement near what is now called the town of Solomonville. A greater influx of the members of this faith came in Due to the unfriendly attitude of the Indians, it necessarily followed
8 that the early settlers congregated in a small community to protect their lives. During the next 10-year period little new development was constructed. The beginning of the early eighties saw the Mormons entering in larger bodies, and abriskperiod of construction followed during the next 20 years. IRRIGATED AREA AND SYSTEM: Parallel to the river on both sides is an area of rich soil classified as Maricopa loam that approximates 45,000 acres, 40,000 of which are susceptible of irrigation if suitable works were constructed in the river. There are at present 32,000 acres intensely cultivated and receiving water from 11 separate brush dams in the river, supplying water to 13 independent canal companies. The canal system consists of approximately 200 miles of canals and laterals. Each canal company operates and maintains its own system and assessments are levied and collected by the individual canals after the debt is incurred. WATER SUPPLY: The water shed of the Gila River and its tributaries embraces an area nearly 12,000 square miles, or nearly 6,000 square miles larger than the Salt and Tonto watersheds combined. Snow covered areas on Graham and Gila mountains insure a. constant runoff, as the mountains attain an elevation well over 11,000feet. It is true that during the months of July, August and September there is not sufficient flow of water in the river to provide the necessary water supply during these critical months. The soil survey report of the Solomonville area made in 1904 discusses in a general way the effect this shortage of water has on crops and quoting from the above report, ''The water of the Gila River caused large
9 quantities of sediment and some alkali salts,'' and further states that a chemical analysis of a sample of water taken from the head of the Montezuma canal contained 75 parts of total solids per 100,000, of which calcium sulphate and calcium chloride were less thanhaif the total solids. ''The alluvial sediments are of considerable importance as a fertilizer, as they contain a high percentage of organic and mineral plant nutriments.'' VALUE OF LAND $300 PER ACRE: Partially quoting from report by the engineer appraiser of the Berkeley Federal Land Bank: ''With the classification of the various canal systems as to water supply construction and drainage, it is entirely feasible to make a good comparative estimate of the value of stock under the various systems. It has already been shown that the sale price of stock as claimed is notably not a very true index of the value of stock. It is comparatively easy to place a conservative average value on good farming lands in any community, as there are many sales of such property.'' ''A fair price for well improved farms in the upper end of the Gila Valley, where drainage and construction conditions are most favorable and canals have a Class Il-A supply, is $225 per acre when considering crop production and proper normal values over a period of years.'' With alfalfa at $20 a ton, and ten tons to the acre production, together with an assured permanent water supply, this land is easily worth $300 per acre based on production. ORGANIZATION OF GILA VALLEY IRRIGATION CO.,: It was not until September 8, 1923, that the 13 canal companies agreed to combine all companies and organize an irrigation district under the session laws of the state of Arizona of 1919 and All lands had been acquired under the Homestead law
10 or Desert Act. Water rights were adjudicated by the Arizona state water commissioner and filed with the state. Patents to these lands were granted by the United States. IMPROVEMENT AND UNIT OF OWNERSHIP: The Gila Valley Irrigation District is the largest irrigation project in Arizona, exclusive of the Salt River Valley lands. The early history of the pioneer settlers of the Salt River Valley closely follows that of the Gila settlers save there was no unfriendly interference by the Indians in the Salt River Valley. The thriving towns of Pima, Thatcher, Central, Safford, Solomonville, Fort Thomas and Geronimo grace the valley with paved streets, domestic water supply and electrical distribution, that is only surpassed by communities of much larger population and many years older. Exclusive of the towns, the district shows anappraised valuation of $11,600,000 with improvements totaling $4,500,000, which included houses, barns, silos and farm implements. The livestock industry has an appraised valuation of $2,500,000. The average crop valuation estimates from 1920 show gross return annually of $2,100,000. Eight hundred eighty-five individual farms make an average holding of 36 acres per holding, which is less acreage per unit ownership than that stated by the Salt River project in POPULATION: The entire population of the district including the towns is 14,500 and one-third of this population belongs to the Mormon faith. This religious sect has erected and maintains 13 churches. Schools accommodate an average daily attendance of 2,600 pupils, and Gila College at Thatcher, a non-sectarian institution sponsored by the Mormons, has an enrollment of 300 students.
11 The people who pioneered this valley had to combat the floods of the Gila River coupled with the treacherous activity of the Indians, and much praise is due them for their undaunted courage and perseverence under conditions that would easily have turned back, or exterminated, a less courageous spirit. Mr. Hiram Weach, the oldest pioneer in the Valley, tells a tragic story of his life. Mr. Weach settled near Thatcher in 1869 on the choicest land then in the valley, 160 acres near the stream bed of the Gila, which at that time he describes as a meandering stream of about 140 feet in width, heavily timbered with large cottonwood and willow trees. These trees were cut to provide homes for the early pioneers and shelter for cattle. Floods in the river gradually took his entire 160 acres until today not one acre of his original homestead remains to be cultivated. The kindly old man related this tale with no feeling of animosity toward nature, but rather conveyed a humility that bespoke a faith in the Divine Providence that all things are for the best. His story is but one of many, as it was a constant battle in an attempt to keep the river in its banks during floods. The cutting of these trees removed the barrier which permitted an increased velocity, washing away a channel which is today 2,000 feet wide. With an average gradient of 26 feet to the mile and the channel well defined, this entire valley is subj ect to destruction with a return of a wet year similar to The stream bed today occupies nearly one-half of the entire area of the valley and all this has been done in about five wet years. One flood of January, 1916, washed away nearly 1,200 acres. This was determined by a plane table survey of the Indian Service Department.
12 MARKETS: From an economic standpoint the Upper Gila Valley is highly important, as it has definite markets at either end which are dependent on its agricultural products. The cities of Globe and Miami, employ-. ing thousands of people in the mining industry, and with an estimated population of 19,600, are the outlet for the products of the lower valley. The upper valley serves the towns of Morenci and Clifton, with a population of 7,000. The towns of the valley also supply the outlying ranges, which are used for cattle and sheep. Splendid highways lead from both ends of the valley to these markets. RECOMMENDATION: A survey should be made at once to determine the most strategic points for a dam, or series of dams, to control the flood menace. An investigation should be made to provide storage of sufficient quantity in conjunction with the flood control.
13 CROP YIELD: COTTON--2 bales per acre when water available, maximum yield. WHEAT-4,400 pounds per acre. ALFALFATen tons per acre. A quantity yield that demands a 20 per cent higher price than any alfalfa raised in the Southwest, due to its exceptionally tender fiber and heavy leaf. BARLEY-4,500 pounds per acre. CORN-4,300 pounds per acre. BEANSi, 200 pounds per acre. These are the principal crops raised in the valley.
14 The Gila Ri'er Two Miles West of Saffod.
15 fiijh School and Grammar School, Saffoid. High School and Grade School at Thatcher School at Soiornonville
16 Concrete Highways Serving Well-Developed Farms Street Scene in Soffoid.
17 Homes in and Near Saf ford
18 Chnrch of Latter Day Saints, Thatcher. Methodist Church, Saffoid
19 Sheep Grazing Near Suffoid Southern Pacific StatioR, Sufford. Industry in Saffoid. Typical Giain Field.
20 Giaharn County Court House, Safford Gila Junior College, Thatcher.
CALAMITY ON THE CANALS: Entreprenurial Failure, Legal Quagmires, And Natural Disasters On The Graham County Irrigation Canals, 1895-1993 By George A. Platz Green fields stretching for some 40 miles along
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