Life in Times of Controversy: My Study with David Hartman Shlomo Naeh

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1 Life in Times of Controversy: My Study with David Hartman Shlomo Naeh מחלוקת I. Select Sources on 1. Chronicles 1, 23: Chronicles 1, 24: Chronicles 1, 27: Ezra 6: Samuel 1, 23: Mishnah Pesachim, 4:1-3 p Mishnah Eduyot, 8:7 pp Mishnah Avot, 5:17 p Seder Olam Rabba 17 p Siphra Miloim, 1, 1, 41:2 p Tosefta Hagiga, 2:9 pp Tosefta Sotah, 14:8-9 pp Tosefta Eduyot, 2:1 p Tractate Derech Eretz, 8:19 p. 4 II. Sources on מחלוקת Between Shammai and Hillel 15. Mishnah Shabbat, 1:4 p Tosefta Shabbat, 1:16 p Talmud Yerushalmi, Shabbat 1:4 p. 6 "אהלי איכה גילו קדשים".18 From the Piyut p. 6 "אאדר ללובש הוד והדר".19 From the Piyut p List of the Fasts from the Geniza p. 6.p 6 "מגילת תענית בתרא" Excerpts from Tractate Yevamot pp. 7-10

2 6. Mishnah Pesachim, 4:1-3 מחלוקת I. Select Sources on )א( מקום שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בערבי פסחים עד חצות, עושין. מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות, אין עושין. ההולך ממקום שעושין למקום שאין עושין, או ממקום שאין עושין למקום שעושין, נותנין עליו חומרי מקום שיצא משם וחומרי מקום שהלך לשם. ואל ישנה אדם, מפני המחלקת: )ב( כיוצא בו, המוליך פרות שביעית ממקום שכלו למקום שלא כלו, או ממקום שלא כלו למקום שכלו, חייב לבער. רבי יהודה אומר, אומרים לו, צא והבא לך אף אתה: )ג( מקום שנהגו למכור בהמה דקה לגוים, מוכרין. מקום שנהגו שלא למכור, אין מוכרין. ובכל מקום אין מוכרין להם בהמה גסה, עגלים וסיחים שלמים ושבורין. רבי יהודה מתיר בשבורה. בן בתירה מתיר בסוס: Where it is the custom to do work on the eve of Passover until midday one may do [work]; where it is the custom not to do [work], one may not do [work]/ He who goes from a place where they work to a place where they do not work, or from a place where they do not work to a place where they do work, we lay upon him the restrictions of the place whence he departed and the restrictions whither he has gone; and a man must not act differently [from local custom] on account of the quarrels [which would ensue]. Similarly, he who transports sabbatical year produce from a place where it has ceased to a place where it has not ceased or from a place where it has not ceased to a place where it has ceased, is bound to remove it. R. Judah said: Do you go out and bring [produce] for yourself. 7. Mishnah Eduyot, 8:7 משפחת בית צריפה היתה בעבר הירדן ורחקה בן ציון בזרוע. ועוד אחרת היתה שם וקרבה בן ציון בזרוע. כגון אלו. אליהו בא לטמא ולטהר לרחק ולקרב. רבי יהודה אומר לקרב. אבל לא לרחק. רבי שמעון אומר: להשוות המחלקת. וחכמים אומרים לא לרחק ולא לקרב. אלא לעשות שלום בעולם. שנאמר )מלאכי ג( הנה אנכי שלח לכם את אליה הנביא וגו והשיב לב אבות על בנים ולב בנים על אבותם: The family of Beth Zerephah was on the other side of the Jordan. And Ben Zion put it away by force; and yet another family was there, and Ben Zion brought it near by force. Such like Elijah will come to pronounce unclean or to pronounce clean, to put away or to bring near. R. Judah says: To bring near, but not to put away. R. Simeon says: To conciliate disputations. And the Sages say neither to put away nor to bring near, but to make peace in the world, for it is said: Behold I send to you Elijah the

3 prophet, etc., and He shall turn the heart of the father to the children and the heart of the children to their fathers. 8. Mishnah Avot, 5:17 כל מחלוקת שהיא לשם שמים. סופה להתקים. ושאינה לשם שמים. אין סופה להתקים. איזו היא מחלוקת שהיא לשם שמים. זו מחלוקת הלל ושמאי. ושאינה לשם שמים. זו מחלוקת קורח וכל עדתו: Every controversy that is in the name of heaven, the end thereof is [destined] to result in something permanent; but one that is not in the name of heaven, the end thereof is not [destined] to result in something permanent. Which is the [kind of] controversy that is in the name of heaven? Such as was the controversy between Hillel and Shammai; and which is the [kind of] controversy that is not in the name of heaven? Such as was the controversy of Korah and all his congregation. 9. Seder Olam Rabba 17 זמרי הרג את אלה ומלך אחריו שבעת ימים בתרצה "וישמעו העם החונים לאמר קשר זמרי וגם הכה את המלך וימליכו כל ישראל את עמרי שר צבא על ישראל ביום ההוא במחנה", "אז יחלק העם ישראל לחצי חצי העם אחרי תבני בין גנת למליכו והחצי אחרי עמרי". וכמה היתה המחלוקת? היו ארבה שנים, ויש אומ' חמש שנים. 10. Siphra Miloim, 1, 1, 41:2 ואין מושחין מלך בן מלך. מפני מה משחו את שלמה? מפני מחלקתו שלאדוניה. ואת יואש מפני מחלקתה שלעתליה. ואת יהואחז מפני מחלקתו שליהויקים אחיו, שהוא גדול הימנו שתי שנים. אמר רבי יוסי בתחלה לא היתה מחלוקת בישראל. 11. Tosefta Hagiga, 2:9 אלא בית דין של שבעים ואחד ]היה[ בלשכת הגזית ]ושאר[ בתי דינים של עשרים ושלשה ]היו בעיירות ארץ ישראל, ושני בתי דינים של שלשה שלשה היו בירושלים אחד בהר הבית ואחד בחיל[. נצרך אחד מהם, הולך אצל בית דין שבעירו: אין בית דין הולך אצל בית דין הסמוך לעירו. ]אם[ שמעו אמרו להם אם לאו הוא ומופלא שבהן באין לבית דין שבהר הבית ]אם[ שמעו אמרו להם, ואם לאו הוא ומופלא

4 שבהם באין לבית דין ]שבחיל: אם שמעו אמרו להם, אם לאו אלו ואלו באין לבית דין[ שבלשכת הגזית ]...[ ]נשאלה הלכה[ אם שמעו אמרו להם ואם לאו עומדין במנין. אם רבו המטמאין טימאו אם רבו המטהרין טיהרו. משם הלכה יוצא רווחת בישראל. משרבו תלמידי שמאי והלל שלא שמשו כל צרכן ]הרבו[ מחלוקת בישראל ]ונעשו כשתי תורות. Said R. Yossi: To begin with there was no contention in Israel. But: the court of seventy-one was in the chamber of the hewn stones, and the other courts, consisting of twenty-three judges each, were located in the various towns of the Land of Israel. There were two courts with three members each in Jerusalem, one on the Temple Mount, one on the Rampart. If one of [the Israelites] found need, he goes to court in his town. If there was no court in his town, he goes to the town nearest to his. If they heard [the proper ruling], they handed it over to them, but if not [the litigant] and the most distinguished member [of the court] come along to the court which is located on the Temple Mount. If they heard [the proper ruling], they handed it over to them, but if not, [the litigant] and the most distinguished member [of the court] come along to the court located on the Rampart. If they heard [the proper ruling], they handed it over to them, but if not, these and those [authorities together] come along to the court which is located in the chamber of the hewn stones. [ ] [When] a matter of law is besought, if they have heard [the correct ruling], they hand it over to them, [and if] those who declare it to be clean form the majority, they declared the matter to be clean. From there the law goes forth and is disseminated in Israel. Now once the disciples of Shammai and Hillel who did not adequately serve their master had become many, contentions multiplied in Israel, and they became two Torahs. 12. Tosefta Sotah, 14:8-9 משרבו מושכי הרוק נתמעטו התלמידים ובטל כבוד התורה. משרבו הולכי "אחר בצעם לבם הולך" רבו "האומרים לרע טוב ולטוב רע." משרבו "האומרים לרע טוב ולטוב רע" נתמלא כל העולם כולו הוי הוי. משרבו היהירים התחילו בנות ישראל לינשא ליהירים, לפי שבדורינו אין רואין אלא לפנים. משרבו "נטויות גרון ומסקרות עינים" רבו מי מרים, אלא שפסקו. משרבו זהיהי הלב רבו מחלוקת בישראל, והן שופכי דמים. משרבו מקבלי מתנות נתמעטו ימים ונתקצרו שנים. משרבו תלמידי שמאי והלל שלא שמשו כל צרכן הרבו מחלוקת בישראל ונעשית התורה כשתי תורות.

5 When those who drew out their spittle multiplied, the disciples became fewer in number, and the glory of the Torah was annulled. When there were multiplied "Their heart goes after their gain" there multiplied "Those who call evil good and good evil," the whole world was filled with people saying, "Woe, woe." When arrogant people increased, Israelite girls began to marry arrogant people, because in our generation people see only the outward appearance. When there multiplied those who "stretched forth necks and wanton eyes," the ordeal of the bitter water became common. But it was suspended. When the haughty of heart became many, contentiousness increased in Israel [-they are those who shed blood]. When those who accept gifts became many, disputes became many in Israel, and [the Torah was] made into two Torahs. 13. Tosefta Eduyot, 2:1 חתכו חוליות ונתן חול בין חוליא לחוליא, ר' אליעזר מטהר וחכמים מטמאין. והיה נקרא תנורו של עכנאי שעליו רבו מחלוקת בישראל. [If] one sliced into rings [an oven] and put sand between each ring R. Eliezer declares clean. And sages declare unclean. Now this was called the "oven of 'Akhnai,'" on account of which disputes became many in Israel. 14. Tractate Derech Eretz 8:19 גדול השלום, שאפילו ישראל עובדין עבודה זרה, וביניהן שלום כביכול אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא: איני יכול לנגוע בהם. שנאמר: "חבור עצבים אפרים הנח לו" )הושע ד(: אבל משנחלקו מה נאמר בהם? "חלק לבם עתה יאשמו" )הושע י( כאי-צד? בית שיש בו מחלוקת סופו ליחרב. וחכמים אומרים: מחלוקת בבית זמה, עיר שיש בה מחלוקת סופה להיחרב. וחכמים אומרים: מחלוקת בעיר שפיכות דמיםף בית הכנסת שיש בה מחלוקת סופה להתפזר: שני תלמיד חכמים בעיר אחת והן שני בית דינין וביניהן מחלוקת - סופן למות.

6 II. Sources on מחלוקת Between Shammai and Hillel 51. Mishnah Shabbat 1:4 ואלו מן ההלכות שאמרו בעלית חנניה בן חזקיה בן גוריון כשעלו לבקרו. נמנו ורבו בית שמאי על בית הלל. ושמונה עשר דברים גזרו בו ביום: And these are of the Halachot which they stated in the Upper Chamber of Hananiah B. Hezekiah B. Garon, when they went up to visit him. They took a count, and Beit Shammai outnumbered Beit Hillel; and on that day they enacted eighteen measures. 16. Tosefta Shabbat, 1:16 אלו מן ההלכות שאמרו בעליית חנניה בן חזקיהו בן )גרון( כשעלו לבקרו. נמנו ורבו בית שמאי על בית הלל ושמונה עשר דבר גזרו בו ביום. והיה אותו היום קשה להם לישראל כיום שנעשה בו העגל. רבי אליעזר אומר: בו ביום גדשו סאה ר' יהושע אומר: בו ביום מחקו סאה. )שכל זמן שהמדה מלאה אדם נותן לתוכה לסוף מוציאה מה שבתוכה(. בו ביום אמרו כל המטלטלין מביאין את הטומאה בעובי המרדע ונמנו ורבו בית שמאי על בית הלל. בו ביום אמרו השוכח כלים תחת הצינור בע"ש עם חשיכה ונמנו ורבו בית שמאי על בית הלל. And these are of the Halachot which they stated in the Upper Chamber of Hananiah B. Hezekiah B. Garon, when they went up to visit him. They took a count, and Beit Shammai outnumbered Beit Hillel; and on that day they enacted eighteen measures. And that day was as harsh for Israel as the day on which the golden calf was made. R. Eliezer says, On that day overfilled the se'ah measure. R. Joshua says, On that day they smashed the se'ah measure. (For so long as the measure is full and one puts more into it, in the end it will give up part of what [already] is in it). On that day they ruled; Whatever is carried brings uncleanness [through overshadowing] if it is as thick as an ox-man's goad. They voted, and the house of Shammai outnumber the house of Hillel. On that day they ruled: He who forget[-fully leaves] utensils on the eve of Sabbath at dusk under the waterspout They voted, and the house of Shammai outnumbered the house of Hillel.

7 17. Talmud Yerushalmi, Shabbat 1:4 ואלו הן ההלכות שאמרו בעליית חנניה בן חזקיה בן גרון שעלו לבקרו ונמנו ורבו ב"ש על ב"ה ושמנה עשר דברים גזרו בו ביום: אותו היום היה קשה לישראל כיום שנעשה בו העגל. רבי אליעזר אומר בו ביום גדשו את הסאה. רבי יהושע אומר בו ביום מחקו אותה. אמר לו ר' ליעזר אילו היתה חסירה ומילאוה יאות. לחבית שהיא מליאה אגוזין כל מה שאתה נותן לתוכה שומשמין היא מחזקת. אמר לו רבי יהושע אילו היתה מליאה וחיסרוה יאות. לחבית שהיתה מליאה שמן כל מה שאתה נותן לתוכה מים היא מפזרת את השמן. תנא ר' יהושע אונייא תלמידי ב"ש עמדו להן מלמטה והיו הורגין בתלמידי ב"ה. תני ששה מהן עלו והשאר עמדו עליהן בחרבות וברמחים. תני שמונה עשרה דבר גזרו ובשמונה עשרה רבו. ובשמונה עשרה נחלקו. ואילו הן שגזרו על פיתן של עכו"ם ועל גבינתן ועל שמנן ועל בנותיהן. "אהלי איכה גילו קדשים".18 From the Piyut קינה לתשעה באב, לרבי אלעזר בירבי קליר, על אסונות שארעו בחודשי השנה "ומקים יריעותי" שכבו בקוץ ודרדר / כגזרו שמונה עשר זקני הדר תקרא ומעזיבה ערערו מחדר / כי לולינוס ופופוס נהרגו באדר "אאדר ללובש הוד והדר".19 From the Piyut קידוש ירחים לחודש אדר, לרבי פנחס הכהן פורים עושים ומגלה קורים בו / צום הלל ושמאי בשלושה בו אדר קראתי צום לגזירת הר נבו / רועה שנאסף בשבעה בו 20. List of the Fasts from the Geniza באדר צמו בז, בו בגלל מות רבנו משה עליו השלום, וגם כן בו צומות הפורים והם שלשה ימים, וגם כן בג' בו צמו בגלל מה שקרה בין בית שמאי ובית הלל. )מתורגם מערבית, אליצור, עמוד 53( 12."מגילת תענית בתרא" בשבעה באדר מת משה רבנו. בתשעה בו גזרו תענית על שנחלקו בית שמאי ובית הלל זה על זה ונהרגו שלשת אלפים מתלמידיהם.

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