Romans 9:1-29 (Study 15)

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1 Romans 9:1-29 (Study 15) Opener: What should our response be to the truths of chapter 8? Applying our Tools: Getting the immediate context What came before? Are there any O.T. Allusions? If God sacrificed Jesus, surely he will give us everything and Jesus died for us, so surely he (the judge) will not condemn us because we share both his triumph and God s love for him. (16) Ex. 33:19 [This is how God reveals his glory] (25) Hos. 2:23 [N. Israel after Assyrian exile], [Israel is disloyal, yet the Lord loves his covenant people & longs to take them back the 1st of 3 cycles of judgement and repentance]. (26) Hos. 1:10 [The Lord has mercy on Judah, but will show Israel no mercy] (27) Isa 10:22-23 [Only a remnant will return to Jerusalem] (29) Isa 1:9 [The Lord will fulfill his promises even though NO-ONE is faithful, not one!] [See Gen 18:32 Abraham asks for Sodom to be saved] Applying our Tools: Exegesis - Breaking up the Passage (What does the text say)? Repeated words? Repeated phrases? Linking Words? Contrasts? Tense? Content / Subject changes? STRUCTURE Family language (sons, brothers, offspring, father), their, their, them (Israel), election & call, {power/wrath/mercy}, To show his wrath & make his power known the objects of his wrath (v22) To make the riches of his glory known to the objects of his mercy (23) Questions and answers SEE STRUCTURE BELOW No contrasts Not helpful Ref: Subject: 1-5 Statement 6-8 Assumption that God s word has failed (promises) answered Assumption that God is unjust answered Q: How can God blame us if he is sovereign? A: Everyone deserves God s judgement!!! Applying our Tools: Exegesis What are your breaks? 1-5 Paul truly wishes Israel were saved, theirs are the promises of relationship with God 6-13 God is faithful, choosing his children by election God is just, choosing who to save & condemn God is the sovereign creator who brings glory to his name though mercy in judgement Many will become God s children, but a mere remnant of Israel will be saved from God s judgement

2 Applying our Tools: Exegesis What is your big idea? 9:1-29 God remains faithful to his promises & just in choosing a remnant of Israel to be saved from judgement Applying our Tools: Exegesis What does the text mean? 1-5 What does Paul wish for? Salvation of Israel Why is he in anguish? Because they have all the promises / relationship / history (See worksheet) MEANING: how do we feel about this paragraph, bear in mind Paul is speaking to Jews & Gentiles Paul truly wishes Israel were saved, theirs are the promises of relationship with God 6-13 What unasked question is Paul answering Has God s word failed? How does Paul answer that question? Using election See the diagram on the worksheet MEANING: What is v.8 talking about? Election of the gentiles God is faithful, choosing his children by election What s Paul s question? Is God unjust How does he answer it? What attribute of God is being addressed? What is Paul s conclusion? God has mercy on the undeserving His sovereignty [See worksheet] That God in his sovereignty chooses who to save / condemn How do you feel about God condemning people? Think about Pharaoh who killed all the Israelite children God is just, choosing who to save & condemn What s the question in V19? How can we be blamed if God s in control How does Paul answer this question? How does the idea of point 2 link with the last passage? 1 Who are we even to ask (see final chapters of Job) 2- He uses his wrath to display his glory (see Exodus) It s all about his glory!!! God is the sovereign creator who brings glory to his name though mercy in judgement

3 25-29 Where in Hosea does this passage sit? Written to Northern Israel in exile in Assyria. Assyria have been disloyal to the Lord but he loves them an longs to bring them back (the 1 st of 3 cycles of judgement followed by repentance). What is he saying? What does Isaiah say about Israel (v27) (v28) (v29) That Israel are unfaithful. A remnant would be saved Israel will be judged They deserve destruction (like Sodom & Germorrah not one righteous could save the city) God is the sovereign creator who brings glory to his name though mercy in judgement Applying our Tools: Hermeneutics How do we apply this to ourselves BIG IDEA: HEAD: HEART: HANDS: God remains faithful to his promises & just in choosing a remnant of Israel to be saved from judgement. Will God remain faithful to me, even as I sin? How do you feel about the idea of election? If God has already chosen his elect, should we not bother to share the gospel?

4 Study 15 (Participants Worksheet) 1-5 PROMISES RELATIONSHIP 6-13 Abraham Ishmael Isaac Ishmael is the father of the Muslim nation (Gen 21:18). Esau sells his birthright (Gen. 25:33). Ten of the tribes form the Northern Kingdom. Judah & Benjamin make up the Southern Kingdom that continue to worship in Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-24). Esau Jacob Others Judah Jesus Is God unjust? Who? Why (Romans)? Why (O.T.)? E.g. 1 1) 2) (Gen. 33:19) E.g. 2 1) 2) (Ex. 14:4) Q: Does Moses deserve mercy (remember Rom 1)? Q: Does Pharaoh deserve mercy (remember Rom 1)?

5 Study 15 (Leaders Answer Sheet) 1-5 PROMISES RELATIONSHIP Glory Patriarchs Covenant Line of Christ Law Adoption as sons Promises Temple 6-13 Abraham Ishmael Isaac Ishmael is the father of the Muslim nation (Gen 21:18). Esau sells his birthright (Gen. 25:33). Ten of the tribes form the Northern Kingdom. Judah & Benjamin make up the Southern Kingdom that continue to worship in Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-24). Esau Jacob Others Judah Jesus Is God unjust? Who? Why (Romans)? Why (O.T.)? E.g. 1 Moses / Israel For some I have mercy For some I have compassion E.g. 2 Pharaoh Some I harden That my name might be proclaimed And I will proclaim my name the LORD (Gen. 33:19) And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and he will pursue them. But I will gain glory for myself through Pharaoh and all his army and the Egyptians will know that I am the LORD (YHWH) (Ex. 14:4) Q: Does Moses deserve mercy (remember Rom 1)? Q: Does Pharaoh deserve mercy (remember Rom 1)?

6 Romans 9:30-10:21 (St. 16) Opener: Is it fair that the most devout Muslim who prays 8 times per day should be condemned? Applying our Tools: Getting the immediate context What came before? Any O.T. Allusions? must not question God s plan for Israel to be justly judged because He sovereignly determines mercy & condemnation for the Glory of his elect and His name. He remains faithful because He chooses his children, for in this way, Gentiles will become Sons of God as will a remnant of Israel. See the handout Applying our Tools: Exegesis - Breaking up the Passage (What does the text say)? Repeated words? Repeated phrases? Linking Words? (Narrative or Argument)? Contrasts? Tense? Pursue, righteousness, stumble & stone, trust/heart, law, mouth & confess, v.33 and the one who trusts in him will never be put to shame v. 11 Anyone who trusts in him will never be put to shame v. 13 Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved v.30 Question: Is it unfair that the Gentiles get saved & Israel not? v. 32 Answer: No, because it was not by faith! v Paul s prayer for Israel A series of Questions and answers. (v1-10) Righteousness by the law (zeal) Vs Righteousness of the heart (faith) (v8-11) The mouth & the heart Not helpful Content / Subject changes? Ref: Subject: Q: Why are Gentiles saved & Israel not? Because the pursued it by works not by faith 1-7 Paul s prayer for Israel (heart not law) 8-13 Faith is hearing, believing and proclaiming Preachers must be sent But Israel didn t accept the Good news But Israel were obstinate! Applying our Tools: Exegesis What are your breaks? Faith comes through faith in God s promises, not works! 1-4 Faith through Jesus is for everyone 5-11 Righteousness by faith is not about doing, but believing and proclaiming our salvation Everyone who trusts in God will be saved Israel have heard through prophets, creation & scripture! Whatever God does Israel remains disobedient

7 Applying our Tools: Exegesis What is your big idea? 9:30-10:21 Salvation comes though believing in Jesus and trusting God s promises. Though they ve heard this, Israel rejects it! Applying our Tools: Exegesis What does the text mean? What did we learn about the Gentiles last week - What did we learn of Israel? - What is Paul really asking here? - What do we learn about the Gentiles this week? - And Israel? - How does Paul answer his question? How do the OT quotes help us? See the worksheets Become children of God Remnant become sons of God Is it fair? Have righteousness, but didn t pursue it Pursued law based righteousness / not obtained! They stumbled because God caused them to! They are all about trusting God Faith comes through faith in God s promises, not works! 1-4 What 3 things do we learn about Israel? 1) They are zealous for God. 2) Their zeal is not based on knowledge. 3) They sought to establish their own righteousness. In previous studies what did we learn about the law? And about Abraham? What has Christ achieved? The law merely points at and highlights sin (Rom 7:7). Abraham was saved by his faith (Rom 3:3) He ends the law, so that Israel can stop stumbling over it! Faith through Jesus is for everyone 5-11 How likely is it that man can live according to the law? What is righteousness by faith not? (v6) In your own words! What is righteousness by faith (v8) In your own words! Highly unlikely! It s not about going up or down to find Jesus. It is not about us having to do things It s about believing (heart) and proclaiming (mouth) Belief in Jesus brings righteousness (like Abraham (v10)). Confessing Jesus as Lord (the outworking (v10)) shows your salvation. Righteousness by faith is not about doing, but believing and proclaiming our salvation Who is salvation by faith available to? Everyone! So how does this conclusion (and the ideas in between) answer the initial question in 9:30? Salvation through trusting God is the same for all Everyone who trusts in God will be saved Place these in order (verse 10): Confession (3), Belief (1), Justification (2), Salvation (4)

8 14-18 What is the process that leads to belief? Sent, preach, hear, believe What is Israel s problem? - Which Isaiah passage is referred to? - Who is that about? - Which Psalm is referred to? - How is the question of their hearing answered? They have heard but didn t believe! - Isaiah 53:1 - The suffering servant (Jesus)! - Psalm 19:1-8 v1-6 God s glory revealed in creation (sky) v7-14 God s glory revealed in scripture Israel have heard through prophets, creation & scripture! How does scripture answer this last Q? 1) Deut 32:21 (envious & angry) 2) Isa 65:1 (found by those who did not seek me ) 3) Isa 65:2 (disobedient people) 1) God judged them for clinging to their idols 2) God will bless his servants, but those who reject him, he will judge! 3) For they are hypocrites & rebellious! What do we learn about the Gentiles in verse 19? So why are the Gentiles saved? They have no understanding either! To make Israel jealous!!! Whatever God does Israel remains disobedient! Applying our Tools: Hermeneutics How do we apply this to ourselves BIG IDEA: HEAD: HEART: HANDS: Salvation comes though believing in Jesus and trusting God s promises. Though they ve heard this, Israel rejects it! Are we responsible for our salvation in any way at all? [Israel are judged for their rejection!] How do you feel about being used to make Israel jealous? What does it mean to confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord? [ 1) we should not be ashamed to share the gospel, and 2) Jesus is not just the saviour, but also our Lord which demands our obedience. ]

9 STUDY 16 Particpant s Worksheet v.32) Isaiah 28:16 They stumbled over the stumbling stone 16 So this is what the Sovereign LORD says: "See, I lay a stone in Zion, a tested stone, a precious cornerstone for a sure foundation; the one who trusts will never be dismayed. Stone = Jesus, trust in him for a sure foundation In Context - Isaiah Chapter 28 5 God comes for his remnant 7 The priests are worthless 10 The rules are foreign but 11 God himself will speak & give rest 16 He himself will lay a solid rock (just & righteous) in which they can put their trust & live! Listen! does a farmer continuously plant & thresh no, he rests when the work is done! Summary Trust God to do the work and so live! v.33) Isaiah 8:13-18 See I lay in Zion a stone that causes men to stumble, a rock that makes them fall 13 The LORD Almighty is the one you are to regard as holy, he is the one you are to fear, he is the one you are to dread, 14 and he will be a sanctuary; but for both houses of Israel he will be a stone that causes men to stumble and a rock that makes them fall. And for the people of Jerusalem he will be a trap and a snare. 15 Many of them will stumble; they will fall and be broken, they will be snared and captured." 16 Bind up the testimony and seal up the law among my disciples. 17 I will wait for the LORD, who is hiding his face from the house of Jacob. I will put my trust in him. 18 Here am I, and the children the LORD has given me. We are signs and symbols in Israel from the LORD Almighty, who dwells on Mount Zion. Stone = The Lord almighty, those who don t fear the Lord, will stumble In Context - Isaiah Chapter God s judgement on Israel (Assyrian exile) Trust God at this time, many will fall away Wait on the Lord & trust him, not others Summary Israel are to wait upon the Lord & trust him even in times of despair! See Chapter 9 For to us a child is born. v.33) Isaiah 49:23 and the one who trusts in him will never be put to shame Kings and queens will serve you and care for all your needs. They will bow to the earth before you and lick the dust from your feet. Then you will know that I am the LORD. Those who trust in me will never be put to shame. In Context - Isaiah Chapter God s servant king 8-26 God the redeemer, God the saviour. Summary God promises Israel salvation & redemption

10 v.6-7) Deuteronomy 30:11-13 (Up and Down) 11 Now what I am commanding you today is not too difficult for you or beyond your reach. 12 It is not up in heaven, so that you have to ask, "Who will ascend into heaven to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?" 13 Nor is it beyond the sea, so that you have to ask, "Who will cross the sea to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?" What I am commanding you is not far away! Verse Righteousness by Moses says is achieved by: Realistic result 10:5 Law Impossible! Verse Righteousness by Does not say (see OT quote 3): 10:6-7 Faith Verse Righteousness by Does say: Realistic result 10:8-9 Faith v8) v9) Place these in order : Confession, Belief, Justification, Salvation. Salvation v.18) Psalm God s glory revealed in creation (sky) 7-14 God s glory revealed in scripture v19) Deuteronomy 32:-21 (To make jealous) They made me jealous by what is no god and angered me with their worthless idols. I will make them envious by those who are not a people; I will make them angry by a nation that has no understanding. v21) Isaiah 65:2 (Disobedience) i was ready to respond, but no one asked for help. I was ready to be found, but no one was looking for me. I said, Here I am, here I am! to a nation that did not call on my name. 2 All day long I opened my arms to a rebellious people. But they follow their own evil paths and their own crooked schemes. 3 All day long they insult me to my face by worshiping idols in their sacred gardens. They burn incense on pagan altars. 4 At night they go out among the graves, worshiping the dead. They eat the flesh of pigs and make stews with other forbidden foods. 5 Yet they say to each other, Don t come too close or you will defile me. I am holier than you! These people are a stench in my nostrils, an acrid smell that never goes away.

11 Romans 11:1-36 (St. 17) Opener: When you see what s happening in the world do you wonder what God was thinking? Applying our Tools: Getting the immediate context What came before? Are there any O.T. Allusions? Salvation comes though believing in Jesus and trusting God s promises. Though they ve heard this, Israel rejects it! See attached sheet Applying our Tools: Exegesis - Breaking up the Passage (What does the text say)? Repeated words? Repeated phrases? Linking Words? (Narrative or Argument)? Contrasts? Tense? Reject, Israel, grace, transgression, elect, Gentiles, root & branch, olives, cut off & grafted in, disobedience, mercy No Argument STRUCTURE: 11:1 I ask then did God reject his people? 11:7 What then? What Israel sought so earnestly it did not obtain... 11:11 Again I ask, Did they stumble so as to fall beyond recovery? Israel & the Gentiles Not applicable Content / Subject changes? Ref: Subject: 1-6 A remnant saved by Gods grace 7-10 God has made his sovereign choice! Is Israel lost forever? First dealing with the Gentiles What should be the Gentile s response to this? God s wisdom and glory Applying our Tools: Exegesis What are your breaks? 1-6 God has saved himself a faithful remnant by grace 7-10 God has judged and hardened Israel s hearts for a time God uses Israel s rejection to save the Gentiles leading to Israel s own salvation! Gentiles should not boast before Jews, they are saved only by God s grace! Israel are being excluded until Gentile salvation is complete and grace given to all who believe God will save elect Jew and Gentile Praise God for his inscrutable wisdom

12 Applying our Tools: Exegesis What is your big idea? 1-36 Praise God s wisdom and grace which saves elect Jew & Gentile, though for now he has hardened Israel until many Gentiles are saved making the Jews jealous for his salvation. Applying our Tools: Exegesis What does the text mean? 1-6 How is this section structured? Question, Answer Reason How does this lead on from last week? What s the answer? What s the reason? How do the OT passages help our understanding? Continues with the question did Israel who pursued the law of righteousness not attain it? [9:30] God didn t reject his people (v2) God had already decided who would be saved (v3-6) God has reserved some who were not as bad as the rest of Israel Elijah is completely hopeless He says he is the only faithful one left in Israel and that God should finish him off!!! Elijah sees no future for Israel (1 Kings 19:4) God responds by saying No Elijah I have saved 7,000 faithful men. (1 Kings 19:18). NOTE: although they didn t bow the knee to Baal, they didn t stand up to Ahab/Jezebel hence still needing grace... God has saved himself a faithful remnant by grace 7-10 How is this section structured? Question, Answer, Reason What s the question behind this question? How do the OT passages help us? Well what is going on then? Deut. 29:2-6 The first generation of Israel were judged, and prevented from entering the promised land the 2 nd generation were to learn from their forebears Isa. 29:10-24 Israel is being judged for appearing godly & wise in their own eyes whilst behaving ungodly/foolishly but that those who approach him humbly will be accepted. Psalm 69 This is a Psalm of David when he was being hunted by Saul and therefore Israel (v8). He asks for judgement against them (v22-28) and yet he knows that the faithful will be saved (v35-36). God has judged and hardened Israel s hearts for a time How is this section structured? Question, Answer, Reason What s the question behind this question? Well what is going on then? See the worksheet What s the flow of the argument? God uses Israel s rejection to save the Gentiles leading to Israel s own salvation!

13 16-21 What s the principle stated in V16? 1) Before you can make your loaf, you need to make a sourdough starter. This is a culture of flour & water for growing wild yeast. Having a "ripe," or fully developed, starter ensures a good rise and good flavour development in your sourdough bread. 2) If the first-fruits of the harvest are sound then the harvest will be sound (first-fruits = a farmers test sample) Principle if the root is sound, the branches will also be sound (Jewish roots / Gentile branches). (17-21) What is the parable saying? Gentiles have been grafted into Israel s family, but only because of Israel s unbelief. What are the Gentiles warned against? Warned not to boast (in salvation above the Jews), because without the Jews, Gentiles would have no chance! Warned that grafting in is down to faith nothing else! Gentiles should not boast before Jews, they are saved only by God s grace! What do we learn about God? He hardens and he shows grace What is happening to Israel When will Israel come back in (v23, 25) The are being hardened until the full number of the Gentiles comes in. (v23) They must have faith! (v25) When the Gentiles have been included Israel are being excluded until Gentile salvation is complete and grace given to all who believe What do we learn about Israel (v26-29)? What do we learn about Gentiles (v30)? What is happening to Israel now (v31)? How do we know that All Israel is not ALL Israel? So who IS All Israel? What will happen to elect jews - All saved, elect & loved - receive mercy as a result of disobedience - experiencing disobedience so they can receive mercy! - Rom 2:11 (no favoritism) - Rom 2:29 (circumcision of the heart) - Rom 3:21-24, 26, 28 (but now ) - Rom 8:1-4 (Law nullified by Christ) - Rom 8:17 (Believers become Israel) - Rom 9:8 (Children of Promise are Abe s children) - Rom 9:27 (Remnant) - Rom 10:12 (For there is no difference, Jew & Gentile) - Rom 10:14 & Rom 10:21 (Jews & Gentiles need Jesus) Rom 8:17 [the elect Jew & Gentile] They will receive mercy in time God will save elect Jew and Gentile What do we learn about God? Wise, unknowable, planner, creator, everything comes from him What should be our response to this? How does the OT help? Humility, Fear and praise We are but dust!!! Also Job in its full context, Job is humbled to the point of silence before the mighty, wise and inscrutable creator God. Praise God for his inscrutable wisdom

14 Applying our Tools: Hermeneutics How do we apply this to ourselves BIG IDEA: HEAD: HEART: HANDS: Praise God s wisdom and grace which saves elect Jew & Gentile, though for now he has hardened Israel until many Gentiles are saved making the Jews jealous for his salvation. Some people believe that all Jews are already saved (because of the OT promises), how would you respond to them? How do you feel about God not saving everybody? In your quiet time read Job 38:1-42:6. 1) How does Job respond to God s revelation of himself? 2) Is this the same God that you worship?

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