Credit Recovery. Core: Standard, Objective: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5. Reading

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Credit Recovery. Core: Standard, Objective: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5. Reading"

Transcription

1 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Credit Recovery Core: Standard, Objective: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 Suggested Textbook: Glencoe World History, 2008 Reading Read all appropriate chapters, maps, graphs and charts, related to the topics of Early Civilizations of the World (Chapters 1-5) and complete the following exercises. Exercises #1-5 Study Guide #1 Exercises #6-10 Study Guide #2 Exercises #11-15 Study Guide #3 Exercises #16-33 Checklist of Assignments to Submit to Instructor Assignment and Grading Requirements All assignments and study guides must be 100% complete and accurate in order to be prepared to pass the final assessment. 1

2 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #1: Questioning LEARNING THE SKILL Asking yourself questions as you read helps you remember and understand the material. Most writers try to anticipate the questions a reader might ask and include material that would answer them. There is an easy way to question as you read. First, turn the chapter and section headings into questions. Then look for the answers to your questions in the paragraphs that follow. Another method is to form questions about the author's intentions. For example, you might ask yourself, "What matters to this author?" or, "What is this author trying to get me to conclude?" This technique will help you read critically and form judgments about your reading. PRACTICING THE SKILL DIRECTIONS: Read the following sentences and answer the questions below. Groups of Paleolithic people, especially those who lived in cold climates, found shelter in caves. Over a period of time, they created new types of shelter as well. 1. Why is the author telling you this? 2. Does the author state it clearly and understandably? 3. How could the author have said it more clearly? 2

3 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module 4. What would you say instead? 5. What new question(s) does this raise in your mind? The Neolithic Revolution and the Rise of Civilization Instructions: Systematic agriculture brought huge economic, political, and social changes for early humans. As you read, create a chart like the one below to help you study The Neolithic Revolution (You can find additional information in your textbook on this topic) Making Inferences Why did people in different areas start growing different crops? At the end of the last Ice Age, a major change took place. People began to plant and grow food on a regular basis what is called systematic agriculture. They also began to tame and keep animals as a source of meat, milk, and wool. This is called domestication. These changes together are known as the Neolithic Revolution, because it took place during the Neolithic Age, 8000 to 4000 B.C. Some historians believe that this revolution was the single most important development in human history, giving humans greater control 3

4 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module over their environment. Systematic agriculture developed in different parts of the world differently. People in Southwest Asia began to grow wheat and barley, while in Africa, people grew root crops such as yams. In Southeast Asia and southern China, rice was grown, while Mesoamericans grew beans, squash, and corn. People no longer had to move and could live in settlements. Some surplus food was grown, freeing some people to become artisans, making items such as weapons and jewelry. Differences in gender roles also solidified, as men became more active in farming, while women performed domestic tasks. Further, between 4000 and 3000 B.C., people began to use metals, first copper and then bronze. The period from around 3000 to 1200 B.C. is called the Bronze Age. After around 1000 B.C. iron began to be used, and the Iron Age began. Civilization Emerges (You can read additional information in your textbook) Determining Cause and Effect Why did governments develop? The culture of a people is the way of life that they follow. Neolithic settlements developed from villages with simple cultures to large civilizations. A civilization is a complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of common elements. Historians have identified the basic characteristics of civilizations. Six of these characteristics are cities, government, religion, social structure, writing, and art. Systematic agriculture enabled the feeding of large numbers of people so that they could live in cities. Growing numbers of people, the need to maintain the food supply, and the need for defense led to the growth of governments. All of the new civilizations developed religions to explain their world. Priests performed rituals to please gods and goddesses. Rulers, also known as monarchs, claimed that the gods granted them the power to rule. Some rulers even claimed to be gods. New social structures developed in the new civilizations. Rulers and an upper class of priests, government officials, and warriors were at the top. Below this upper class was a large group of free people farmers, artisans, and craftspeople. At the bottom was a slave class. Writing was important in these new civilizations. Rulers, priests, and merchants used writing to keep accurate records. Writing also became a means of creative expression, and the first works of literature were written. People also created art 4

5 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module and built buildings, such as temples and pyramids. Constructive Response: Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire section. 1. How are civilizations different from simpler cultures? 2. On what kind of power were the new social structures based? Expository Writing Use the six characteristics of civilization to describe the place where you live. Give concrete examples of each. For example, mention the type of art that people in your area enjoy and regularly see. 5

6 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #2: Directions: Find the following academic vocabulary words in the glossary and read the meaning, then locate and read the word in context within the appropriate chapter. Complete each of the learning activities below. A. Word Meaning Activity Using Words in Context prehistory theory survive revolution archaeology role anthropology artifact hominid civilization monarch domestication DIRECTIONS: Complete these sentences using the words from the box. You may need to add -s to the end of the word. 1. According to scientific hypothesis, the earliest lived in Africa four million years ago. 2. Gradually, more complex cultures developed into a new form of human society called. 6

7 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module 3. Archaeologists dig up and examine made by early humans. 4. No written records exist for the of humankind. 5. The study of human life and culture is called. 6. Dating and artifacts provides scientists with an understanding of early humans. 7. In the first civilizations, governments were usually led by. 8. are scientists who study past societies through an analysis of what people left behind. B. Word Use Activity Word Web DIRECTIONS: Use the following words in a word web to show how they are connected: prehistory, culture, archaeology, artifact, anthropology, hominid, and civilization. The word prehistory links all of these words together. Write prehistory in the center oval, and write the other related words in the surrounding ovals. For each of the related words, write a sentence that clearly shows the word's relationship to the central word, prehistory. You can write sentences inside the ovals, or if you need more space, use a separate sheet of paper. 7

8 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #3: DIRECTIONS: Before completing the exercise below, find each concept on the timeline in your textbook and read about it for greater understanding. Then write each event in the box next to the concept to which it relates. Then give a reason why the event is related to the concept. Events may be related to more than one concept. Developments in Early Human Civilization Concept Event Reason Technology Domestication Civilization 8

9 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #4: Read and analyze the chart below: Profound changes resulted from the shift from hunting and gathering to farming. Several of these changes and their social consequences are given in the table below. Consequences of Shift to Agriculture Change People lived in one place and no longer had to carry all their possessions. Farmers could grow more food than they needed to feed their families. Land and water became valuable economic resources. Male warriors competed for land, water, and power. Social Consequence People who could afford material goods began to accumulate them. Farmers could barter surplus food for textiles, tools, and pottery made by artisans. Leaders with armies arose to conquer large land areas. Rulers forced people who had no power to do hard jobs such as producing food and constructing irrigation systems. Women lost the power they had shared in hunter-gatherer societies to male warriors who could protect them and their children. DIRECTIONS: Assume that you were a witness to one of the changes shown above, and you experienced its social consequences. Write a journal entry describing your role in the society and your reaction to the change. 9

10 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #5: Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia DIRECTIONS: After reading the material about Mesopotamia in your textbook, answer the following questions. 1. Why was the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers able to sustain an early civilization? 2. What were the Sumerians the first to do? 3. Describe the dimensions of the Sumerian city of Uruk. 4. In what ways were the people of Mesopotamia creative with mud bricks? 5. In what three ways did the temples serve as the center of a Sumerian city? 6. What did the Sumerians believe about who it was that ruled their cities? 10

11 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module 7. Around 3000 B.C., what was invented that greatly affected the transport of goods in Samaria? 8. What is an empire? 9. Who set up the first empire in world history, and how did he do it? 10. What principle was a fundamental part of the Code of Hammurabi? 11. According to Sumerian beliefs, why did the gods create human beings? 12. What do many people consider to be the greatest invention of the Sumerians? 13. Why was writing so important in ancient civilizations? 11

12 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Study Guide #1 Multiple Choice: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The type of hominid scientists believe was the common ancestor for several types of early humans is a. Australopithecus. c. Homo erectus. b. Homo sapiens. d. Neanderthals. 2.Paleolithic peoples moved from place to place following animal migrations and vegetation cycles. People who follow this pattern of living are called a. artifacts. c. nomads. b. hominids. d. prehistoric. 3.Which of the following is the study of past societies through an analysis of what people have left behind? a. history c. fossil analysis b. radiocarbon dating d. archaeology 4.Early hominids that migrated from the tropics into colder regions began to use a. weapons. c. horses. b. fire. d. tools. 5.Which of the following is the most complete definition of a civilization? a. any culture that uses written records and practices art and religion b. the gathering of humans in farms, settlements, and villages c. a social structure based on economic power d. a complex culture in which a large number of humans share common elements 6.The revolutionary change of the Neolithic Revolution was the shift a. from gathering food to growing and raising food. b. from having no control over fire to using fire as a tool. c. from using stone tools to manufacturing bronze. d. from living in villages to living in walled fortresses. 7.The term for a large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, controlling many peoples or territories is a. a system of justice. c. Gilgamesh. b. an empire. d. a stylus. 8.The Mesopotamian religion, which identified nearly 3,000 gods and goddesses, can be described as a. cuneiform. c. patriarchal. b. polytheistic. d. theocracy. 9.Around 2340 B.C., the Sumerian city-states were conquered by the Akkadians under their leader a. Sargon. c. Gilgamesh. b. Hammurabi. d. Anu. 10.Which of the following is the title of a famous Mesopotamian poem? a. The Scribe c. The Epic of Gilgamesh b. The Code of Hammurabi d. Ziggurat 12

13 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #6: How did geography influence the growth of civilization? Fertile soil between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers allowed an early civilization to flourish in Mesopotamia. As you read, create a chart like the one below to help you study. Political Life Cultural Life Inventions Determining Cause and Effect What caused the Mesopotamians to believe that supernatural forces controlled their world? The valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers is called Mesopotamia, the land "between the rivers." Mesopotamia was at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent. The Fertile Crescent is an area from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Early civilizations began in this area, because it had land with rich soil and therefore abundant crops. The soil in Mesopotamia was rich because of the two rivers. Each spring, the rivers overflowed their banks. The floods left layers of silt, the material deposited by the rivers. The people of Mesopotamia learned how to control the flow of the rivers with irrigation and drainage ditches. Therefore, they could grow crops on a regular basis. This allowed people to live together in cities. The climate, however, was harsh and there were frequent famines. This convinced the people that supernatural forces controlled their world. The Mesopotamians believed that gods and goddesses influenced all aspects of the universe, so their religion was polytheistic they believed in many gods. Humans were supposed to obey and serve the gods. By nature, humans were inferior to the gods, and humans could never be sure what the gods might do to or for them. City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia Drawing Conclusions Why were the temples the most important buildings in the Sumerian city- By 3000 B.C. the Sumerians had started several cities in southern Mesopotamia. These city-states were the basic units of Sumerian civilization, and controlled the countryside around them. The most important building was the temple, dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city. This temple was often built on top of a massive stepped tower called a 13

14 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module states? ziggurat. The Sumerians believed that the gods ruled the cities. This made their city-states theocracies: governments by divine authority. The Sumerian economy was based mostly on farming, but the people also made woolen textiles and pottery, and were well-known for using copper, gold, and silver in metalworking. The Creativity of the Sumerians Making Generalizations Use one word to describe the Sumerian people. Around 3000 B.C. the Sumerians invented a system of writing called cuneiform ("wedge-shaped"). They made wedgeshaped marks on clay tablets, which were then baked in the sun. By 2500 B.C. writing was taught in schools with harsh discipline. Boys from wealthy families began their careers as scribes and went on to become leaders of cities, temples, and armies. The Sumerians invented tools and devices that made daily life more productive. They invented sundials and the arch, and were the first to make bronze. They used geometry to measure fields and charted the movement of star constellations. Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia Comparing and Contrasting How were the Akkadian and Babylonian Empires alike and different? The first empire in world history was set up by Sargon, the leader of the Akkadians. They conquered the Sumerian citystates around 2340 B.C. Under attack, the Akkadian empire ended about 2100 B.C., and the system of warring city-states returned. In 1792 B.C. the Babylonian empire began to control much of Mesopotamia, under the leadership of Hammurabi. One of Hammurabi's achievements was a collection of laws. The collection was called the Code of Hammurabi. Penalties for all offenses were severe, and varied according to the social class of the victim. The code made public officials accountable for their decisions and included provisions for consumer protection. The largest category of laws focused on marriage and the family. Society was patriarchal. Men ruled their wives and children. Constructed Response 14

15 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire section. 1. Why was writing important to the Sumerians? 2. Where was Mesopotamia located? Descriptive Writing Using your imagination and information from the text, form a mental picture of life in a Sumerian city after it was conquered by Hammurabi. You can assume that physical details of life, such as what the buildings were made of and what the economy was like, did not change under Hammurabi. Write a description of a day in the life of a Sumerian citizen, including activities, observations, and emotions. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 15

16 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #7 Egyptian Civilization: "The Gift of the Nile" Continuity and stability were characteristics of Egyptian civilization for thousands of years. As you read, complete a chart like the one below to help you study. The Old Kingdom The Middle Kingdom The New Kingdom The Impact of Geography Synthesizing Information What were all the influences that helped the Egyptians feel stable The Nile, the longest river in the world, begins in Africa and empties into the Mediterranean Sea. It splits, forming a delta called Lower Egypt. This is where Egypt's most important cities developed. Upper Egypt, in the mountains, lies to the south of Lower Egypt. The Nile floods regularly, creating an area of rich soil on both sides of the river. Egyptians called the flooding the "miracle" of the Nile. Farmers were able to grow a surplus of food, making Egypt prosperous. The Nile also 16

17 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module and secure? made travel easy. Egyptians were isolated from invasions due to natural barriers: deserts, the Red Sea, cataracts, and the Mediterranean Sea. This safety, and the regularity of the Nile floods, made the Egyptians feel secure. Religion also made them feel secure. Egyptians were polytheistic. They had sun gods and land gods. The Egyptian ruler was called the Son of Re, because Re was one of the sun god's names. Two of the river and land gods were Osiris and Isis. When Osiris's evil brother Seth cut Osiris into pieces, Isis, with help from other gods, put him back together. Osiris became a symbol of resurrection, or rebirth. By identifying with Osiris, Egyptians hoped to gain new life after death. Egyptian Kingdoms Determining Cause and Effect Why did the Egyptians first fall to the Hyksos and then drive them out? Life in Ancient Egypt Egyptian history is divided into three major periods: the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom. Egypt's history began around 3100 B.C. King Menes brought Upper and Lower Egypt together into the first royal dynasty. A dynasty is a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family. During the Old Kingdom, the Egyptian kings came to be known as pharaohs. They had unlimited power, but they developed a bureaucracy, run by the vizier, to help them. During the Old Kingdom, the pyramids were built. They were tombs for dead pharaohs, whose bodies were preserved by mummification. The Old Kingdom eventually collapsed, and about 150 years of chaos followed. During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt conquered Nubia and sent armies to Syria and Palestine. Hyksos invasions ended the Middle Kingdom but once the Egyptians learned how to make bronze weapons and how to use chariots, they drove out the Hyksos. During the resulting New Kingdom, Egypt created an empire that was the most powerful state in Southwest Asia. It enjoyed massive wealth. In the 1200s B.C., there were new invasions by the "Sea Peoples," as the Egyptians called them. For the next thousand years, Egypt was dominated by a succession of conquerors. In the first century B.C., under the pharaoh Cleopatra VII, Egypt became a province of Rome. 17

18 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Analyzing Information How was Egyptian society like a pyramid? Egyptian society was organized like a pyramid. The pharaoh was at the top. Under him was a small upper class of nobles and priests. Below the upper class were merchants, artisans, scribes, and tax collectors. Most of the people in Egypt were in the lower classes. They were mainly peasants who farmed the land. They paid taxes from the crops they grew, and lived in small villages. They also served in the military and provided forced labor on building projects. Ancient Egyptians had a positive attitude toward daily life. Marriages were arranged by parents. Men were the masters in the houses, but women were well respected. Wives were in charge of the household and the education of children. They kept control of their property and inheritance even after they married. Some women operated businesses. Upper-class women could become priestesses, and four queens became pharaohs. Egyptian Accomplishments Identifying the Main Idea Did the Egyptians accomplish significant achievements in writing, education, art, science, and math? Explain. Writing in Egypt began around 3000 B.C. The Greeks called the earliest Egyptian writing hieroglyphics. It used both pictures and more abstract forms. It was complex and took a long time to learn. It was used for writing on temple walls and in tombs. A simpler version of hieroglyphics called hieratic script was used for business and in daily life. Egyptian scribes taught the art of writing in schools that boys attended from the age of 10. Pyramids, temples, and other monuments show the artistic ability of the Egyptians. Egyptians also made advances in mathematics and science. They used geometry and learned how to calculate area and volume. This helped them build the pyramids. They also developed a 365-day calendar and became experts in human anatomy. Constructed Response Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire section. 1. How did the Nile affect life in ancient Egypt? 18

19 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module 2. Which gods were most important to the Egyptians? Exercise #8 The Seasons of the Nile Ancient civilizations developed near rivers. When the rivers flooded, they deposited rich silt on the land, making it good farmland. The behavior of the Nile determined the seasons for farmers in ancient Egypt. There were really three seasons: inundation, receding waters, and drought. Inundation was the period during which the Nile flooded. Afterwards, the flood waters receded, withdrawing from the fields. Farmers plowed the land and planted their crops during this time. Drought was the dry period, when farmers harvested their crops. Knowing in advance how much the Nile would flood was an important role of government, and much of the kings' power came from their ability to accurately predict the extent of the floods. Good flooding meant abundant harvests; a low flood could mean famine. As Egyptian civilization progressed, it became possible to move farther upstream to measure the source of flooding and to get earlier information on the extent of the year's flood. Egyptian farmers devised a series of dams, levees, and canals to control the flooding river. They built levees around villages to keep water out. They constructed earthen dams in fields after the flood to keep water in long enough to enrich the soil. They dug canals and then punctured the dams to allow water to flow into fields as needed. As a final method of irrigation, they carried water by hand to distant fields not reached by the floods. The value of land how heavily it was taxed was determined by its proximity to the river. Lowland fields that flooded naturally were the most prized. Those farther inland that needed to be flooded through irrigation were taxed at a lower rate. 19

20 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided. 1. What is the main idea of the selection? 2. From what you have read about Egyptian civilization, how necessary was an abundant labor force to prepare the fields for planting? 3. Why do you think kings derived their power from their ability to predict the flood? 4. Why do you think land closer to the river was more valuable? 5. From what you have read about Egyptian religion, briefly describe the role that water in general and the Nile in particular, might have played in the religion of ancient Egypt. 20

21 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #9 DIRECTIONS: The ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt covered a period of 2,000 years. Use the time line below to complete the sentences or answer the questions that follow. 1. The Old Kingdom began in and ended in. 2. Sargon I assumed power in Akkad in. 3. During which kingdom did Ramses II come to power? 4. King Menes united Egypt in. 5. Sumerian cities emerged in southern Mesopotamia around. 6. How many years did the Middle Kingdom last? 7. How many years are there between the beginning of the Old Kingdom and the beginning of the New Kingdom? 21

22 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module 8. What happened between the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom? 9. How many years separate the rule of Menes from the rule of Ramses II? Exercise #10: Early Civilizations in Greece The earliest Greek civilizations that appeared in the second millenniums B.C. were influenced by their physical environment. As you read, create a diagram like the one below to help you study the Minoans and Mycenean civilizations. The Impact of Geography Identifying Cause and Effect How did the mountains and the sea influence Greek history? Compared with Mesopotamia and Egypt, Greece is small. It consists of a peninsula and many surrounding islands that total an area about the size of Louisiana. It is made up of small plains and river valleys surrounded by high mountains. About 80 percent of Greece is mountainous. The mountains influenced Greek history, because they isolated Greeks from each other. This caused different Greek communities to develop their own ways of life and become fiercely independent. The small size of these communities encouraged people to be involved in politics. But the rivalry between the communities led to warfare. The sea also influenced Greek history. The Aegean, Mediterranean, and Ionian Seas make up the eastern, southern, and western borders of Greece. No part of the Greek mainland is more 22

23 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module than 60 miles from a body of water. Greece has a long seacoast with many harbors, so the Greeks became seafarers. Greeks also lived on many islands off the Greek mainland. They sailed into the Aegean, the Mediterranean, and the Black Seas. They later established colonies that spread Greek civilization throughout the Mediterranean world. The Minoans and the Mycenaeans Comparing and Contrasting What were the similarities and differences between the ends of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations? The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age society established on the large island of Crete by 2800 B.C. It flourished until 1450 B.C. It was a rich culture, as demonstrated by an enormous palace complex at Knossos, which was the center of a far-ranging sea empire based on trade. The Minoans went to Egypt and to southern Greece. They traded pottery and gold and silver jewelry for other goods. They adopted techniques and designs from other lands, making decorated vases and ivory figurines. The palace at Knossos even included bathrooms. There was a sudden and catastrophic collapse in 1450 B.C. Some believe this was due to a tidal wave. Most believe the destruction was the result of invasion by the Mycenaeans. Mycenaean Greeks were Indo-Europeans who entered Greece around 1900 B.C. and gradually gained control of the Greek mainland. Mycenaean civilization reached its height between 1400 and 1200 B.C., and was made up of powerful monarchies who lived in fortified palace centers built on hills and surrounded by stone walls. The Mycenaeans were warriors who prided themselves on heroic deeds that were often depicted in wall murals. However, they also had an extensive commercial network that spread throughout the Mediterranean area. They also spread militarily. By the late thirteenth century B.C., Mycenaean Greece was troubled by internal wars, major earthquakes, and invasions. By 1100 B.C. Mycenaean civilization had collapsed. The Greeks in the Dark Age 23

24 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Making Inferences Why are the poems of Homer still read today? After the collapse of Mycenaean civilization, Greece entered a period when food production dropped and population declined. There are few records of the time, and so it is called the Dark Age, which lasted from about 1100 to 750 B.C. During this time, many Greeks left the mainland and went abroad. During the Dark Age, there was a revival of trade, and iron replaced bronze. By the eighth century B.C., the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, making all their words with a combination of 24 letters. This made learning to read and write simpler. Near the end of the Dark Age, the works of Homer, one of the truly great poets of all time, appeared. He wrote the first epic poems of early Greece, the Iliad and the Odyssey, using stories of the Trojan War. Homer taught values such as courage and honor. The heroes in Homer's poems struggled for excellence, which the Greeks called arete. By fighting, the hero protected his family and friends, preserved his honor, and earned his reputation. Homer's heroes became the ideal for Greek males. Synthesis the information: Locate the map of Ancient Mesopotamia and one of Ancient Egypt (they should be very close in your textbook). Complete the Venn diagram below showing the differences on the right and left and the similarities of the two ancient civilizations in the center, include geography and cultural characteristics. Ancient Mesopotamia Ancient Egypt 24

25 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Study Guide #2 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The term for a large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, controlling many peoples or territories is a. a system of justice. c. Gilgamesh. b. an empire. d. a stylus. 2. The Mesopotamian religion, which identified nearly 3,000 gods and goddesses, can be described as a. cuneiform. c. patriarchal. b. polytheistic. d. theocracy. 3. Around 2340 B.C., the Sumerian city-states were conquered by the Akkadians under their leader a. Sargon. c. Gilgamesh. b. Hammurabi. d. Anu. 4. The Sumerians invented all of the following technology EXCEPT a. the wagon wheel. c. the sundial. b. a math system based on units of 60. d. the watch. 5. Which of the following is the title of a famous Mesopotamian poem? a. The Scribe c. The Epic of Gilgamesh b. The Code of Hammurabi d. Ziggurat 6. Small kingdoms and city-states in western Asia emerged a. when the Hittite kingdom ended and Egypt weakened. b. as Indo-European peoples formed Hittite empires. c. before 1200 B.C. when some cultures learned to use iron. d. the same time the Roman alphabet was invented. 7. The people known as the Israelites were a. a major factor in the politics of the Mediterranean area. b. important sea traders who established many colonies. c. inventors of an alphabet of 22 characters representing sounds. d. a distinct group, organized in tribes, who established a united kingdom. 8. The Hittite Empire was destroyed by a. the Israelites. c. the Indo-Europeans. b. the Sea Peoples. d. the Assyrians. 9. According to Jewish beliefs, there is only one God called a. Moses. c. Yahweh. b. Isaiah. d. Palestine. 10. The Jews believed that God made a contract with them called a(n) a. prophet. c. alphabet. b. law. d. covenant. 25

26 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #11 The establishment of cause-and-effect relationships is critical to understanding history. In fact, historians spend most of their time reviewing known facts and trying to determine some linkage between them. Here is your chance to be a historian. DIRECTIONS: Locate and read the description about Hammurabi s Code in your textbook (by using the index) Use the chart below to organize cause-and-effect relationships in the Code of Hammurabi. Place causes in the boxes to the left and the related effects in the boxes to the right. 26

27 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Synthesis: After you complete the cause and effect chart write a five sentence paragraph discussing what you learn about the impact of Hammurabi s Code on ancient civilizations. Exercise #12 Analyzing Primary Sources Directions: Before you read the text below, study the photo of the sculpture. As you read the text highlight any word, phrase that is connected to the culture of Egypt. After reading answer the questions that follow the text and complete the critical thinking exercise. Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) (died c B.C.) and Nefertiti (c B.C.) Few leaders in human history have had such a profound impact on their countries as did Amenhotep IV. For centuries before his rule, the people of Egypt had thrived under a polytheistic religion the worship of many gods. Their religious beliefs influenced every part of Egyptian life; family, social, economic, and governmental occasions were all intertwined with the roles of the many Egyptian gods. Imagine the result, then, when their new leader, Amenhotep IV, underwent a religious conversion, changed his name, and then changed life 27

28 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module throughout Egypt. Amenhotep changed his name to Akhenaton, which means "spirit of Aton" or "Aton is pleased." Aton was the god of the sun, and Akhenaton declared that Aton was the only god. A basis of this belief was that all living things depended on the sun for life. Akhenaton further declared that he was Aton's son and his representative on earth. Akhenaton's personal belief in this new religion was absolute and fervent. And as leader of Egypt, he had the power to impose his beliefs on all the people of the Nile. Suddenly, Egypt no longer practiced polytheism, but monotheism the worship of a single god. Adherence to Egypt's new religion was mandatory and strict: no exceptions were permitted. Akhenaton even built a new capital, called Akhenaton, in honor of Aton. Akhenaton ordered that every monument dedicated to Amon, previously Egypt's greatest god, be destroyed. Akhenaton's loyal supporter during this revolution was Nefertiti, his wife and queen of Egypt. Today, Nefertiti is often thought of as one of the most beautiful women in history. We know what Nefertiti looked like because she was the subject of many sculptures. A painted limestone bust, today at the Berlin Museum, is perhaps the most famous. Much more important, however, was Nefertiti's support of Akhenaton. She was a firm believer in the new religion and played an important role in its ceremonies. Together, Nefertiti and Akhenaton ruled during what has been called the Amarna Revolution, one of the periods of greatest change in Egyptian history. 1. For what is Amenhotep IV famous? 2. What role did Nefertiti play in this change in Egyptian life? 3. Critical Thinking Making Generalizations. Resentment from the priests of the old religion and the common people led to the rejection of Akhenaton's religion after his death. Why do you think Akhenaton felt he could make such a dramatic change in people's beliefs? 28

29 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #13 Early Civilizations in India Directions: Major changes in India's culture began around 1800 B.C. As you read, use a diagram like the one below to illustrate the process that led Siddhārtha Gautama to enlightenment. After reading complete all writing activities in for this exercise. Identifying Cause and Effect Why have Indian farmers depended on the monsoons? The Indian people are diverse and so is India's geography. The Indian subcontinent is a triangle. In the far north are the Himalaya, the highest mountains in the world. South of that mountain range is the rich valley of the Ganges River. To the west is the Indus River valley. In ancient times, the Indus Valley had a moderate climate and became the cradle of Indian civilization. The most densely populated areas of India have historically been the eastern and western coasts, which are lush plains. The primary feature of India's climate is the monsoon, a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia. The monsoons bring heavy rains. Throughout history, Indian farmers have depended on these heavy rains. If they come too early or too late, or if too much or too little rain falls, crops are destroyed and thousands starve. 29

30 World Civilizations Evaluating Information What facts support the idea that the early civilizations were carefully planned? Quarter 1 Module Early Indian civilization emerged in the valleys of the Indus River. An advanced civilization flourished in the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. Both cities were carefully planned, with broad streets in a grid pattern. Public wells gave a regular supply of water, and bathrooms had advanced drainage systems. The economy was based on farming. The Indus River flooded every year, and wheat, barley, and peas were grown. Copper, lumber, precious stones, cotton, and some luxury goods were traded to the Sumerians. Evaluating Information What facts given in the summary support the idea that men were dominant in ancient India? Making Inferences Why might Buddhism appeal to a member of a lower caste or an untouchable? Archaeologists are not sure why the Indus Valley civilization ended, but they think around 2000 B.C., an Indo-European people known as the Aryans moved into northern India. They probably conquered the Indus Valley people. Eventually they controlled most of India. Around 1000 B.C. people started writing in Sanskrit, an Indo-European language. These early writings, known as the Vedas, tell us that India had many small kingdoms, led by princes called rajas. They were often at war with one another. India had a caste system, a set of rigid social categories that determined a person's occupation, economic potential, and place in society. Indian society was divided into four major social classes called varnas. A person was born into a caste and remained there for life. One religion of India, Hinduism, began in ancient times. Early Hindus believed there was a single force, or ultimate reality, in the universe. To know this ultimate reality, Hindus developed a method of training called yoga. Through devotion at a Hindu temple, people sought salvation but also ordinary things. Hinduism teaches reincarnation, the rebirth of a human soul in a different form after death. Important to this process is the idea of karma, the force generated by a person's actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life. Karma is ruled by the dharma, or the divine law. The law requires that all people do their duty. In the sixth century B.C., Buddhism, a new doctrine, began to rival Hinduism. It was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, who came to be known as the Buddha, or "Enlightened One." In meditation, he realized that the Middle Path, which involved right speech, right action, and right effort, was the route to enlightenment and wisdom. Wisdom led to nirvana, a reunion with the Great World Soul. Buddhism rejected the caste system and taught that all human beings could reach nirvana as a result of their behavior in this life. 30

31 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Constructed Response Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire section. 1. What is reincarnation? 2. Where did ancient Indian civilization develop? Expository Writing Using information from the text, compare and contrast Hinduism and Buddhism. And then answer the question; how does religion impact culture? 31

32 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #14 India and China, 3000 B.C.-500 B.C. Directions: Before reading, answer the following questions using your background knowledge. Then read all sections, charts, maps and graphs that relate to ancient India and China in Unit one of your textbook. 1. India produced great works in almost all cultural fields, including literature, architecture, and science. How does prosperity in these empires make these works possible? 2. What important cultural aspect do you think inspired most of these great works? In fact, this aspect influenced all parts of Indian life. Why do you think it was inspirational? (use whatever background knowledge you have to answer this question). Directions: After you complete the pre-reading exercise, locate and read the definitions of the academic vocabulary located in the box below. Make sure you read it in context within the text of your textbook. Use the words to fill in the blanks below the box. Use the sentence clues to help you. 32

33 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Sanskrit monsoons rock chamber Vedas languages Hindu silk Himalaya barriers Great Wall 1. Today, about 110 and more than 1,000 dialects are spoken in India. 2. China's was a massive project that required thousands of laborers. 3. In winter, blowing from the mountainous regions of China are cold and dry. 4. Frontier regions of China created by geographical were populated with people of Mongolian, Indo-European, and Turkish backgrounds. 5. The three main types of architectural structures in India were the pillar, the stupa, and the. 6. The earliest know Indian literature is the. 7. The Romans knew China as Serica, or the "Land of." 8. Buddhists and share some common beliefs. 9. Around 1000 B.C., Aryans started writing in, an Indo-European language. 10. The highest mountains in the world are the Indian. Synthesis: Make a two column chart like the one below, list under each column in order of what you think to be the most important to the least important aspects of each culture listed in the headings. Number the list on each side. Ancient Indian Culture Ancient Chinese Culture l. Most important aspect 1. Most important aspect 33

34 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Exercise #15 Great Wall of China Throughout its history, China tried to protect itself from invaders. As early as the sixth century B.C., the Chinese built earth walls as a defense against invading nomads from the north. These walls were the forerunners of the Great Wall that sweeps across northern China today. DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below and then answer the questions in the space provided. Around 220 B.C., Emperor Qin Shihuangdi realized that the disconnected earth walls the Chinese had been using as protection would not keep enemies from the north out of China. As a result, he ordered thousands of workers to build a single stone wall. During the Han, Sui, and Tang dynasties, this wall was repaired and lengthened. It was during the Ming dynasty (A.D ) that the present wall was built. In the fourteenth century, the Mongols were a constant threat to China's peace and prosperity. The existing wall was falling down in places, and it was too short. Thousands of workers built the new wall, which extends for 1,400 miles (2,250 kilometers) along what is now the border between Inner Mongolia and southern China. It is made of hard packed dirt and pebbles, enclosed in granite blocks. The top is paved with bricks, forming a road. Its height ranges from 8 to 30 feet (5.5 to 9 meters). It is 12 feet (4 meters) thick at the top and slopes outward to 30 feet (9 meters) thick at its base. 34

35 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module The main shortcoming of earlier walls was that they were not efficiently guarded. Without guards, anyone could climb over the wall and invade China. To prevent this, the Ming wall was built with guard towers and fortresses at frequent intervals. To make defense easier, the top of the wall has holes cut every few feet so that soldiers could fire their weapons without being exposed. In addition to being a fortification, the Great Wall is also considered a work of art. As it winds through the hills, it becomes part of the landscape. It thus achieves a harmony with nature. Although the Great Wall is no longer used for defense and protection, scholars and visitors continue to be fascinated by it. Historians study writing found on the wall. Archaeologists have unearthed old tombs along it. Scientists study earthquakes by examining the parts of the wall that have been damaged by or have survived these natural disasters. It is interesting that something built for war can tell us so much about other aspects of Chinese life. Reviewing the Selection 1. When and why was the Great Wall of China built? 2. Describe the Great Wall. Critical Thinking 3. Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment The fact that the Chinese needed to build a wall tells you something about the country's landforms. What natural features must be missing to make the wall necessary? 4. Analyzing Information Study the photograph of the Great Wall. Do you think it is a work of art? Explain your answer. 35

36 World Civilizations Quarter 1 Module Study Guide #3 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The people known as the Israelites were a. a major factor in the politics of the Mediterranean area. b. important sea traders who established many colonies. c. inventors of an alphabet of 22 characters representing sounds. d. a distinct group, organized in tribes, who established a united kingdom. 2. The Hittite Empire was destroyed by a. the Israelites. c. the Indo-Europeans. b. the Sea Peoples. d. the Assyrians. 3.According to Jewish beliefs, there is only one God called a. Moses. c. Yahweh. b. Isaiah. d. Palestine. 4. The Jews believed that God made a contract with them called a(n) a. prophet. c. alphabet. b. law. d. covenant. 5. Cyrus was called the Great because he a. showed no mercy to enemies. c. was a large man. b. had no respect for other cultures. d. showed wisdom and compassion. 6. In Hindu belief, karma is a force that a. emanates from the Buddha. b. brings rains in summer. c. determines how a person will be reborn. d. serves the god Vishnu. 7. The Aryans developed a writing system called Sanskrit to a. record their religious writings and legends. b. keep track of the monsoons. c. suppress the Untouchables. d. maintain the rigid class structure. 8. The Mauryan Empire flourished under Asoka who did all of the following except a. convert to Buddhism. b. build up India s role in regional trade. c. set up hospitals. d. convert to Hinduism. 9. Silk was especially desired by a. the Chinese. c. Buddhists. b. the Romans. d. Changan. 10. Chinese merchants traded luxury goods for a. spices, teas, porcelain. b. woolen and linen clothes, glass, and precious stones. c. silk from Rome. d. Vedas. 36

37 Exercise #16 The Culture of Classical Greece Ideas from the classical age of Greece helped to shape Western civilization. As you read, create a chart like the one below to help you study. Identify the major Greek contributions to Western civilizations. Major Greek Contributions Greek Religion Making Inferences In contemporary life, who plays the same role as an oracle? Religion was very important in Greek life. Temples were the major buildings in Greek cities. The Greeks thought that 12 main gods lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. One of these was Zeus, who was the chief god and father of the gods. Greek religion did not focus on morality. The Greeks believed that the spirits of most people went to an underworld ruled by the god Hades, regardless of what the people had done in life. Greeks performed rituals to please the gods. Rituals are religious ceremonies or rites. The Greek rituals combined prayers with gifts to the gods. The Greeks also held festivals to honor the gods and goddesses. Athletic games often took place at the festivals. All Greeks were invited to these games. The first games of this kind were held at the Olympic festival in 776 B.C. The Greeks used oracles to learn the will of the gods. An oracle was a sacred shrine where a god or goddess revealed the future through a priest or priestess. The most famous was the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi. A priestess at Delphi listened to questions. Her responses were thought to be inspired by Apollo and were interpreted by priests. Many people traveled to Delphi to consult the oracle of Apollo. Classical Greek Arts and Literature Evaluating Information The author assigns great importance to Greek influence on Western art, Classical Greek art was concerned with expressing eternal ideals. In architecture, the most important form was the temple. The most famous temple was the Parthenon, built between 447 and 432 B.C. It shows the principles of classical architecture: calmness, clarity, and freedom from unnecessary detail. 37

38 drama, and history. Is this importance borne out by the facts? Greek Philosophy Comparing and Contrasting How were Plato and Aristotle alike and different? The Greeks created drama as we know it. The first Greek dramas were tragedies, usually presented in a trilogy of plays built around a common theme. The only complete trilogy we have today is the Oresteia by Aeschylus. Other important playwrights include Sophocles and Euripides. Greek tragedies deal with problems such as the nature of good and evil and the rights of individuals. Greek comedy developed later than tragedies. It was used to criticize politicians and intellectuals. The Greeks were the first in the Western world to present history as a systematic analysis of events. Thucydides is considered the greatest historian of the ancient world. He saw war and politics in purely human terms, and examined the causes and the course of the Peloponnesian War clearly and fairly. Philosophy is an organized system of thought. The term comes from the Greek and means "love of wisdom." Early Greek philosophers tried to explain the universe on the basis of unifying principles. Pythagoras, for example, taught that the essence of the universe was in music and numbers. One famous philosopher, Socrates, believed the goal of education was to improve the individual. He used a question-and-answer format to teach, known as the Socratic method. His belief in the individual's ability to reason was an important contribution of the Greeks. Plato was one of Socrates students. Many consider Plato to be the greatest philosopher of Western civilization. Plato's work, The Republic, stated that the ideal state consisted of three groups of people, philosopher-kings, warriors, and the masses. One of Plato's students was Aristotle. Until the seventeenth century, science in the Western world was largely based on Aristotle's ideas. He also analyzed many existing governments and believed there were only three forms: monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional government. He thought the last was the best form for most people. Constructive Response Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire section. 1. Who was a great historian of ancient Greece? 2. What did Classical Greek sculptors try to achieve in their work? 38

39 Expository Writing Greek art, drama, history, and philosophy have had a major impact on Western thought. Summarize how each of these areas of study show Greek influence. Exercise #17 The Gods and Goddesses: A Family Tree Anthropologists use what is known as a kinship chart to map how members of a family ("kin") are related to one another. A kinship chart is more commonly referred to as a family tree. The Greek deities were much like humans they had parents and siblings just as we do. Study the kinship chart below to discover the family relationship of many of the most powerful gods and goddesses in the Greek religion. Note that the equal signs join two parents, and the branches coming from them show their children. 39

40 DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided. 1. Who were Zeus's parents? 2. How many brothers and sisters did Zeus have? Who are they? 3. Who was Zeus's wife? 4. How many of Chronos and Rhea's grandchildren are shown in the chart? Who are they? 5. How many of Chronos and Rhea's great-grandchildren are shown? Who are they? 6. How are Ares and Triton related? Fill in the blanks after reading about the Greeks and the Hellenistic age in you textbook. 1. The Greeks viewed their northern neighbors, the, as barbarians. 2. was only 20 when he became king of Macedonia. 3. Alexander's invasion of the was motivated by the desire for glory but also by the desire to avenge the Persian burning of in 480 B.C. 4. The city of became and remains today one of the most important cities in both and the world. 5. The word Hellenistic is derived from a Greek word meaning. 40

41 6. Eventually, four Hellenistic kingdoms emerged as the successors to Alexander:,,, and. 7. The Greek cities of the Hellenistic Era became the chief agents in the spread of Greek culture in. 8. Hellenistic buildings characteristic of the Greek homeland were,, and. 9. Eratosthenes determined that Earth was and calculated its at 24,675 miles (39,702 km). 10. Archimedes was important because of his work on the geometry of and, as well as for establishing the value of the math constant. 11. Epicureans believed that human beings were free to follow as a basic motivating force. 12. According to the, happiness could be found only when people gained inner peace by living in with the will of God. Exercise #18 Directions: Before reading about Rome and the Rise of Christianity in your textbook answer the following questions. 1. The rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire: What impact do you think a nation's government can have on a religion? 41

42 2. If you visit a capital city in the United States today, you will likely see an influence of Roman culture. What will you see? What is Roman about it? DIRECTIONS: After reading about the Rise of Christianity; Use the following words in a word web to show how they are connected: Christianity, Jesus, commands, Simon Peter, New Testament, Roman Empire, Constantine. The word Christianity links all of these words together. Write Christianity in the center oval, and write the other related words in the surrounding ovals. For each of the related words, write a sentence that clearly shows the word's relationship to the central word, Christianity. You can write sentences inside the ovals or, if you need more space, use a separate sheet of paper. 42

43 Exercise #19 Homer (C. 700 B.C.) Men flourish only for a moment. Homer, in the Odyssey Great spans of time can be hard to picture. It is easy for most people to visualize one year, or even ten. Imagining a century, however, can be difficult. It is even more difficult to appreciate how truly long a millennium is. Appreciating 2,700 years seems almost impossible. Yet after all these years, Homer is still considered one of history's most influential writers. Greek tradition has long held Homer as the author of the two great epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Yet "the Homeric question" whether he, in fact, wrote both poems, or even existed continues to vex scholars. There is widespread agreement that both poems are written versions of pre-existing shorter poems that were passed down orally over generations. Many historians also agree that the poems were assembled, reworded, improved, and recorded by a single person. And scholars generally agree that a poet named Homer did live about 700 B.C. What do we know about him? Tradition holds that Homer was blind. Many readers of the Iliad and the Odyssey, however, have noted the visual imagery in the poems. Might this indicate that Homer was once sighted? No one can know for sure. Tradition also holds that Homer came from Ionia, the region across the Aegean Sea from Greece, in present-day Turkey. Scholars have analyzed the Iliad and the Odyssey in search of clues about where they were written. Ionic influences in the language support the belief that Homer was in fact from Ionia. But even in ancient times, many different cities and not only Ionic ones claimed to be his birthplace. Beyond these scant facts, little is known of Homer. Remarkably, he nevertheless is one of the most famous storytellers who ever lived. More importantly, he is one of the most influential. Even today, students around the world read the Iliad and the Odyssey as a fundamental part of their education just as students did in ancient Greece. Over the centuries, countless authors have learned from Homer's work. And many who weren't inspired directly by his work were influenced by writers who were. How many other people have had such a fundamental impact for 2,700 years? Directions: Read the above text and answer the following questions 1. What is "the Homeric question"? 2. Why is Homer so important 43

44 3. Critical Thinking Making Inferences. Why do you think teachers want students to read the Iliad and the Odyssey? 4. Critical Thinking Analyzing Information. What information in the passage contradicts Homer's quote above? Exercise #20 Directions: Complete the flow chart below showing the sequence of events leading to the rise of Christianity in Rome. 44

45 Exercise #21 Early Traders and Empire Builders Directions: After reading about the classical civilization in your textbook complete the following web diagrams to review the major achievements of early civilizations and empires. Use your textbook for reference as you fill in the diagrams. 45

46 Exercise #22 Locate in your textbook the map on Trade in the Roman Empire (page 158). Study and analyze all parts of the map, follow the trade routes with your finger to gain a gain understanding of the vastness of the trade and the importance it had on the classical world. Answer the following questions in at least three complete sentences. 1. From what three continents did all three trade goods come to Rome? 2. Which goods were supplied from all three areas? 3. Explain how the trading routes helped to strengthen Rome and its empire. 4. Why did control of the Mediterranean region benefit Rome s economy? 46

47 Exercise #23 Directions: Read the passage and then complete all questions that follow. As you read highlight or underline all words or phrases that relate to technology or trade. Roman Roads People in the modern city of Rome still drive over portions of the Appian Way. Started in 312 B.C. by Appius Claudius Caecus, the Appian Way was one of the first Roman military highways. How did the Roman Empire use its roads? Ever since draft animals first pulled wheeled vehicles, people have built roads. The best road builders of the ancient world were the Romans. Road building was a key factor in Roman military conquest, enabling generals to move their legions quickly from one flash point to another in a vast empire. Roman soldiers could cover 30 miles (48 kilometers) a day if roads were firm and dry. Eventually, a network of more than 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometers) of roads, regularly marked with milestones, laced together the Roman Empire. Designed to handle military carts hauling cargo weighing as much as 1,000 Roman pounds (330 kilograms), Roman roads have lasted for centuries. While earlier roads often meandered along animal trails and contours of the terrain, Roman roads cut a remarkably straight line no matter what obstacles lay in their path swamps, mountains, and even ravines. Construction began with engineers laying out two trenches 40 feet (12 meters) apart, enabling them to analyze the composition of the subsoil. Then under the watchful eyes of supervisors, teams of soldiers dug down several feet to prepare the roadbed. On top of the flattened layer of sand came three additional layers that cushioned the top layer of paving stones. A convex road surface sloped from the center down toward the sides drained water off the road into ditches. In almost any weather, legions of troops, merchants with carts, and postal carriages could continue their journeys. Most private individuals rode two-wheeled chariots behind a team of two to four horses. The fastest fourwheeled freight wagons were drawn by eight horses in summer and ten during the winter. They sped past most traffic, covering up to 75 miles (120 kilometers) per day. People in different places and at different times have developed a variety of ways to move over distances by land and by sea and, most recently, by air. These methods of travel have been used to carry people, their natural resources, their manufactured goods, and even their ideas. Over the years, the movement of people develops a regular pattern, in some places, following the same major historical trade routes for many centuries. In other places, people may carve out new routes of travel. To develop economically and politically, people must create an effective transportation network to link all parts of their territory. In addition, they can improve their The Appian Way [Appius Claudius Caecus] caused all the paving stones to be polished and cut so as to form angles and had them jointed together without any kind of cement. They adhered so strongly that to look at them they do not seem to be jointed at all but to form one whole mosaic of stone. means of transportation with technological innovations in, for example, the areas of navigation, shipbuilding, road building, and laying railroad tracks. 47

48 DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided. Use another sheet of paper if necessary. 1. What items are necessary for people need to be able to move? 2. Why did a system of roads help the Romans develop economically and politically? Critical Thinking 3. Analyzing Information Rome's roads facilitated administering a vast empire. What is the meaning of the expression "all roads lead to Rome"? 4. Making Comparisons The "highways" of the ancient Greeks were actually sea-lanes and navigational channels throughout the Mediterranean Sea. Compare the advantages of movement by water for the Greeks with movement by land for the Romans. 48

49 Exercise #24 Directions: Locate and read about the technological achievements of the classical world, Greece, Rome, China, India, and any others discussed in your textbook. Complete the chart below to determine which achievements had the most impact on the classical world and why they are important today. Astronomy Category Achievement Where did it originate? Why is it important? Writing/language Geometry/math Philosophy Art Engineering Medicine Trade Other Synthesis: Based on what you discovered from your chart, which classical civilization do you think had the most impact on our world today? Which achievement do you think has had the most impact? Why? 49

50 Exercise #25 The Greek City-States Differences between Athenian and Spartan values led to different forms of government. As you read, create a chart like the one below to help you study. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of each type of government used in Greek city-states. Advantage Disadvantage Tyranny Democracy Oligarchy Polis: The Center of Greek Life Identifying the Main Idea What was the center of Greek life by 750 B.C.? By 750 B.C. the city-state, called a polis, became the central focus of Greek life. Our word politics comes from the Greek word polis. The polis was a town, a city, or even a village and its surrounding countryside. People met in the center of the polis for political, social, and religious activities. Usually the gathering place was a hill topped by a fortified area called an acropolis. People assembled in an open area called the agora around the acropolis. The polis was a community of people with a common identity and common goals. It consisted of three main groups: citizens with political rights (males), citizens with no political rights (women and children) and noncitizens (slaves and foreigners). Citizens had responsibilities as well as rights, and were expected to be loyal to the city-state. This loyalty became so fierce that it eventually tore Greece apart. A new military system developed in Greece. It was based on hoplites. These were heavily armed infantry soldiers who each carried a shield, a sword, and a spear. They marched into battle in a formation called a phalanx that created walls of shields to protect the hoplites. Greek Expansion Between 750 and 550 B.C., many Greeks moved to distant 50

51 Predicting What could be expected to happen after the tyrants broke the rule of the aristocrats? lands. The growth of trade and the need for good farmland were two reasons that people moved. New Greek colonies were formed in southern Italy, southern France, eastern Spain, and northern Africa. Colonization spread Greek culture and political ideas throughout the Mediterranean and increased trade. The mainland Greeks exported pottery, wine, and olive oil. They imported grains and metals from the west and fish, timber, wheat, metals, and slaves from the Black Sea region. The increase in trade and industry created a new group of wealthy people. They wanted political power, but were blocked by the aristocrats. This led to the rise of tyrants in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C. Tyrants were not necessarily wicked; they tried to help the poor and built public works. They were supported by the newly wealthy and the peasants. However, they fell out of favor because the Greeks believed in the rule of law. Their rule played an important role in Greek history because it ended the rule of aristocrats and opened the way for the development of democracy. Two Rival City-States Making Inferences How did reaction to oppressive rule lead to pre-democracy in Athens? Like other Greek city-states, Sparta needed more land. To get it, they conquered first the Laconians and then the Messenians. The conquered people, known as helots, were forced to work for the Spartans. Between 800 and 600 B.C., the lives of the Spartans were rigidly organized and controlled. Males spent their childhood learning military discipline, and entered the army at age 20 and lived in barracks. At age 30, Spartan men could vote and live at home, but stayed in the army until age 60. The separation from their husbands gave Spartan women more power in the household than other Greek women had. The Spartan government was an oligarchy headed by two kings. A group of five men known as ephors was responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of citizens. By the seventh century B.C., Athens was an oligarchy under the control of aristocrats. Many Athenian farmers were sold into slavery because they could not pay their debts. To avoid civil war, in 594 B.C. the aristocrats gave power to Solon, who was reform-minded. He cancelled all land debts and freed people who were slaves due to debt. In 512 B.C. Cleisthenes, a reformer, gained control. He created a new council of 500 to supervise foreign affairs, oversee the treasury, and propose laws. This laid the foundation for Athenian democracy. 51

52 Constructed Response Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire text. 1. What three groups made up a polis? 2. Why was the rule of the tyrants important in Greek history? Informative Writing Discuss Greek colonization and cover its causes, its extent, and its results. For the latter, discuss not only the immediate impact, but the impact of Greek culture on your life. 52

53 Exercise #26 Athenian Myths Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom and art, who sprang fully formed from the head of her father, Zeus. Ancient myths often reflect people's attempts to explain events they cannot otherwise account for, such as the founding or destruction of a city, or reflect psychological elements of human decision-making. Analyzing myths can give us a view into how Greeks viewed themselves and their world. The following myths would have been special sources of pride to ancient Athenians because they display the wit and power of their patron goddess. Guided Reading In this selection, read to learn the historical bases of some popular Greek myths. Attica was first called Cecropia after Cecrops [first king of Attica]. But after a time the custom grew up of considering each land as peculiarly dedicated to the worship of one god, and both Poseidon and Athena were eager to have Attica as their own. The twelve gods assembled to act as judges of a contest between the two; the test was to be which of the two deities would offer the gift more beneficial to mankind. Cecrops was to have the deciding vote. Poseidon [god of the sea] performed first; he struck the Acropolis with his trident, leaving a permanent imprint in the rock and producing a pool of sea-water. Then Athena hit the rocky ground with her spear, at which the earth brought forth the first olive-tree. Cecrops and the gods agreed that Athena's gift was more beneficial, and the city was named Athens after her. But Poseidon was angered, sending a flood over the plain around Eleusis, until Zeus sent Hermes to bid him withdraw. It used to be said that Athena took her name from Athens, just as Romulus took his from Rome, and that the myth reversed the facts of history. But the discovery that Athena was already worshiped in Mycenaean-Minoan times and the recollection that the ancient world had about a dozen places named Athens force the conclusion that the myth contains at least one historical fact: Athens was named after Athena.... Actually the myth probably arose to explain the close association between Athena's and Poseidon's cults in Attica, as well as in many other parts of Greece, and specifically to explain the proximity of two holy objects on the Acropolis, Athena's olive-tree and Poseidon's pool or cleft. Another version had a horse leap out of Poseidon's cleft; this symbol of war could be opposed to the olive, and the Athenians could piously be credited with preferring peace to war. From then on the story would contribute to making the olive-branch a symbol of peace.... The defect in the symbolism here is that Athena was far more of a war-deity than Poseidon; furthermore, she had close connections with the war-horse, as shown by her... sponsorship of the Trojan Horse. In ancient art the most famous representation of the myth was on the west pediment of the Parthenon. Myth of Arachne There once was a Lydian girl named Arachne, whose skill at weaving was so great that not only were her finished fabrics highly prized, but she also became something of a spectacle herself; crowds flocked to the small town where she lived, and even nymphs came forth from river and mountain to admire her at work. It was generally said that she must have been taught by Athena, but this was a kind of praise she found offensive. "Let her try her hand in a contest with me," Arachne would say; "if she won, I would submit to anything." Pallas Athena heard this; taking the guise of an old woman, she tottered into Arachne's presence and told her to be content with mortal fame: "Yield to the goddess, and beg forgiveness for your foolhardy words; she will forgive you if you ask." 53

54 Arachne could hardly keep her hands off the old fool. "Old age had addled your brains," she said; "I've no need of your advice. Why does the goddess avoid a trial of skill with me? Why doesn't she come in person?" At this Athena threw off her old-woman disguise. "She has come," she said. There was panic among the onlookers, but only momentary confusion on the part of Arachne. Not another word was said; two looms were set up and the pair went swiftly to work. Athena bordered her tapestry with a peaceful olive-wreath, filled each corner with a story of some mortal presumption that had been punished by a god and set in the center the twelve Olympians watching the victorious contest that she had with Poseidon over the naming of Athens. On the other loom Arachne busily wove the adulterous loves of the gods, how they had deceived mortal women in beastly shapes Zeus as bull and eagle and swan and serpent, Poseidon as bull and ram and horse and dolphin, Apollo as hawk and lion, along with many other tales of divine trickery. All these she represented with consummate skill. But her very success was her undoing; Athena tore down the loom and its disgraceful pictures and four times smote Arachne's forehead with her shuttle: "Live on," she said, "and weave on, you and all your descendants!" Arachne's head and shoulders shrank into a small round belly; her fingers became thin legs; as a spider she was condemned forevermore to spin her own thread and weave eternally at her web. INTERPRETING THE READING Directions:Use information from the reading to answer the following questions. If necessary, use a separate sheet of paper. 1. What are two possible historical reasons Athens was named after Athena, according to the explanation following the first reading? 2. Why does the above source reject the suggestion that people named their cities after Athena because she represented peace, rather than after Poseidon because he represented war? 3. How do both stories depict Athena as patroness of the arts and of war? 4. Making Inferences Why might the figure of the ambitious Arachne appeal to ancient Greek women reading or hearing the myth? 54

55 Exercise #27 Understanding a Triumvirate You learned from the chapter on Classical Rome that a triumvirate refers to a government run by three people with equal power. You read about two triumvirates and how the power of three men dominated the political scene and achieved their basic goals. Understanding the dynamics and effects of a triumvirate will help you draw conclusions about our current government structure. DIRECTIONS: Use your textbook and other sources to research the first two triumvirates. Respond to the questions below to help you understand the strengths and weaknesses of this form of government and draw conclusions about why it is no longer used today. 1. Who were the leaders of the first triumvirate? 2. What started the civil war between Caesar and Pompey? What was the outcome? 3. Which men made up the second triumvirate? 4. Which two men divided the Roman world between them? 5. What caused the conflict between Octavian and Antony? What happened? 6. From your research, what were the benefits of a triumvirate? What were negative consequences? 55

56 7. How is our government different? Why do you think a triumvirate is not in place today? Exercise #28 Frescoes In A.D. 79, the volcano Vesuvius erupted, burying the entire town of Pompeii and all of its inhabitants under ashes and cinders. The city was not rediscovered until 1748 and has since been excavated. The covering of volcanic ash preserved the city and its people to an amazing degree. Archaeologists even found loaves of bread on kitchen tables. DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below about the frescoes, or wall paintings, found in Pompeii. Then answer the questions in the space provided. Pompeii was a thriving port and a prosperous resort. Wealthy families lived throughout the city in houses called villas, and most villas contained frescoes, which sometimes covered all four walls of a room from floor to ceiling. 56

Welcome to the Ancient Civilizations 70 s Dance Party!

Welcome to the Ancient Civilizations 70 s Dance Party! Welcome to the Ancient Civilizations 70 s Dance Party! Ancient Civilizations 70 s Dance Party! We need 2 Big Groups and 2 small groups (The Movers & the Shakers) within the big group. Form 2 lines that

More information

Mesopotamia, Egypt, and kush. Chapter 3

Mesopotamia, Egypt, and kush. Chapter 3 Mesopotamia, Egypt, and kush Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Section 1 Geography of the Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia Mesopotamia was part of a larger region called the Fertile Crescent. Hunter-gathers first settled

More information

Era 1 and Era 2 Test. 1. Which geographic feature was most important to the development of the early river valley civilizations?

Era 1 and Era 2 Test. 1. Which geographic feature was most important to the development of the early river valley civilizations? 1. Which geographic feature was most important to the development of the early river valley civilizations? A. fertile soils B. high mountains C. vast deserts D. smooth coastlines 2. The study of culture

More information

6th Grade - Chapter 4 Mesopotamia. Sumerians & Mesopotamian Empires

6th Grade - Chapter 4 Mesopotamia. Sumerians & Mesopotamian Empires 6th Grade - Chapter 4 Mesopotamia Sumerians & Mesopotamian Empires Lesson 1: The Sumerians The Sumerians made important advances in areas such as farming and writing that laid the foundation for future

More information

Ancient India. Section Notes Geography and Early India Origins of Hinduism Origins of Buddhism Indian Empires Indian Achievements

Ancient India. Section Notes Geography and Early India Origins of Hinduism Origins of Buddhism Indian Empires Indian Achievements Ancient India Section Notes Geography and Early India Origins of Hinduism Origins of Buddhism Indian Empires Indian Achievements History Close-up Life in Mohenjo Daro Quick Facts The Varnas Major Beliefs

More information

1. Subcontinent - A large distinguishable part of a continent

1. Subcontinent - A large distinguishable part of a continent I. India A. Geography - Located in southern Asia, India is a triangular shaped subcontinent. 1. Subcontinent - A large distinguishable part of a continent 2. Due to the geographic diversity of India, over

More information

Ancient River Valley Civilizations

Ancient River Valley Civilizations Ancient River Valley Civilizations Permanent Settlements During the New Stone Age, permanent settlements appeared in river valleys and around the Fertile Crescent. River valleys provided rich soil for

More information

Ancient History Review. How much do you remember from 6th grade?

Ancient History Review. How much do you remember from 6th grade? Ancient History Review How much do you remember from 6th grade? Early Humans Early humans were hunter-gatherers. They relied on animals and plants for food. They moved constantly in search of their food.

More information

Mesopotamia and Sumer. Chapter 2 Section 1

Mesopotamia and Sumer. Chapter 2 Section 1 Mesopotamia and Sumer Chapter 2 Section 1 The fertile crescent is an area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the modern day middle east. For years this area was Mesopotamia, which in Greek means

More information

Unit II: The River Valley Civilizations (3500 B.C.E. 450 B.C.E.)

Unit II: The River Valley Civilizations (3500 B.C.E. 450 B.C.E.) Name Unit II: The River Valley Civilizations (3500 B.C.E. 450 B.C.E.) Big Idea: During the New Stone Age, permanent settlements appeared in the river valleys and around the Fertile Crescent. River Valleys

More information

Ancient India Summary Guide

Ancient India Summary Guide Name Period Date Ancient India Summary Guide Be able to spell and define the following key concept terms: Subcontinent: a large landmass, usually partially separated by land forms, that is smaller than

More information

Unit 4: Ancient River Valley Civilizations - India

Unit 4: Ancient River Valley Civilizations - India Unit 4: Ancient River Valley Civilizations - India Standard(s) of Learning: WHI.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the civilization of Persia, India, and China in terms of chronology, geography,

More information

Cultures of Persia, India, and china. WH I 4a-e

Cultures of Persia, India, and china. WH I 4a-e Cultures of Persia, India, and china WH I 4a-e Vocabulary Power Imperial Bureaucracy- How Persia governed its empire- Divided empire into provinces each with its own administrator Zoroastrianism- monotheistic

More information

Indian Empires: Mauryan and Gupta

Indian Empires: Mauryan and Gupta Indian Empires: Mauryan and Gupta After a civilization falls, what impact does it have on history? How do belief systems unite or divide people? Geography Deccan Plateau, dry, sparsely populated Mountains

More information

Indian Empires: Mauryan and Gupta

Indian Empires: Mauryan and Gupta Indian Empires: Mauryan and Gupta After a civilization falls, what impact does it have on history? How do belief systems unite or divide people? Geography Deccan Plateau, dry, sparsely populated Mountains

More information

Above: Tigris River Above: Irrigation system from the Euphrates River

Above: Tigris River Above: Irrigation system from the Euphrates River Above: Tigris River Above: Irrigation system from the Euphrates River Major Civilizations of Mesopotamia Sumer (3500-2350 B.C.) Assyria (1800-1600 B.C) Babylonia (612-539 B.C.) Other Groups in Mesopotamia

More information

Mauryan, Kūshan, &Gupta Empire India

Mauryan, Kūshan, &Gupta Empire India Mauryan, Kūshan, &Gupta Empire India Background Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan) 2 Major Cities: Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro 2 Major Rivers: Indus & Ganges River Seasonal monsoons brought water to crops

More information

SOL 4 - World History I. Ancient Persian, India & China

SOL 4 - World History I. Ancient Persian, India & China SOL 4 - World History I Ancient Persian, India & China Zoroastrianism was the main Persian religion, although other religions were tolerated. Persian Empire Built on earlier Central Asian and Mesopotamian

More information

ANCIENT PERIOD. RIVER CIVILIZATIONS

ANCIENT PERIOD. RIVER CIVILIZATIONS ANCIENT PERIOD. RIVER CIVILIZATIONS MESOPOTAMIA. (THE LAND BETWEEN RIVERS) Mesopotamia WHEN and WHERE? Between the years 3,000 and 539 BC. The land between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris in the Persian

More information

Early Civilizations in India and China

Early Civilizations in India and China Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 3, Section World History: Connection to Today Chapter 3 Early Civilizations

More information

Where in the world? When did it happen? Ancient India Lesson 1 Early Civilizations ESSENTIAL QUESTION. Terms to Know GUIDING QUESTIONS

Where in the world? When did it happen? Ancient India Lesson 1 Early Civilizations ESSENTIAL QUESTION. Terms to Know GUIDING QUESTIONS Lesson 1 Early Civilizations ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does geography influence the way people live? GUIDING QUESTIONS 1. How did physical geography and climate influence the development of civilization in

More information

Chapter 2 Reading Test

Chapter 2 Reading Test Chapter 2 Reading Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following have scholars advanced as a possible explanation for the

More information

Mesopotamia (The Tigris & Euphrates) Egypt (The Nile River Valley) India (The Indus River) China (The Yellow River)

Mesopotamia (The Tigris & Euphrates) Egypt (The Nile River Valley) India (The Indus River) China (The Yellow River) Mesopotamia (The Tigris & Euphrates) Egypt (The Nile River Valley) India (The Indus River) China (The Yellow River) 1 IF TIME- Introduction to the Civilization of Ancient Mesopotamia: https://youtu.be/alvndhwyhee

More information

Ancient Civilizations Final Exam

Ancient Civilizations Final Exam Name: Date: Ancient Civilizations 15 Questions 1. Which development most enabled early peoples to form permanent settlements? a. advances in agricultural production b. the creation of democratic government

More information

Ancient India. Copyright 2014 History Gal. All rights reserved.

Ancient India. Copyright 2014 History Gal. All rights reserved. Ancient India Copyright 2014 History Gal. All rights reserved. Copyright 2014 History Gal. All rights reserved. Subcontinent Includes the modern-day countries of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh Location

More information

World History Unit 1 Lesson 1 Geography, etc

World History Unit 1 Lesson 1 Geography, etc Unit 1 Lesson 1 Geography, etc Cartographers,, or map makers, face two primary problems when drawing maps: 1) showing proper size, & 2) showing accurate shape. The processes, or methods, used by cartographers

More information

Unit 2 : First Civilizations Africa and Asia

Unit 2 : First Civilizations Africa and Asia Unit 2 : First Civilizations Africa and Asia Chapter: 2 Essential Questions 1) In what ways do civilizations better themselves? 2) What are possible results when civilizations come into contact with each

More information

City-States in Mesopotamia

City-States in Mesopotamia 1 City-States in Mesopotamia MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES INTERACTION WITH ENVIRONMENT The earliest civilization in Asia arose in Mesopotamia and organized into city-states. The development

More information

Section 1 The Indo-Europeans. Global Studies I Chapter 3. Indo-European Language Family. Migrations. Hittite Empire. Hittites

Section 1 The Indo-Europeans. Global Studies I Chapter 3. Indo-European Language Family. Migrations. Hittite Empire. Hittites Section 1 The Indo-Europeans Global Studies I Chapter 3 Indo-Europeans Nomadic peoples from the Eurasian steppes Dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus ( the Great Steppe ) People and Ideas

More information

Ancient Mesopotamia: Cradle of Civilization

Ancient Mesopotamia: Cradle of Civilization Ancient Mesopotamia: Cradle of Civilization Geography of Mesopotamia The crossroads of the World Samaria: the First City-state A Blending of Cultures Geography The Land Between Two Rivers. Like Egypt,

More information

Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia

Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia 6.1 Introduction (p.51) The city-states of Sumer were like independent countries they often fought over land and water rights; they never united into one group; they

More information

Hinduism and Buddhism Develop

Hinduism and Buddhism Develop Name CHAPTER 3 Section 2 (pages 66 71) Hinduism and Buddhism Develop BEFORE YOU READ In the last section, you read about the Hittites and the Aryans. In this section, you will learn about the roots of

More information

World Religions. Section 3 - Hinduism and Buddhism. Welcome, Rob Reiter. My Account Feedback and Support Sign Out. Choose Another Program

World Religions. Section 3 - Hinduism and Buddhism. Welcome, Rob Reiter. My Account Feedback and Support Sign Out. Choose Another Program Welcome, Rob Reiter My Account Feedback and Support Sign Out Choose Another Program Home Select a Lesson Program Resources My Classes 3 - World Religions This is what your students see when they are signed

More information

The Nile Valley. Chapter 2, Section 1. Irrigation. (Pages 38-46)

The Nile Valley. Chapter 2, Section 1. Irrigation. (Pages 38-46) Chapter 2, Section 1 The Nile Valley (Pages 38-46) Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: Why did the early Egyptians settle in the Nile River valley? What role did the

More information

Alabama Course of Study Social Studies

Alabama Course of Study Social Studies Alabama Course of Study Social Studies Joseph B. Morton State Superintendent of Education ALABAMA DEPARTME T OF EDUCATIO Bulletin 2004, o. 18 EIGHTH GRADE World History to 1500 Students in the eighth grade

More information

CHAPTER 2: FERTILE CRESCENT Cradle of Civilization

CHAPTER 2: FERTILE CRESCENT Cradle of Civilization OWH C2 P1 CHAPTER 2: FERTILE CRESCENT Cradle of Civilization Figure 1: A map of the modern day middle east, where this chapter takes place. I. 2.1: THE LAND OF BEGINNINGS A. To begin our study of history

More information

Objective: SW explain how Mesopotamian civilizations developed.

Objective: SW explain how Mesopotamian civilizations developed. Objective: SW explain how Mesopotamian civilizations developed. Do First: Vocabulary Civilization advanced society with complex social, cultural, and political systems In the Neolithic Revolution, people

More information

Chapter 2Exploring Four. Empires of Mesopotamia. Learning Objective: I can explain the achievements & rise of the empires of Mesopotamia.

Chapter 2Exploring Four. Empires of Mesopotamia. Learning Objective: I can explain the achievements & rise of the empires of Mesopotamia. Chapter 2Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia Learning Objective: I can explain the achievements & rise of the empires of Mesopotamia. Sumer For 1,500 years, Sumer is a land of independent city-states.

More information

DBQ 1.: ACHIEVEMENTS OF ANCIENT CIVIIZATIONS

DBQ 1.: ACHIEVEMENTS OF ANCIENT CIVIIZATIONS DBQ 1.: ACHIEVEMENTS OF ANCIENT CIVIIZATIONS Historical Context Early civilizations arose in the river valleys of Mesopotamia, EWpt, China, and India. These earliest civilizations made important and lasting

More information

World History Ancient Civilizations

World History Ancient Civilizations Interactive Reader and Study Guide Holt California Social Studies World History Ancient Civilizations Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced

More information

STUDENT WORKBOOK. California Reading Essentials and Study Guide

STUDENT WORKBOOK. California Reading Essentials and Study Guide STUDENT WORKBOOK California Reading Essentials and Study Guide TO THESTUDENT The California Reading Essentials and Study Guide accompanies the student textbook Discovering Our Past: Ancient Civilizations.

More information

AP WORLD HISTORY. Conduct further reading on topics, concepts, and terminology as needed. Big ideas and other important information are in italics.

AP WORLD HISTORY. Conduct further reading on topics, concepts, and terminology as needed. Big ideas and other important information are in italics. AP WORLD HISTORY Conduct further reading on topics, concepts, and terminology as needed. Big ideas and other important information are in italics. ASSIGNMENT: Provide examples and further detail wherever

More information

Decline of the Indus River Valley civilizations - -

Decline of the Indus River Valley civilizations - - Quick-Write: 8/30 Decline of the Indus River Valley civilizations - - Aryans - Aryans Aryans and Vedas Aryans and Vedas Aryans and Vedas Aryans and Social Order Aryans and Social Order - Caste System

More information

SARGON, the ruler of neighboring Akkad, invaded and conquered the citystates of Sumer around 2300 B.C.E.

SARGON, the ruler of neighboring Akkad, invaded and conquered the citystates of Sumer around 2300 B.C.E. SARGON, the ruler of neighboring Akkad, invaded and conquered the citystates of Sumer around 2300 B.C.E. He built the first EMPIRE, known to history. An empire is several states and/or territories controlled

More information

NAME DATE CLASS. Directions: In the space next to each vocabulary term, write the letter of the word or phrase most closely connected with it.

NAME DATE CLASS. Directions: In the space next to each vocabulary term, write the letter of the word or phrase most closely connected with it. Vocabulary Builder Activity A. Content Vocabulary Directions: In the space next to each vocabulary term, write the letter of the word or phrase most closely connected with it. 1. subcontinent 2. monsoon

More information

Contribution to Civilization Other Empires in the Ancient Near East. Prof. Jayson Mutya Barlan, MPA

Contribution to Civilization Other Empires in the Ancient Near East. Prof. Jayson Mutya Barlan, MPA Contribution to Civilization Other Empires in the Ancient Near East Prof. Jayson Mutya Barlan, MPA The destruction of the Hettite kingdom and the weakening Egypt around 1200 B.C.E. allowed small city-states

More information

[ 6.5 ] History of Arabia and Iraq

[ 6.5 ] History of Arabia and Iraq [ 6.5 ] History of Arabia and Iraq [ 6.5 ] History of Arabia and Iraq Learning Objectives Describe the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia. Explain the origins and beliefs of Islam, including the significance

More information

Honors Global Studies I Syllabus Academic Magnet High School

Honors Global Studies I Syllabus Academic Magnet High School Honors Global Studies I Syllabus Academic Magnet High School COURSE DESIGN: The Honors Global Studies course is designed to be a general survey in a variety of ancient cultures all over the world. It is

More information

Grade 7 Social Studies Final Exam Study Guide May 2017

Grade 7 Social Studies Final Exam Study Guide May 2017 Grade 7 Social Studies Final Exam Study Guide May 2017 The exam will consist of the following: A. Multiple Choice (20 30 questions) B. Vocabulary Words (15 20 questions) C. Diagram and/or Mapping (1 3

More information

Revealing India and Pakistan s Ancient Art and Inventions

Revealing India and Pakistan s Ancient Art and Inventions Revealing India and Pakistan s Ancient Art and Inventions By National Geographic Society, adapted by Newsela staff on 08.18.17 Word Count 926 Level 970L Ruins at the archaeological site of Harappa, an

More information

Introduction. World Religions Unit

Introduction. World Religions Unit Introduction World Religions Unit Why Study Religions? Religion plays a key role in our world today Religion is a major component of the human experience Knowledge of people s religions helps us understand

More information

Unit 2. World Religions and Belief Systems. Name:

Unit 2. World Religions and Belief Systems. Name: Unit 2 World Religions and Belief Systems Name: 1 Table of Contents Animism.9 Shintoism...10 Hinduism.15 Buddhism 20 Judaism..23 Christianity..27 Islam...29 Confucianism.35 2 What do you know about religions?

More information

Lesson 6 - Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia. Section 1 - Introduction

Lesson 6 - Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia. Section 1 - Introduction Name: Date: Period: Lesson 6 - Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia Section 1 - Introduction Ancient Sumer flourished in Mesopotamia between 3500 and 2300 B.C.E. In this chapter, you will discover what

More information

Revealing India and Pakistan s Ancient Art and Inventions

Revealing India and Pakistan s Ancient Art and Inventions Revealing India and Pakistan s Ancient Art and Inventions By Andrew Howley, National Geographic Society on 08.18.17 Word Count 1,361 Level MAX Ruins at the archaeological site of Harappa, an Indus Valley

More information

ANCIENT CHINA GUIDED NOTES. 1. The climate in the north of China is cold and dry, while in the south,

ANCIENT CHINA GUIDED NOTES. 1. The climate in the north of China is cold and dry, while in the south, ANCIENT CHINA GUIDED NOTES Name: The Geography of China s River Valleys 1. The climate in the north of China is cold and dry, while in the south, monsoons bring rain from the oceans so the climate is warm

More information

Overview of Eurasian Cultural Traditions. Strayer: Ways of the World Chapter 5

Overview of Eurasian Cultural Traditions. Strayer: Ways of the World Chapter 5 Overview of Eurasian Cultural Traditions Strayer: Ways of the World Chapter 5 China and the Search for Order Three traditions emerged during the Zhou Dynasty: Legalism Confucianism Daoism Legalism Han

More information

CLASSICAL INDIA FROM THE MAURYANS TO THE GUPTAS

CLASSICAL INDIA FROM THE MAURYANS TO THE GUPTAS CLASSICAL INDIA FROM THE MAURYANS TO THE GUPTAS RISE OF MAURYAN EMPIRE Ganges Republics Prior to Alexander, kshatriyan republics dominated, vied for power Maghda was one of the most dominant Western Intrusions

More information

Curriculum Guide Class: Social Studies World Cultures Grade: Sixth

Curriculum Guide Class: Social Studies World Cultures Grade: Sixth Curriculum Guide Class: Social Studies World Cultures Grade: Sixth Timeline Content or 1 st 9 *Importance of time and timelines. Studying History and Geography s significance. *Early Civilization: Including

More information

Chapter 18 The Achievements of the Gupta Empire. Why is the period during the Gupta Empire known as the golden age?

Chapter 18 The Achievements of the Gupta Empire. Why is the period during the Gupta Empire known as the golden age? Chapter 18 The Achievements of the Gupta Empire 18.1. Introduction Why is the period during the Gupta Empire known as the golden age? Richard T. Nowitz/Corbis In this Ajanta cave, richly colored paintings

More information

Ancient Worlds. Unit Introduction

Ancient Worlds. Unit Introduction Ancient Worlds Unit Introduction then Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers,

More information

World History Unit 3 Contd. Post Classical Asia and Beyond

World History Unit 3 Contd. Post Classical Asia and Beyond World History Unit 3 Contd. Post Classical Asia and Beyond Essential Questions What were the major civilizations of Asia in the post-classical era? What were the effects of the Mongol invasions? What were

More information

Harappa and Mohenjo Daro

Harappa and Mohenjo Daro 4 ancient India and China.notebook Ancient India Geographically a subcontinent protected by the Himilayas and Hindu Kush Mtns. watered by the Indus and Ganges (holy) rivers secluded until the Aryan Invasion

More information

Chapter 2 Lesson 2 Peoples in the Eastern Mediterranean

Chapter 2 Lesson 2 Peoples in the Eastern Mediterranean Chapter 2 Lesson 2 Peoples in the Eastern Mediterranean Pastoral Nomads Nomadic peoples who lived in the areas surrounding the great civilizations of the ancient Middle East. They domesticated animals

More information

Characteristics of IRVC Communities Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro Early Civilizations of India

Characteristics of IRVC Communities Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro Early Civilizations of India Characteristics of IRVC Communities Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro Early Civilizations of India From the Indus River Valley Civilization to Hinduism today Laid out on a grid-pattern Food storage warehouses Buildings

More information

The Rise of Hinduism

The Rise of Hinduism The Rise of Hinduism Not many things have endured without major transformation for over 5,000 years. That's one reason Hindu traditions stand out. Hinduism might be the oldest religion on Earth. To understand

More information

Find the answers to the Matching exercise using the Glossary. 1. Sphinx A. A form of writing using pictures.

Find the answers to the Matching exercise using the Glossary. 1. Sphinx A. A form of writing using pictures. EARLY PEOPLES Ancient Egyptians Activity Sheet Glossary: There is a glossary on pages 60-61. Terms defined in the glossary are in bold type on their first appearance on any spread (two facing pages). Find

More information

People and Ideas on the Move. Explain the Dynasty Cycle and Mandate of Heaven.

People and Ideas on the Move. Explain the Dynasty Cycle and Mandate of Heaven. People and Ideas on the Move Explain the Dynasty Cycle and Mandate of Heaven. Objectives Students will be able to describe the spread of Indo- Europeans Aryan Invasion Hittite Empire Terms: Caste, Vedas,

More information

Chapter Test. History of Ancient India

Chapter Test. History of Ancient India Name Class Date MULTIPLE CHOICE Read each statement or question. On the lines below write the letter of the best answer. 1. Both Harappa and Mohenjo Daro were located near the a. city of Bodh Gaya. b.

More information

Hinduism and Buddhism

Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism and Buddhism PURPOSE OF SECTION: Explain the development and impact of Hinduism and Buddhism in India and subsequent diffusion of Buddhism. Hinduism National religion of India ॐ Based on variety

More information

Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity (509 B.C. A.D. 476)

Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity (509 B.C. A.D. 476) Chapter 6, Section World History: Connection to Today Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity (509 B.C. A.D. 476) Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper

More information

The Culture of Classical Greece

The Culture of Classical Greece The Culture of Classical Greece Greeks considered religion to be important to the well being of the state and it affected every aspect of Greek life. Twelve chief gods and goddesses were believed to reside

More information

The Origin of World Religions

The Origin of World Religions The Origin of World Religions By Anita Ravi, Big History Project, adapted by Newsela staff on 07.30.16 Word Count 1,834 Level 880L Monk Praying at Thatbyinnyu Temple, Myanmar. Courtesy of Karen Kasmauski/Corbis.

More information

European Legal Culture» Lecturers: dr hab. Rafał Wojciechowski dr Mateusz Szymura

European Legal Culture» Lecturers: dr hab. Rafał Wojciechowski dr Mateusz Szymura European Legal Culture» Lecturers: dr hab. Rafał Wojciechowski (rafal.wojciechowski@uwr.edu.pl)» dr Mateusz Szymura (mateusz.szymura@uwr.edu.pl)» Submitting papers until 18th January 2018» 8-13 pages of

More information

Chapter 7 - Lesson 2 "The Origins of Hinduism" p

Chapter 7 - Lesson 2 The Origins of Hinduism p Chapter 7 - Lesson 2 "The Origins of Hinduism" p.226-231 MAIN IDEAS Culture: A group of nomadic people moved into India and took over what was left of Harappan civilization. Government: Under Aryan rule,

More information

AP World History Summer Assignment

AP World History Summer Assignment AP World History Summer Assignment 2015-2016 Welcome to AP World History! You have chosen to take a college-level course that covers everything from prehistory to present day all across the globe. This

More information

Indian Civilization. Chapter Five: Ancient Civilizations of India and China. The Indus River Valley Civilization. Map 5.1

Indian Civilization. Chapter Five: Ancient Civilizations of India and China. The Indus River Valley Civilization. Map 5.1 Chapter Five: Ancient Civilizations of India and China Map 5.1 Indian Civilization The Indus River Valley Civilization Mohenjo-daro Agriculture-based society (cotton) Centralization Ecological disasters

More information

Indian Ocean Trade and Social & Cultural Change AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( )

Indian Ocean Trade and Social & Cultural Change AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( ) Indian Ocean Trade and Social & Cultural Change AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS (600 1450) After 1200 there was an expansion of trade in the Indian Ocean, why? Rising prosperity of Asia, European, &

More information

Ancient Rome. The cultural achievements of the Romans continue to influence the art, architecture, and literature of today.

Ancient Rome. The cultural achievements of the Romans continue to influence the art, architecture, and literature of today. MAIN IDEA The ancient Romans made important contributions to government, law, and engineering. Ancient Rome WHY IT MATTERS NOW The cultural achievements of the Romans continue to influence the art, architecture,

More information

Civilization. Mesopotamian 3000 B.C B.C B.C. Meeting People Sargon (SAHR GAHN) Hammurabi (HA muh RAH bee)

Civilization. Mesopotamian 3000 B.C B.C B.C. Meeting People Sargon (SAHR GAHN) Hammurabi (HA muh RAH bee) Mesopotamian Civilization History Social Science Standards WH6.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt,

More information

MESOPOTAMIA EGYPT INDIA

MESOPOTAMIA EGYPT INDIA Mesopotamia Mesopotamia means Between Rivers which conveniently explains is location between the Tigris and Euphrates. These functioned as natural borders within which 12 independent city-states developed.

More information

New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres

New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres 2200-250 BCE China 1 Map 3-1, p. 57 Geography Isolation Mountain ranges Deserts Mongolian steppe Pacific Ocean Evidence of trade with India/Central

More information

" " " " " " " The Earliest Civilizations. Part 1 of Ancient History with All Ye Lands. mercyformarthas.com

       The Earliest Civilizations. Part 1 of Ancient History with All Ye Lands. mercyformarthas.com The Earliest Civilizations 1 Part 1 of Ancient History with All Ye Lands mercyformarthas.com EARLIEST CIVILIZATIONS WEEK 1 2 Note Taking Overview In this history course, you will begin to learn a very

More information

DBQ: The European Middle Ages

DBQ: The European Middle Ages 9/30/13 10:45 AM Name Date Period DBQ: The European Middle Ages Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying documents in Part A. As you analyze the documents, take into account both

More information

The Growth of Civilizations

The Growth of Civilizations The Growth of Civilizations 1. Classical Greece - 2100 BC 150 BC 2. Rome and Early Christianity 750 BC AD 500 3. The Americas 1000 BC AD 1500 4. Empires of China and India 350 BC AD 600 Empires of China

More information

Culture: a people s way of life (how they meet their basic needs for food and shelter) language, literature, music, and art

Culture: a people s way of life (how they meet their basic needs for food and shelter) language, literature, music, and art Aspects of Culture What is Culture? Culture: a people s way of life (how they meet their basic needs for food and shelter) language, literature, music, and art beliefs about the world and religion technology

More information

UNIT 3 -CHAPTER 9: THE ISLAMIC WORLD AND AFRICA

UNIT 3 -CHAPTER 9: THE ISLAMIC WORLD AND AFRICA UNIT 3 -CHAPTER 9: THE ISLAMIC WORLD AND AFRICA INTRODUCTION In this chapter you will learn about developments in the Middle East and Africa during the post-classical era. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What are

More information

History of Ancient Israel

History of Ancient Israel History of Ancient Israel I. Beginnings A. Abraham lays the foundation for a new religion (which will become JUDAISM ) 1. lived in the Mesopotamian city of UR with his wife SARAH 2. the Mesopotamians believed

More information

Section 3. Empires of China and India. The Mauryan Empire

Section 3. Empires of China and India. The Mauryan Empire The Mauryan Empire Many small kingdoms existed across India in 300s BC Each kingdom had own ruler; no central authority united them Magadha a dominant kingdom near Ganges Strong leader, Chandragupta Maurya

More information

What is the difference between a community and a civilization?

What is the difference between a community and a civilization? What is the difference between a community and a civilization? Jason Allred Ivy Asbridge Skyler Asbridge Shantel Bock Hope Boswell Taylor Cowan Austin Dopp Savanna Greehalgh Nicolaus Hargett Taylee Hathaway

More information

Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe ( )

Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe ( ) Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe (500-1300) 1 The Early Middle Ages Why was Western Europe a frontier land during the early Middle Ages? How did Germanic kingdoms gain power in the early Middle Ages? How

More information

How did geography influence settlement and way of life in ancient Greece?

How did geography influence settlement and way of life in ancient Greece? Ancient Civilizations Final Exam Study Guide How did geography influence settlement and way of life in ancient Greece? What makes much of Greece a peninsula? The ancient Greeks did not like to travel on

More information

Western Asia and Egypt B.C.

Western Asia and Egypt B.C. Western Asia and Egypt 3500 500 B.C. Section 1 Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia Section 2 Egyptian Civilization Section 3 New Centers of Civilization Section 4 The Rise of New Empires MAKING CONNECTIONS

More information

Prepare to Read Section 1 The Indus and Ganges River Valleys

Prepare to Read Section 1 The Indus and Ganges River Valleys 124 CHAPTER Prepare to Read Section 1 The Indus and Ganges River Valleys Objectives 1. Learn about India s geographic setting. 2. Find out about life in an ancient city of the Indus River valley. 3. Learn

More information

REBUILDING CHINA S EMPIRE

REBUILDING CHINA S EMPIRE REBUILDING CHINA S EMPIRE REBUILDING CHINA S EMPIRE Main Idea (Objective) : The Sui, Tang and the Song Dynasties helped to reunite and rebuild China after years of war. REBUILDING CHINA S EMPIRE Lecture

More information

Séquence II : MESOPOTAMIA

Séquence II : MESOPOTAMIA Séquence II : MESOPOTAMIA Sequence II : Mesopotamia Reading comprehension: Pronunciation Word building Mastery of Language Writing Mesopotamia MESOPOTAMIA Mesopotamia is now known as the country of Iraq.

More information

1. The Chou period in ancient China corresponds most closely to the period between the years of (a) 1000 and 250 BC (b) 1500 and 500 BC (c) 500 and 150 BC (d) 1200 and 200 BC (e) 900 and 100 BC 2. Which

More information

Intro to Greece: The Rise of Democracy

Intro to Greece: The Rise of Democracy Intro to Greece: The Rise of Democracy I. The Geography of Greece A. Two defining features 1. 2. Water ( ) B. Results 1. Difficult travel 2. farming 3. Heavy reliance on fishing and 4.! II. City States

More information

Chapter 15. Learning About World Religions: Hinduism

Chapter 15. Learning About World Religions: Hinduism Chapter 15 Learning About World Religions: Hinduism Chapter 15 Learning About World Religions: Hinduism What are the origins and beliefs of Hinduism? 15.1 Introduction In this chapter, you will learn about

More information

Assessment: The Achievements of the Gupta Empire

Assessment: The Achievements of the Gupta Empire Name Date Assessment: The Achievements of the Gupta Empire 1. What happened on the Indian subcontinent in the time period between the Mauryan and Gupta empires? A. It went through a golden age. B. It experienced

More information

6.3 Gupta Empire. pp Essential Question: What makes a culture unique? Standard 6.23

6.3 Gupta Empire. pp Essential Question: What makes a culture unique? Standard 6.23 6.3 Gupta Empire pp. 160-163 Essential Question: What makes a culture unique? Standard 6.23 Success Criteria: 1. The Gupta Empire prospered through trade of which goods? 2. Explain pilgrimages in your

More information