1 Down With the Jews! American life has never lacked for Judeqphobia. Still, before the 1870's when it became fortijied, on the one hand, by the social pretensions of the new post-war millionaires and, on the other, by the new Rassenkunde imported from Germany, anti-jewish prejudice had not asmed the proportions of a major force in American life. The 1870's were different. First, there was the "Hilton-Seligman Affair" of 1877, when the notable financier Joseph Seligman found himself denied accmodutims at the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs, New York. "The cmntry's mtstanding Jew," as Lee M. Friedman has called him, Seligman was informed that Henry Hilton, the hotel's manager, had "given instructions that no Israelites shall be permitted in the future to sup at this hotel." Then, in 1879, Austin Corbin, president of both the Manhattan Beach Company and the Long Island Railroad, proposed to make Corny Island judenfrei. It was Corbin's wish to develop Coney Island as a stylish ocean resort for what Isaac Mayer Wise, of Cincinnati, termed "the codjish aristocracy of New York." Wise had read, in the Cincinnati Commercial, Corbin's stament that the Jews "give us more trouble on our [rail] road and in our hotel than we can stand" and "are driving away a class of people who are beginning to make Coney Island the most fashionable and magnijicent watering place in the world." The Cincinnati rabbi thought that taking the case to cmrt wmld provide a "proper remedy," but if that failed to help, "there are plenty of means left to remedy the aristocratic stench effectually and forever." Litigation apparently did not recornmad itself to Harry Hananel Marks (z8yy-z916), editor in of New York City's Reformer and Jewish Times. Marks, the London-born son of an English rabbi and university professor, preferred the "means" of satire and produced the lampoon reprinted below. In 1883, some four years later, he returned to England, where he founded the Financial News and subsequently served in the Hmse of Commons. Editing the Reformer and Jewish Times seems to have exhuusted Marks's Jewish interests. His pamphlet is, in any case, a clever - and even a prophtic -piece of work. Corbin had been a "wild-cat7' banker in Iowa before the Civil War; Hilton had been cmcted with New York's corrupt "Tweed Ring" - the "truly Christian trade" of the pamphlet - which Seligman had fought to
2 expose; and Max L. Rosvally, an apostate Jew and missionary, had been a physician and a convict. Marks cleverly juxtaposed these savory characters with some of the leading and most accomplished Jews in the world at that time. His fmilleton was - unintentionally - prophetic in attributing to the anti-semites a hunger for Jewry's utter extermination. He had, of course, intended that attribution as a hyperbolic pasquil; he cmld not know - and perhaps even the likes of Hiltm and Corbin cmld not imagine - that anything like the Hitlerian Endlosung der Judenfrage was little more than a half-century away. DOWN WITH THE JEWS! MEETING OF THE SOCIETY FOR SUPPRESSING THE JEWISH RACE A TERRIBLE PLOT AGAINST THE CHOSEN PEOPLE. A meeting of the American Society for the Suppression of the Jews was held on Tuesday evening last in the blue parlor of the Grand Union Hotel at Saratoga. Mr. Henry Hilton presided and Mr. Austin Corbin acted as Secretary. Max L. Rossvally made a few preliminary remarks and argued that the best way to suppress the Jews was to convert them to Christianity, as he had been converted while serving a term in the Albany Penitentiary. Mr. Corbin objected to introducing any religious element into the discussion, claiming that the society opposed the Jews only as a nasty and vulgar race and not on account of their religion. He thought, however, that the time had come for nice and refined Christians to put themselves on record as utterly opposed to the toleration of Jews in American society. "If this is a free country," said the speaker, "why can't we be free of the Jews?" (Loud applause.) Mr. Hilton, taking the floor, said that he quite agreed with the previous speaker. The Jews in America were becoming like their ancestors in Egypt, too numerous and powerful to be tolerated. Their business energy and abilities were a constant menace to the welfare of truly Christian trade - such as he practiced - and, if America was not to be Judaized, the Christians must unite to suppress these formidable rivals. By excluding them, as much as possible, from social advantages, by holding their men up to scorn and their women to ridicule, by never missing an opportunity to harass and pursue them he thought they might soon be persuaded to return to Jerusalem where, he said, they ought always to have remained. After speeches to the same effect by [Austin Corbin's brother] Mr.
3 DOWN WITH THE JEWS! 5 D[aniel]. C[hase]. Corbin, Counsellor Chatfield and others the following preamble and regulations were unanimously adopted: WHEREAS, The rapid increase of the Jewish population in the United States and especially in New York has become a constantly menacing danger to the welfare of Christian citizens; WHEREAS, Jewish competition, backed by Jewish audacity, is rearing its head in commercial, political, literary and professional life; WHEREAS, We find our clubs and hotels invaded by Jews, who also fill our theatres, managed by Jewish managers who hire Jewish artists to perform the works of Jewish authors; and WHEREAS, We find political and financial trusts confided to Jewish hands, while Jews practice at the Bar, sit on our Bench, edit our newspapers and, flourishing in whatever walk of life they may select, vulgarly flaunt their prosperity in our very faces, adding the insult of ostentatious display to the injury we sustain by their successful competition; therefore be it Resolved, That we deem it of vital importance to take immediate and effective measures to check the growth of Jewish influence among us and, to this end, we do, one and all, solemnly agree to bind ourselves by the declaration of principles here laid down. Resolved, That we deprecate the election of Jews to office and, when we see Jews like [Benjamin] Disraeli at the head of the British Government, [Sir George] Jesse1 on the British Bench, [Sir Julian] Goldsrnid, [Sir John] Simon, [Nathaniel Mayer] Rothschild and [Saul] Isaac in the British Parliament, [LCon] Gambetta, [Isaac Adolphe] Crimieux and [Jules Fran~ois] Simon in power in France, [Eduard] Lasker leading the liberal party in Germany, [Isaac] Artom in positions of Government trust in Italy and the Jew Hamburger [Baron Horace Giinzburg?] dictating to the Foreign Office even in Russia, we feel the importance of carrying on our work with energy and despatch. We notice, moreover, with alarm that in our country, Judah P. Benjamin and David S. Yulee, late Senators from Louisiana and Florida, Henry M. Phillips and Emanuel B. Hart, late Congressmen from Pennsylvania and New York, Henry M. Hyarns, late Lieutenant-Governor of Louisiana, Mordecai M. Noah, late Sheriff of New York, Uriah P. Levy, late Commodore of the United States Navy, and other Jews of public eminence have been succeeded by Jewish public men, of equally baneful influence. We, therefore, denounce the system by which the Jew [Benjamin Franklin] Jonas was recently elected to the Senate from Louisiana, by which the Jews [Edwin] Einstein and beopold] Morse are enabled to represent New York and Massachusetts in Congress.
4 6 AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES, APRIL, 1964 We deplore the election of Moritz Ellinger to be Coroner of New York; of Jews like Uacob] Hess, [Leo C.] Dessar, Englehart, Steinert and Seebacher to the State Assembly and of Jews like rphilip J.] Joachimsen, [Joseph] Koch, [Abraham Jesse] Dittenhoefer and [Marcus] Otterbourg to the Bench. We denounce [New York] Mayor [Edward] Cooper for appointing Jacob Hess to the place once held by Myer Stern in the Board of Charities and Corrections, and for retaining Katzenberg and Cohen in the Board of Education. We also denounce the action of American voters in electing Jews like Cahn [Mayer Hahn?], [Morris] Marks, Godchaux and [Leon] Jastrimski to the Louisiana Legislature, [Lewis] Seasongood to the Ohio Senate, Benjamin Levy Recorder of Eureka, Nev., Schweixter [Bernard Schweitzer] and Lehman to the Indiana Legislature, [Edward] Hirsch, State Treasurer of Oregon, Bachman, City Treasurer of Portland, Oregon, and Jews of the same kind to be Mayors of Los Angeles, Cal., Wilmington, N. C., Baton Rouge, La., Pierce City, Mo., Donaldsonville, La., Helena, Ark., Butte City, M[ontana]. T[erritory]., Montgomery, Ala., Bushnell, Ill., Wichita, Kan., and other towns and cities too numerous to mention. Resolved, That we deeply regret the inroads that the Jews have made upon the domains of music and the drama and, for the purpose of checking them, we pledge ourselves to attend no theatre or opera where Jewish composers or artists are encouraged. We will not in any way help to support the successors of the Jewish actors [Elisa Fklix] Rachel, Levinski, Davidson [Bogumil Dawison?] and Schneider. We will attend no performance in which the Jews, Sarah Bernhardt or Rose Eytinge, take part. We will not go to see Adelaide Neilson, because she has the Jew [Moritz?] Strakosch for her manager. We will not go to hear Aimee, because she has the Jew [Maurice] Grau for her manager. We will not attend Wallack's Theatre because [Lester] Wallack is of Jewish descent and his treasurer, Theodore Moss, is a Jew. We will attend no operatic or other musical entertainments at which there are played any of the compositions of the Jews [Felix] Mendelssohn, [Giacomo] Meyerbeer, [Jacques F. F. E.] HalCvi, [Jacques] Offenbach or [Johann?] Strauss or at which the Jews Uoseph] Joachim, [Anton] Rubenstein, [Henri] Wieniawski, [Pauline] Lucca, Heilbronn or Levy [Hermann Levi?] are permitted to appear. We will attend no church where the Psalms of the Jew David are sung or where any Jewish compositions are played. Resolved, That we will not read or in any way encourage the sale of the works of the Jews Disraeli, [Grace] Aguilar, [Berthold] Auerbach, [Meir Aaron] Goldschmidt, [Leopold] Kompert, [Heinrich] Heine, [James de?]
5 DOWN WITH THE JEWS! 7 Rothschild, [Emma] Lazarus, or [Benjamin] Farjeon. We will not read the New York Herald because of its proprietor's connection with the Jew [Joseph Moses] Levy of the London Daily Telegraph. We will not read the Home Journal because it is edited by an obnoxious Jew. We will not take or read the Examiner edited by the Jew [Elim] D'Avigdor or the 19th Century, which numbers among its contributors, the Jews [Leonard] Montefiore and [Hermann] Adler. Nor will we support or in any way encourage the sale or circulation of any of the periodicals kept by the Jew [August] Brentano. Resolved, That, for the purpose of discouraging Jewish intrusion into the realms of art, we will abstain from reading Harper's Weekly, while it is illustrated by the Jews [Thomas] Nast, [Michael A.?] Woolf, and Eytinge, that we will buy no photographs taken by the Jew Sarony, nor any paintings by the Jews Uoseph] Israels, [Elchanon and Salomon] Verveer, [Constant] Mayer, [Herman Naphtali] Hyneman, [B. S.] Marks or [Solomon A.] Hart. We are opposed to the acceptance by the United States Government of the statue of liberty [sic] by the Jew [Moses] Ezekiel. We are opposed to sending our children to schools where [Julius] Bien's maps and charts are used. Resolved, That, in order to discourage the intrusion of Jews into all branches of business to the detriment of truly Christian interests, we will not countenance or support in any way the Real Estate Trust Company which has among its directors the Jews Seligman, Wallach, [Meyer] Thalmessinger, Rosenbaum and Josephthal, or the Equitable Life Insurance Company, which has the Jew Seligman for a director, or the Mutual Life Insurance Company, which has the Jew [Lewis] May for a director. We will not ride on the Cross Town Railroad which is managed by the Jew May, nor will we ride on any railroad which has Jewish directors. Finally we will not subscribe to any U. S. Loan as long as the Jews Seligman & Co., and [August] Belmont are permitted to remain in the Syndicate. Resolved, That Jews must be excluded from all first class society. We call upon the Union League Club to expel the Jews Seligman and Einstein from among their members, upon the Union Club to expel the Jews [Harmon and Frederick?] Nathan and Florence, upon the Manhattan Club to expel the Jews [Emanuel B.?] Hart and [Theodore W.?] Myers and upon the Lotos, New York, Press and other clubs to cast out their Jewish members. Jews must not be admitted to Longbranch; let the cottages of the Seligmans, Sternbergers, [Lucien?] Moss and others be torn down. Let the chief streets [sic] of Newport, named after the Jew Uudah] Touro, be rechristened and let Christian society be cleansed of this people.
6 Resolved, That in the opinion of this society the constant awarding of prizes to Jewish pupils in our public schools, the small proportion of Jews in the jails (while they number one-tenth of the population of New York they contribute less than one per cent to the criminal classes,) their boasted immunity from contagious diseases, their proverbial sobriety and lawabiding reputation have served to increase their natural pride of race to an unbearable degree. We believe their reputation for learning, health and domestic virtue has been purchased by bribery and we denounce the Sun especially for selling out to our natural enemies, the Jews, an act of treachery which was sufficiently proved by the Sun's recent articles on "Jews in Public Schools" and by its boast that: "A man might as well oppose Niagara or the Mississippi or the Hudson as to brace himself against the Jews." Resolved, That the severest measures are needed to destroy the blighting effects of the ever increasing Jewish influence all over the world and, therefore, we are opposed to the enforcement of Article VII. of the Treaty of Berlin guaranteeing the Jews of Rournania equal rights with Christians. We are unalterably opposed to the further emancipation of the Jewish people and we appeal to all Christian peoples to aid us in restoring the Ghetto, the Inquisition and their agencies for the extermination of the Jews. Resolved, That we will no longer encourage the Jews by reading their Bible. We repudiate the Old Testament in toto, we refuse any longer to accept the Ten Commandments given by the Jew Moses, and we pledge ourselves not to attend any Church where the name of the Jew Jesus Christ is mentioned. With perfect confidence in the righteousness of our cause, we invoke the hearty co-operation of all Christians in this our holy crusade against the Jewish people and we pledge ourselves to spare no effort to remand them to the condition that they were in during the middle ages or to exterminate them utterly. These resolutions were adopted unanimously and Mr. Corbin, being called upon for a speech, addressed the meeting on the subject of the intrusion of Jews in the Christian society of Europe. He instanced the case of the British nobility, the marriage of the Rothschilds with the noble families of Great Britain, and gave a list of men like [Sir Moses] Montefiore, [Albert] Sassoon, [Sir David] Salomons, [Sir Benjamin Samuel] Phillips, [Sir Julius] Vogel, [Sir Barrow] Ellis and [Sir Isaac Lyon] Goldsmid, who have recently tarnished the English aristocracy by becoming part of it. After a vote of thanks to the Chair, the meeting adjourned with three cheers for Haman and Hilton, Torquemada and Corbin, the Inquisition and the Manhattan Beach Hotel.
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