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1 Judaism Ms. McPeak

2 Judaism Fast Facts date founded c. 2,500 BC place founded Mesopotamia founder Abraham adherents 14 million (11th ) main location Israel, Europe, and USA major sects Reform, Conservative, and Orthodox (traditional) sacred text Tanakh with the Talmud (Torah) original language Hebrew spiritual leader rabbi (rebbe in Hasidism)

3 Fast Facts Cont... place of worship Synagogue ("temple" in Reform Judaism) day of worship Saturday (Shabbat/Sabbath) theism monotheism ultimate reality One God (Yaweh) human nature created good purpose of life obedience to God how to live obey the law and atone for sin afterlife views vary: Gain Eden

4 Judaism Explained Judaism is a year old religion. It is considered to be the oldest organized religion that places monotheism, the belief in ONE God, at the core of its belief system. Judaism focuses mainly on the history of God s covenant, agreement, with the Jewish people. The aim for Jewish people are to be devoted to the study and observance of the Torah s laws and commandments; as well as those found in the Talmud.

5 What do Jewish People Believe? Judaism has no dogma, no formal set of beliefs that one must hold to be a Jew. In Judaism, actions are far more important than beliefs, although there is certainly a place for belief within Judaism. 13 Principles of Faith The closest that anyone has ever come to creating a widely-accepted list of Jewish beliefs is Rambam's thirteen principles of faith. These principles, which Rambam thought were the minimum requirements of Jewish belief, are: 1. God exists 2. God is one and unique 3. God is incorporeal 4. God is eternal 5. Prayer is to be directed to God alone and to no other 6. The words of the prophets are true 7. Moses' prophecies are true, and Moses was the greatest of the prophets 8. The Written Torah (first 5 books of the Bible) and Oral Torah (teachings now contained in the Talmud and other writings) were given to Moses 9. There will be no other Torah 10. G-d knows the thoughts and deeds of men 11. G-d will reward the good and punish the wicked 12. The Messiah will come 13. The dead will be resurrected

6 The Torah The word "Torah" is a tricky one, because it can mean different things in different contexts. In its most limited sense, "Torah" refers to the Five Books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. But the word "torah" can also be used to refer to the entire Jewish bible (the body of scripture known to non-jews as the Old Testament and to Jews as the Tanakh or Written Torah), or in its broadest sense, to the whole body of Jewish law and teachings.

7 The Messianic Idea in Judaism The idea of mashiach (messiah) which means the anointed one is an ancient one in Judaism The Jewish idea of mashiach is a great human political leader like King David; not a savior There is much speculation about when the mashiach will come The Bible identifies several tasks that the mashiach will accomplish -restore Jerusalem -establish a Jewish governmental center -re build temples and re-establish worship Jews do not believe in Jesus because he did not accomplish these tasks

8 The Ten Commandments These commandments, sent down to Moses at Mount Sinai, served as an extensive law code that set out the moral and legal dimensions of life for the Jewish people as they lived their life in covenant with God.

9 Movie Magic Charles Heston in the 1956 epic. The 10 Commandments

10 A List of the 613 Commandments

11 Keeping it Kosher General Rules Although the details of kashrut are extensive, the laws all derive from a few fairly simple, straightforward rules: 1. Certain animals may not be eaten at all. ( ie Pigs, hares, camels) 2. The birds/mammals permitted must be killed in accordance with Jewish law. 3. All blood must be drained from meat and poultry or broiled out of it before it is eaten. 4. Certain parts of permitted animals may not be eaten. 5. Fruits and vegetables are permitted, but must be inspected for bugs (which cannot be eaten) 6. Meat (the flesh of birds and mammals) cannot be eaten with dairy. Fish, eggs, fruits, vegetables and grains can be eaten with either meat or dairy. (According to some views, fish may not be eaten with meat). 7. Utensils can not mix with the meat ( also separation of meat and dairy)

12 Tzedakah: Charity Helping the poor and needy is a duty in Judaism ( Thought of as a commandment) Jews are among the most generous donors to charities. Traditional Orthodox Jews give 10% of their income Jews do not limit their generosity to Jewish charities Rambam classified ways of doing tzedakah by their level of merit

13 Levels of Charity Certain kinds of tzedakah are considered more meritorious than others. The Talmud describes these different levels of tzedakah, and Rambam organized them into a list. The levels of charity, from the least meritorious to the most meritorious, are: Giving begrudgingly Giving less that you should, but giving it cheerfully. Giving after being asked Giving before being asked Giving when you do not know the recipient's identity, but the recipient knows your identity Giving when you know the recipient's identity, but the recipient doesn't know your identity Giving when neither party knows the other's identity Enabling the recipient to become self-reliant

14 Jewish Holidays...With the Maccabeats Yom Kippur Significance: Day of Atonement Observances: Fasting, Prayer and Repentance Length: 25 Hours Greeting: Have an easy fast Liturgy additions: Annulment of vows; lengthy confession of sins Sukkot Significance: Remembers the wandering in the dessert; also a harvest festival Observances: Building and "dwelling" in a booth; waving branches and a fruit during services Length: 7 days Pesach: Passover Significance: Remembers the Exodus from Egypt Observances: Avoiding all leavened grain products and related foods; Family or communal retelling of the Exodus story Length: 8 days (Some: 7 days)

15 Holidays Cont... Chanukkah Significance: Remembers the rededication of the Temple after it was defiled by the Greeks Observances: Lighting candles Length: 8 days Customs: eating fried foods; playing with a dreidel (top) Rosh Hashanah Significance: New Year Observances: Sounding the shofar (ram's horn trumpet) Length: 2 Days (Some: 1 Day) Customs: Dipping apples in honey; Casting off "sins" into a river Greeting: L'shanah tovah! (For a good year!)

16 There Could Have Been so Much More... 6 million Jewish people were annihilated in the Holocaust solely based on their faith. Thats more than half of the current statistics! Hitler tried to dehumanize the Jewish people calling their faith unworthy and telling them that they could never escape being a Jew, it was part of their racial identity.

17 Elie Wiesel Quotes

18 The History of Judaism- Exodus v=b38t_ua3_0y

19 Reflection Characteristics Commonalities 2 pages What was surprising What was different from what you knew before general reflection of the unit ( what did you like, what did you not like, how could it be improved) 1 page

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