in the Apocalyptic Literature of Second Temple Period Judaism Jan A. Sigvartsen

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1 in the Apocalyptic Literature of Second Temple Period Judaism Jan A. Sigvartsen

2 in the Apocalyptic Literature of Second Temple Period Judaism Jan A. Sigvartsen Many views regarding the afterlife are expressed in the apocalyptic literature of Second Temple period Judaism. This paper explores some of these views, ranging from the simple to the complex, with a special focus on resurrection beliefs. These beliefs are diagramed and discussed, and some bear a striking similarity to resurrection beliefs held by Jews and Christians today. It seems there was no single belief held regarding the resurrection during this time period, but rather, there were a range of beliefs that addressed different facets of the problem of theodicy.

3 At the end of the 2 nd Temple Period, a belief in a bodily resurrection had become the mainstream belief in both surviving strands of Second Temple Period Judaism. Rabbinic Judaism All Israelites have a share in the world to come... And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: (1) He who says, the resurrection of the dead is a teaching which does not derive from the Torah, (2) and the Torah does not come from Heaven; and (3) an Epicurean (m. Sanh. 10:1). Jan A. Sigvartsen Early Christian Church For the Christians, questioning this doctrine was equated with questioning the historicity of Jesus resurrection, which was the guarantor for the Christians salvation hope (e.g. 1 Cor 15).

4 The different views of the afterlife falls into two main categories based on the opinion held regarding the nature of the soul. Soul Mortal Immortal Jan A. Sigvartsen

5 A rejection of an afterlife Sadducees Ant ; 18:1.4. J.W ; Matt 22:23-33; Mark 12:18-37; Luke 20:27-40; Acts 23:6-9). A future limited resurrection of all the righteous Several New Testament passages seems to suggest that only believers in Jesus Christ will be resurrected and receive eternal life (e.g. Rom 14:10-12; 1 Cor 15:12-57; 1 Thess 4:13-18). A future limited resurrection of the most righteous and the most wicked Jan A. Sigvartsen Dan 12:1-3, 13 describes a double resurrection A future universal resurrection E.g. 2 Bar ; T. Benj. 10:2-11; Ascen. Isa. 4:14-22; Apoc. Mos 13; L.A.B. 3:10; Matt 25:31-46; Acts 24:15, 21; Rev 20:4-6,

6 Some form of existence in Sheol Deut 26:14 suggests that some Israelites must have believed in some form of existence in Sheol and felt a need to provide food for the dead. This notion is further supported by Saul s use of a medium to request a prophetic message from the dead prophet Samuel (1 Sam 28:7-19). A belief that the soul left the body to have an independent existence until the day of a universal judgement when it would return to its resurrected body Pharisees Ant. 18:1.3; J.W ; Acts 23:6-9; Hippolytus, Haer. 28; This synthesized view appears in e.g. 2 Esdras 7:32-38; Apocr Ezek, frag 1. Jan A. Sigvartsen A belief that the soul left the body at the time of death and would live independently with no need for a future resurrection, since the good or bad soul would receive its just reward According to Josephus, this view was held by the Essenes (Ant ; J.W ;) and Eleazar ben Yair, the rebel leader at Masada (J.W ). However, Hippolytus of Rome (Elenchus 27.1) suggest that the Essenes did believe in a bodily resurrection. Philo Judaeus was one of the strongest advocates of the immortality of the soul doctrine without mentioning a bodily resurrection.

7 Literary Genre Apocryphical/Pseudepigraphical Texts Date Apocalyptic Literature and Related Works Testaments (Often with Apocalyptic Sections) Wisdom Literature (Apocalyptic Section) 1 Enoch 2 Enoch 3 Enoch Sibylline Oracles Treatise of Shem Apocryphon of Ezekiel Apocalypse of Zephaniah Fourth book of Ezra [=2 Esdras 3-14] Greek Apocalypse of Ezra Vision of Ezra Questions of Ezra Revelation of Ezra Apocalypse of Sedrach 2 Baruch 3 Baruch Apocalypse of Abraham Apocalypse of Adam Apocalypse of Elijah Apocalypse of Daniel Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs Testament of Reuben Testament of Simeon Testament of Levi Testament of Judah Testament of Issachar Testament of Zebulon Testament of Dan Testament of Naphtali Testament of Gad Testament of Asher Testament of Joseph Testament of Benjamin Testament of Job Testament of the Three Patriarchs Testament of Abraham Testament of Isaac Testament of Jacob Testament (Assumption) of Moses Testament of Solomon Testament of Adam Wisdom of Solomon 3rd Cent. B.C.E. 50 C.E. Late 1st Cent. C.E. 5th 6th Century C.E. 2nd Cent. B.C.E. 7th Cent. C.E. 1st Cent. B.C.E. 50 B.C.E. 50 C.E. 100 B.C.E. 70 C.E. Late 1st Cent. C.E. 2nd 9th Cent. C.E. 4th 7th Cent. C.E.? 2nd 9th Cent. C.E. 2nd 5th Cent. C.E. Early 2nd Cent. C.E. 1st 3rd Cent. C.E. 1st 2nd Cent. C.E. 1st 4th Cent. C.E. 1st 4th Cent. C.E. 9th Cent. C.E. 2nd Cent. B.C.E. Early 1st Cent. B.C.E. 1st Cent. C.E. 1st 2nd Cent. C.E. 1st 2nd Cent. C.E. 2nd 3rd Cent. C.E.? 1st Cent. C.E. 1st 3rd Cent. C.E. 2nd 5th Cent. C.E. 220 B.C.E 100 C.E.

8

9 Fig. 2. Death and Resurrection in Wisdom of Solomon

10 Fig. 3. Death and Resurrection in 2 Enoch

11 Present World THREE-STAGE WORLDVIEW 2 Esd 6:7; 7:13-16, 50 Renewed World 2 Esd 7:31 Tribulations Judgment 2 Esd 6:18-20 Temp. Messianic Kingdom 2 Esd 7: years Parallels the creation story and the Flood Narrative Primeval Silence 7 Days 2 Esd 7:30-31 Universal Resurrection/Judgment 2 Esd 5:40; 7:32-44 Week of years 2 Esd 7:43 Eternity 2 Esd 7:47 Signs of the End: 2 Esd 5:1-12; 6:18-24; 9:4-6 The Messiah will rule together with the surviving righteous 2 Esd 7:28 Death of all life including the Messiah 2 Esd 7:28-29 Righteous => Place of rest/paradise Wicked => Fire of Torments/Hell 2 Esd 7:32-42; 14:34-35

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