1 The boxes in this left-hand column provide parsing options for Greek verbs. Person & Number Singular Plural 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Tense Forms Present Future Aorist Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts in/on self The Vocabulary Box lists Greek words that appear in this section of Proverbs. Vocabulary αἴνιγμα, τό ἄκακος, ὁ ἀκούω ἀκούσας ἀρχή, ἡ γινώσκω γνῶναι δικαιοσύνη, ἡ θεός, ὁ κρίμα, τό κυβέρνησις, ἡ λόγος, ὁ παραβολή, ἡ σοφία, ἡ φόβος, ὁ Diphthongs are marked in blue, consonants with irregular pronunciation in red. Practical Application & Other Notes A Proverb: A short sentence based on long experience. Jeff Roper LXX: Proverbs Lesson 1 Proverbs Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries 2016 This right-hand box provides extra info on grammatical and other topics. Conjunctions ἀλλὰ δὲ ἐὰν ὡς ἵνα καὶ ὅτι Negations: Νο/Νοτ οὐ, οὐχ, οὐξ μή This box is a place to write down insights that were surfaced by our discussion of the passage.
2 The Koine Greek Alphabet Lowercase α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ Alpha Vita Gama Delta Epsilon Zita Ita Thita Yiota Kappa Lamda Mi ν Ni ξ Ksi ο Omikron π Pi ρ Ro σ,ς Sigma τ Taf υ Ipsilon φ Fi χ Xi ψ Psi ω Omega Remember that, in general, each Greek letter makes the first sound in its letter name (there are exceptions, like the occasional gama N and Y sounds). Wisdom LXX: Proverbs Lesson 1b The biblical proverbs most often consist of a bicolon stich, i.e., a stich (sentence) presented as a couplet in which the second half (second colon) develops or presents a contrasting thought to the first half (first colon). These couplets (called distichs in other schemes of poetic vocabulary) employ various kinds of parallelism between their two cola (called stichs by others). The genius of Hebrew parallelism is that it is in effect thought rhyme, and unlike auditory rhyme, readily translates into all the languages of the world. Kinds of Hebrew Parallelism Semantic Parallelism (based on stich meaning) Progressive Parallelism (based on thought development) Syntactic Parallelism (based on word arrangement) Synonymous: Pro 1.2 Antithetical: Pro Cause and Effect: Pro 4.26; Temporal Sequence: Pro Logical Sequence: Psa 4.3 Amplification: Pro 4.23 Petition and Argument: Pro 8.6, 32 Parallel parts of speech: Pro 6.13 Word order (e.g., Reverse): Psa 2.5 (Heb.) Ellipsis: Pro 3.13; 16.4 I like to define wisdom as: (1) Insight translated into effective behavior (Pro ), (2) based upon God s perfect and total understanding of how human life works (Pro ), which (3) allows us to make decisions with a big picture advantage (Pro ). In short, wisdom is decision-making insight discovered by divine help or revelation. Much human wisdom is discovered by the intelligent observation of life and natural phenomena, but without divine help, human wisdom is vulnerable to erroneous presuppositions and faulty premises, and thus conventional wisdom is often wrong, whereas the wisdom recorded in Scripture is supremely trustworthy. When we think of wisdom as decision-making insight, it naturally follows that wisdom literature presents us with choices between wise and foolish alternatives. Indeed, as we shall see, every proverb (and the introductory material in Pro 1-9) presents us with a choice. Usually, the wise choice is apparent, but more subtle proverbs, including the numerical ones (Pro ; ; etc.), or those with an ellipsis (e.g., Pro 16.4) require more careful thought.
3 Person & Number Singular Plural 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Tense Forms Present Future Aorist Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts in/on self Vocabulary ᾅδης, ὁ ἀδίκως αἷμα, τό ἄνομος, ον βάλλω βάλε βούλομαι βουληθῇς κλοιός, ὁ κοινωνέω κοινώνησον μήτηρ, ἡ στέφανος, ὁ τράχηλος, ὁ Practical Application & Other Notes Learn Koine Greek phrases: νοεῖς; = Do you understand? νοέω. = I understand. νοεῖτε; = Do you all understand? νοῦμεν. = We understand. Diphthongs are marked in blue, consonants with irregular pronunciation in red. LXX: Proverbs Lesson 2 Proverbs Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries 2016 Pronouncing Diphthongs ai ei oi ui ou au eu hu e as in met i as in ski i as in ski i as in ski ou as in through ahf pre-voiceless cons., else ahv ehf pre-voiceless cons., else ehv eef (or if ) pre-voiceless cons., else eev (or iv) Pronouncing Double Gamma Pronounce gg as ng. When gg is followed by an [e] sound, the second g makes a g y sound. Note: g also makes an n sound before k, x and c.
4 What Is A Proverb? LXX: Proverbs 2b The Hebrew word proverb ( ש ל,מ mashal ), connotes the following: Similarity, likeness, pair, twin, mirror, example, comparison, analogy, illustration. Fundamentally, a biblical proverb is about making a wise choice. In fact, every proverb in the Bible presents us with a choice. It s important to understand that proverbs teach wise choices rather than make divine promises. The famous proverb (22.6), Train up a child in the way he should go, Even when he is old he will not depart from it, is not a divine promise that if we read the Bible to our children and faithfully take them to Sunday School, they will certainly remain faithful to the Lord for the rest of their lives. The idea is this: If a couple had identical twins and trained one of them in the right way to live, but left the other to his own devices, the one with the training would have the higher probability of remaining faithful to the right way than the one with no training. In other words, proverbs teach probabilities rather than make promises. Reflections From The LXX While the Heb מ ש ל seems to embody the idea of making a comparison, the Grk παροιμία is similar to our English byword, as it is derived from παρά and οἶμος, meaning, by the way. Our term byword, however, may be no more than a translation of the Lat proverbium ( = before + word). From ancient times, the Greek authors used παροιμία simply to mean a saying. It would appear that a byword (Eng) or a by-the-way word (Grk), is simply a proverbial comment upon whatever is already being discussed or observed. Thus, we can imagine a couple of tailors commenting on the attire of a passerby: Look at that! He d better mend that hole in his coat before the whole sleeve comes off. Aye, a stitch in time saves nine. Now imagine the Creator Himself observing the behavior of the human race, and inspiring pithy bits of wisdom! That is what we have in the book of Proverbs: divinely affirmed observations on how human life works. The book of Proverbs is kind of like the Troubleshooting section of the manual for life that is the Bible. A Spectrum of Life Choices Rather Than Promises
5 Person & Number Singular Plural 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Tense Forms Present Future Aorist Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] ἄγω ἄγει ἀδικέω ἠδίκουν ἄκρος ἀντί, ἀνθʼ ἀφόβως ἄφρων βουλή, ἡ γίνομαι γενόμενοι διδάσκω διδάξω ἐλπίς, ἡ Vocabulary Diphthongs are marked in blue, consonants with a irregular pronunciation in red. Practical Application & Other Notes LXX: Proverbs Lesson 3 Proverbs Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries 2016 ח מ ות OR ה מ י ות In Proverbs 1.21, the MT has Lady Wisdom crying out at the head of noisy (ח כ מ ות) [?]. The participle noisy ה מ י ו ת) ) is feminine plural. Because the context is urban, our Eng versions supply the referent streets, but the Heb words for street are masculine. Because a Heb participle when used as an adj. must agree in number and gender with its noun, perhaps it would be better to supply.( פ נ ות) the fem. word corners The LXX circumvents the problem by correcting the Heb participle to a noun, walls, and so has on the tops of walls,ח מ ות (τειχέων), rather than at the head of noisy [feminine somethings]. Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts in/on self
6 The Koine Greek Case System Greek nouns, pronouns, adjectives and participles have case. Case is a feature of these kinds of words that tells us how they function in a sentence. In reading the Greek Scriptures, we primarily work with only four cases: 1. Nominative: This case is used for the word that indicates the subject of the action. 2. Accusative: This case is used for the word that indicates the direct object. 3. Genitive: This case is used for words that describe the quality of something or indicate ownership by someone. 4. Dative: This case is used for the word that indicates the indirect object. The dative case is sometimes divided according to three functions (though the forms of the words are identical): A. Dative: Indicating the indirect object, and translated with the helping words to or for. B. Locative: Indicating the location, sphere or destination of something, often using the preposition in when translated. C. Instrumental: Indicating the means or cause of something, often translated with the helping words by or with. Likewise, the genitive case is sometimes divided according to two functions (though the forms of the words are identical): A. Genitive: Indicating quality or possession. E.g., Pro 1.8, παιδείαν πατρός σου, teaching of father your. B. Ablative: Indicating separation or movement away from something. E.g., Pro 1.12, ἐκ γῆς, out of [the] earth. We usually translate the Genitive with the helping preposition of, but we are finding that the LXX often uses a Genitive where we would expect a Dative. For example, Pro 1.11: κοινώνησον αἵματος, share in blood. Perhaps in this instance the idea is, join with us in a fellowship of blood. Also, Pro 1.13: πλήσωμεν δὲ οἴκους ἡμετέρους σκύλων, and we may fill our houses with spoils. There is also a fifth case that appears often in the LXX poetry books, called the Vocative case, the case of address. If a word is in the vocative case, it indicates the person(s) or thing(s) being addressed. Examples of words in the vocative case are: υἱέ (son, Pro 1.8, 10; 2.1, 17; 3.1, etc.) παῖδες (children, Pro 4.8) ἄνθρωποι (men, Pro 8.4) τέκνον (child, Pro 31.2) For now, we need not worry about the Vocative case, because it is pretty easy to spot by context. Nor will we worry (for now) about the distinctions made between different kinds of Genitives and different kinds of Datives. For now, we need only learn the general meaning of the four cases given above, and begin to recognize their distinctive endings. The case endings for a masculine noun like λόγος are given on the preceding page. Here s a simple example of how the Greek cases would work in an English sentence: Listen, son, God blessed that work of mine for a purpose! LXX: Proverbs 3b Vocative Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative
7 Person & Number Singular Plural 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Tense Forms Present Future Aorist Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Vocabulary ἀνήρ, ὁ διάκονος, ὁ διασῴζω διεσώθη δίκαιος, α, ον ζωή, ἡ θάνατος, ὁ θησαυρός, ὁ λύπη, ἡ παιδεύω πεπαιδευμένος πατήρ, ὁ σοφός, ή, όν ψυχή, ἡ Diphthongs are marked in blue, consonants with an irregular pronunciation in red. Practical Application & Other Notes LXX: Proverbs Lesson 4 Proverbs Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries 2016 Groupings Of Proverbs The proverbs, in Proverbs chapters 10 through 29, seem at first glance to be ordered randomly. Closer observation, however, reveals common topical themes among some proverbs groupings. Sometimes proverbs are paired by paranomasia which is essentially punning: a play on words that associates similar sounds. We see this in Pro with the similarity in sound between ב ה ת ג ל ו ת (quarrels) and י ת ג ל ע the words (expressing his opinion). Even more interesting are the subtle connections in thought between pairs of proverbs addressing seemingly different topics. Can you see how the second line of Pro 10.1 might have brought the first line of Pro 10.2 to Solomon s mind as he recorded the sayings in this order? Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts in/on self }
8 The Wisdom Commandment The 5th commandment, affectionately known as the first commandment with a promise (Ephesians 6.2-3), can also be thought of as the wisdom commandment since it is the one of the ten which predicts the result of a certain habit of behavior. One can easily imagine this commandment reworded as a wisdom saying: The son who honors his father and mother; his days will be prolonged in the land. This commandment s theme of honoring one s mother and father with the emphasis of doing so by living wisely is the first theme of the individual proverbs that begin at Proverbs 10.1: A wise son will gladden a father, But a son a fool is the sorrow of his mother. LXX: Proverbs 4b This proverb presents us with a clear example of antithetical parallelism. Though the first stich uses an adjective, wise, and the second stich (in the Hebrew text) uses a noun, a fool, the parallelism is exact: a wise son brings joy to his parents; a fool[ish] son brings them sorrow. (The LXX smooths out the verse by using two adjective, wise and foolish, but looses the emphasis of the forceful Hebrew: a fool! ) Proverbs 10.1 does not force the mind to think beyond the contrasting effects of wisdom and foolishness upon one s parents. The wise son will have the satisfaction of his father s pride and commendation, while the fool[ish] son will experience the pain of seeing his mother grieve over him. However, the foolishness of a son can escalate to the point where he actively despises and mocks his mother, undoubtedly in an attempt to assuage his guilt for grieving her (Pro 15.20). The right choice for the son is clear: pursue wisdom and honor your parents! This is of course the message of the books prologue: My son keep sound wisdom and discretion ( Pro 3.21), My son, give attention to my wisdom (Pro 5.1). The message is then reinforced and expanded in Pro to 24.34, and finally repeated once more: Be wise, my son, and make my heart glad (Pro 27.11). Returning to the immediate context of Pro 10.1, we see that the topic of a wise versus a foolish son is taken up again in Pro Is it possible that Pro 10.1 and 10.5 form an inclusio, i.e., a bookends-like bracketing for the grouping of Pro 10.1 to 5? Let s consider how Pro might relate to the contrast between wise and foolish sons.
9 Person & Number Singular Plural 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Tense Forms Present Future Aorist Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Vocabulary ἄωρος, α, ον εἰρηνοποιέω εἰρηνοποιεῖ ἐντολή, ἡ εὐλογία, ἡ καρδία, ἡ κεφαλή, ἡ κύριος, ὁ νοήμων, όν ὄνομα, τό παράνομος, ον συνάγω συνάγει χεῖλος, τό Diphthongs are marked in blue, consonants with an irregular pronunciation in red. Practical Application & Other Notes LXX: Proverbs Lesson 5 Proverbs Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries 2016 Mind Words καρδία, ἡ Heart as center of inner life: mind ἄνοος, ον Silly, without understanding νόος, ὁ The mind νοερός, ά, όν Intellectual, intelligent νοέω Perceive νόημα, τό Thought, purpose, idea νοήμων Thoughtful, intelligent νοησις, ἡ Intelligence, understanding νοητός, ή, όν Mental, pertaining to mind νουβυστικός, ή, όν Shrewd, clever νουθετέω Put in mind, warn, admonish νουθετημα, τό Admonition, warning νουθετησις, ἡ Admonition, warning νουθετητέος, α, ον To be admonished νουθετητικός, ή, όν Didactic νουνέχεια, ἡ Good sense, discretion νουνεχής, ές Sensible, discreet Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts in/on self
10 Human Anatomy Terms τρῐχωμα, τό ὀφθαλμός, ὁ; in poetry ὄμμα, τό LXX: Proverbs 5b κεφαλή, ἡ καρδία, ἡ ὦμος, ὁ Y στῆθος, τό οὖς, τό μυκτήρ, ὁ; also ῥίς, ἡ;, gen. ῥινός στόμα, τό χεῖλος, τό βραχίων, ὁ The rich metaphors employed in biblical poetry often name parts of the human anatomy as metonyms for: 1. Things that proceed from a certain organ (e.g., lips for words, Pro 10.21; mouth for speech, Pro 12.6), 2. Things acquired by an organ (e.g., seeing eye for discernment, understanding, Pro 20.12), 3. An attitude projected by the organ (e.g., bright eyes for a glad or cheerful attitude, Pro 15.30; lofty eyes for arrogant attitude, Pro 30.13), 4. The mind directing the organ (e.g., Pro 3.7; 10.32), 5. The actions of the person using the organ (e.g. hands for destructive actions, Pro 14.1), 6. The person whose character directs the organ (Pro 12.19), 7. The character revealed by the use of the organ (e.g., slack hand for lazy character, Pro 10.4), etc. δεξιός χείρ, ἡ κοιλία, ἡ σκέλος, τό ἀριστερός δάκτυλος, ὁ γόνυ, τό θώραξ Dynamic translations, like the NIV (1984), often interpret the metonyms for us, rather than translating them literally. This can be helpful, but at the same time it eliminates the color and texture of a proverb, making it more wooden and lifeless. The metaphors of biblical poetry are intended to paint pictures in our minds that help us remember the life lesson of the saying. As you read the proverbs, you should be able to envision the hustle and bustle of a town square, the arguments in the market, the gestures and expressions of a king on his throne, the stumbling of a drunk in the alley way, and the sweating workers in the fields during harvest. It s great to read the proverbs in the original Hebrew text or the ancient Greek translation and experience them in all their living color! πούς, ὁ, ποδός
11 Person & Number Singular Plural 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Tense Forms Present Future Aorist Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Vocabulary αἴσθησις, ἡ ἀκάρδιος, ον ἀπώλεια, ἡ κρύπτω κρύψουσιν μῖσος, τό νεῖκος, τό πλούσιος, α, ον πόλις, ἡ τύπτω τύπτει φιλία, ἡ φιλονεικέω φιλονεικοῦντας Diphthongs are marked in blue, consonants with an irregular pronunciation in red. Practical Application & Other Notes LXX: Proverbs Lesson 6 Proverbs Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries 2016 Adjectives In Proverbs The biblical proverbs, both in Hebrew and Greek, are rich in adjectives. An adjective modifies a noun, i.e., it describes the thing named by the noun in view. Thus, in Pro 8.19 (LXX), the word silver, ἀργυρίου, is modified by the adjective, ἐκλεκτοῦ, select. In both Hebrew and Greek, adjectives have gender and number, and their gender and number must generally agree with the gender and number of the noun they modify. However, in the economical wording of the proverbs, precisely because adjectives encode gender and number information, adjectives are often used in place of a noun. Thus, in Pro 10.11, the adjective δικαίου, righteous, because it is masculine and singular in form, stands for a righteous man. Likewise, in Pro 10.14, the adjective σοφοὶ, wise, because it is masculine and plural, stands for wise men. This brings us to a translation dilemma: Is Pro really about wise men (as in NASB, NIV, KJV, JPS), or is the masculine plural adjective used generically to mean wise persons (i.e., the wise, as in the ESV)? Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts in/on self
12 Greek Prepositions ajnav LXX: Proverbs Lesson 6b Roderick Graciano Prepositions that use two different cases: ajntiv prov" katav eij" ujpevr ejpiv, ejpavnw ejn diva ejk parav metav periv ajpov διά Acc. = because of Gen. = through μετά Acc. = after Gen. = with ὑπέρ Acc. = above Gen. = with regard to ὑπο Αcc. = under Gen. = by, because of κατά Acc. = according to Gen. = against περί Acc. = approximately = around Gen./Acc. = for/concerning This diagram shows the fundamental idea attaching to each of the prepositions. For translation, we must note that the meaning of some prepositions varies according to the case of the noun or pronoun to which the preposition attaches (see listing at the right). ujpov ujpokavtw katav Prepositions that use three different cases: παρά Acc. = motion to beside Gen. = motion from beside Dat. = rest beside ἐπί Acc. = motion to upon Gen. = rest upon (at) = in the time of Dat. = rest upon (on, at)
13 Person & Number Singular Plural 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Tense Forms Present Future Aorist Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts in/on self ἁμαρτία, ἡ γλῶσσα, ἡ ἐκφέρω ἐκφέροντες ἐκφεύγω ἐκφεύξῃ ἐπίσταμαι ἐπίσταμαι ἔχθρα, ἡ ὁδός, ἡ πλανάω πλανᾶται πυρόω πεπυρωμένος τελευτάω τελευτῶσιν Vocabulary Diphthongs are marked in blue, consonants with an irregular pronunciation in red. Practical Application & Other Notes Recommended Resource: Mounce, William D. Basics of Biblical Greek: Grammar, ed. by Verlyn D. Verbrugge, Third Edition (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2009). Learn Koine Greek sentences: LXX: Proverbs Lesson 7 Proverbs Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries 2017 Origins Of The Proverbs While we need not doubt that Solomon himself collected the biblical proverbs (Pro 24.23), and composed many himself (along with much or all of the prologue material in chapters 1-9), the variety of subject matter in the aphorisms makes us wonder where many of them were first heard. Were these sayings coined by farmers as they swapped stories at the market? Were they made up by Levites or scribes who provided religious instruction? Were they tossed out by rulers as they discussed government business in the palace? Based on the internal evidence of the book of Proverbs, Waltke concludes that in general the proverbs originated in a court setting. This is a plausible conclusion when we bear in mind that the officials of Solomon s court would have had background in, and continuing contact with, farming, business, etc., and would have been keen observers of human relationships. Ἀνάγνωθι τὸν λόγον τὸν ἀκολουθοῦντα, παρακαλῶ. = Read the word the following, please.
14 LXX: Proverbs 7b Word Order In Greek We ve already looked at how Greek cases would work in an English sentence: Listen, son, God blessed that work of mine for a purpose. Vocative Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative A wonder of the Greek case system (together with Greek s number/gender agreement between substantives and their modifiers) is that it decreases (but does not eliminate) the importance of word order. If this were a Greek sentence, we could mix up the word order and the essential meaning would remain intact: Listen, son, that of mine work for a purpose blessed God. Ἄκουε, υἱέ, ἐκεῖνο ἐμοῦ ἔργον ἐπί βουλῇ εὐλόγησεν θεός. Imperative verb and voc. noun, identifying person spoken to. Pronoun and noun agree in number, gender and acc. case, identifying direct object. Prep. and noun coordinate in dat. case, identifying indirect object. Nom. case identifies subject of main verb, i.e., person doing the blessing. However, though we can arrange its sentences in many different ways, there is a normal word order in Greek. Like Hebrew, Greek is a VSO language, meaning that the normal grammatical order of its sentences is Verb -> Subject -> Object. This means that the word order of verses like Proverbs 10.1 in the LXX, which is SVO, S[V]O, while sounding very natural to the ear of an English speaker, is intended to convey emphasis. When Solomon writes, A foolish son gladdens [his] father, but a foolish son [is] a pain to the mother, he is fronting and emphasizing both the wise son and the foolish son and the contrast between the two. This is the most common departure from the normal VSO word order: fronting, i.e., putting the most important word(s) first in place of the verb. William Mseattleounce points us to Ephesians 2.8. In this verse we have an important New Testament example of a statement that fronts the means of the verb s action: τῇ γὰρ χάριτί ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι διὰ πίστεως. For by grace you have been saved through faith.
15 Person & Number Singular Plural 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Tense Forms Present Future Aorist Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts in/on self Vocabulary αἰών, ὁ ἀσεβής, ές ἀφανίζω ἀφανίζεται βλαβερός, ά, όν γέλως, ὁ ἐκκλίνω ἐκκλίνας ἐπιθυμία, ἡ ἔτος, τό ἡμέρα, ἡ κακός, ή, όν καπνός, ὁ καταιγίς, ἡ σῴζω σῴζεται Diphthongs are marked in blue, consonants with an irregular pronunciation in red. Practical Application & Other Notes Learn Koine Greek sentences: Ἀνάγνωθι τὸν λόγον τοῦτον, παρακαλῶ. = Read the word this, please. Ἀνάγνωθι τὸν λόγον ἐκεῖνον, παρακαλῶ. = Read the word that, please. LXX: Proverbs Lesson 8 Proverbs Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries 2017 Metonymy & Synecdoche Metonymy (pronounced, mǝ-tän -ǝ-my, or sometimes met -o-nym-y) is a figure of speech in which one thing is mentioned to mean another thing to which it is closely related. We might buy a signed Rockwell, by which we don t mean an actual member of the Rockwell family, but rather one of the famous artist s illustrations. Similarly, we can speak of the mouth to mean the testimony that proceeds from it (Matthew 18.16). Synecdoche (pronounced sǝ-nek -dǝ-kee) is a figure of speech in which the whole is used to mean a part, or (conversely) a part is used to mean the whole. When we say, The United States won the gold medal, we don t mean that the entire population competed, but rather that a small part of our country, namely, an American athlete or team, won the gold medal. Likewise, when we speak of a hired hand, we don t mean a disembodied hand, but refer to a whole person, of whom the hand is a part.
16 Heart And Mouth LXX: Proverbs 8b Here is a summary of the wisdom of Solomon on the heart-mouth connection, along with the parallel reflections of other observers, both ancient and modern: The heart, the innermost part of a man, must be carefully guarded because it is the wellspring of all that proceeds from him (Pro 4.23), including his words (Pro 16.23). Words spoken by another can become inscribed on one s heart (Pro 7.1-3), so a man should use his ears to take in what will train his heart well (Pro 23.12) this will help him guard his own words. To guard one s words is to guard one s soul (Pro 21.23). What proceeds from the mouth is part of the cumulative body language that reveals a man s character and the inclination of his heart (Pro ; cf ). Speech is a mirror of the soul; as a man speaks, so is he. Publius Syrus A mark of the righteous is thoughtful speech, while a characteristic of the wicked is that they spout offensive words without thinking (Pro 10.19; 15.28). The thoughtless are rarely wordless. Howard W. Newton Let every person be quick to hear, slow to speak, slow to anger; for the anger of man does not produce the righteousness of God. James 1.19 ESV When you are spoken to over harshly, or reproved unjustly, do not give way to the first emotion of anger, nor reply sharply, but keep silence, or speak humbly, or suffer with patience like your example Jesus, who was silent when they brought false witness against him, and when he was scourged, he did not murmur. He that speaks hastily is like a snarling hound; but a meek answer breaks the violence of wrath, and gives to the afflicted roses in the stead of thorns. Blessed is the prudent tongue, for it heals the wounds of the hasty. Thomas à Kempis A wicked heart and uttered lies are often found together (Pro ), even as a cunning heart and boisterous speech (Pro ). A fool cannot help but reveal his folly in speech (Pro 12.23; 15.2), so his best policy is to keep silent and let others think him wise (Pro 17.28). What is the sign of a foolish man? He talks too much. Zohar A mucho hablar, mucho errar. quoted by Erasmus Every ass loves to hear himself bray. Thomas Fuller They talk most who have the least to say. Matthew Prior A people who talk much will know little. John Wesley I don kare (sic) how much a man talks, if he will only say it in a few wurds (sic). Josh Billings A fool should certainly not attempt pretentious speech, lest he besmirch his own character, even as a nobleman would destroy his own reputation with lies (Pro 17.7). As long as words are in your mouth, you are their lord; once you utter them, you are their slave. Ibn Gabriol En cerrada boca, no entra mosca. Spanish proverb It s when a fish opens his mouth that he gets caught. Unknown Words have great power. They can destroy their own speaker (Pro 12.13), one s neighbor (Pro 11.9; cf. 12.6), or even a city (Pro 11.11; cf ), so they should not be used to slander and deceive (Pro 24.28). Instead, words should be used by the upright to warn and save the imperiled (Pro 12.6). That spoken from a righteous heart is as valuable as silver. In fact, the lips of the righteous feed many (Pro 10.21), gladden hearts (Pro 12.25; 27.9), and bring prosperity to the speaker (Pro 13.2), because wisdom flows from them (Pro ; 15.7; 16.21; 20.15), a wisdom that should prompt deep reflection on the part of the hearer (Pro 18.4; cf. 20.5). In contrast, words proceeding from a wicked heart are worthless (Pro 10.20), indeed perverted (Pro 10.32), and may lead to one s tongue being cut out (Pro 10.31). The speaker of truth is established in life, while the liar and foolish speaker shortens his own existence (Pro 12.19; 13.3; Pro 18.7), for YHVH delights in the former and abominates the latter (Pro 12.22). Every intemperate person digs his own grave with his own mouth and teeth, and is certainly a self-tormentor, a self-destroyer, a self-murderer. Thomas Brooks Even if one is only foolish, rather than wicked, he will be chastened by his own words and suffer for them (Pro 18.6), while the wise are protected and fed by theirs (Pro 14.3; 18.20). Words reveal much, but can also conceal or attempt to conceal violence and hatred that lurks in the heart (Pro 10.6,11,18; ; cf ). Speech can be a trap (Pro 22.14)! However, this does not negate the fact that YHVH Himself is sovereign over the words that emerge from our mouths (Pro 16.1,10).
The boxes in this left-hand column provide parsing options for Greek verbs. Person & Number Singular Plural 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past
1 Rule: A noun is definite or specific by 3 means: If it is a proper noun, that is, a name. If it has an attached possessive pronoun like my, his, their, etc. If it has the definite article. 2 As I just
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The boxes in this left-hand column provide parsing options for Greek verbs. Person & Number Singular Plural 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past
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