Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. Revised and Updated. New York: Basic Books, pp. $16.99.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. Revised and Updated. New York: Basic Books, pp. $16.99."

Transcription

1 Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. Revised and Updated. New York: Basic Books, pp. $ Many would suggest that the Bible is one of the greatest pieces of literature in history. Some would argue that in order for one to consider him or herself well-read, he must have a passable knowledge of the Bible from having read it. Despite this regular insistence regarding the value of the Bible as literature, far fewer have maintained that the biblical authors were great writers themselves. The Bible is merely influential and must-read literature because of its impact, not because of its literary merit. While Robert Alter, Professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at the University of California, Berkeley, acknowledges its authority as a sacred text, he argues in The Art of Biblical Narrative that the Bible also possesses significant literary merit. Alter s stated goal in this work is to provide a guide to the intelligent reading of biblical narrative by illuminating the distinctive principles of the Bible s narrative art (xiii). In other publications, particularly in his work The Art of Biblical Poetry, Alter addresses other facets of biblical literature and demonstrates similar literary merit with respect to Scripture. Because this work is both about Scripture and narrative, Alter identifies his audience as anyone concerned with the Bible, whether out of cultural or religious motives, and also to students of narrative (xiv). Summary Alter organizes his discussion of biblical narrative into eight chapters on the narrative art of the Bible, adding a conclusion for the ninth chapter. In chapter one, Alter introduces and defends the value of a literary approach to the Bible. He uses the interpolated story of Judah and Tamar in Genesis 38 as a case study that demonstrates the internal literary unity between this 1

2 2 account and its surrounding context, a position diametrically opposed to the prevailing view that this interpolation lacks any continuity and is a poorly edited addition to an existing Joseph cycle. He identifies the difference between these two approaches as assuming that the text is an intricately interconnected unity and assuming it is a patchwork of frequently disparate documents (11); Alter clearly associates himself with the former. Alter notes that the literary approach that he is proposing is only in its infancy, but already is producing promising results. Alter defines the literary analysis he proposes as the manifold varieties of minutely discriminating attention to the artful use of language, to the shifting play of ideas, conventions, tone, sound, imagery, syntax, narrative viewpoint, compositional units, and much else (11). In chapter two, Alter begins with the assertion that history is far more intimately related to fiction than we have been accustomed to assume (26). As he proceeds in the discussion, Alter suggests that prose fiction was the best means for biblical authors to present history (36). The history which the biblical authors present, however, is not historiography, but rather the imaginative reenactment of history by a gifted writer who organizes his materials along certain thematic biases and according to his own remarkable intuition of the psychology of the characters (40). He speaks of this art of biblical prose fiction as historicized fiction before adding that it may perhaps be better understood as fictionalized history (47). In chapters three through seven, Alter addresses five conventions of biblical narrative: type-scenes, narration and dialogue, repetition, characterization, and composite artistry. Alter believes that it is the loss of most of these conventions that makes encountering biblical narrative so difficult for readers (55). The first of these lost conventions is what Alter terms type-scenes. These type-scenes are recurrent narrative episodes attached to the careers of biblical heroes (60). Alter identifies several common type-scenes in biblical narrative: annunciation of birth,

3 3 encounter with betrothed at a well, epiphany in a field, the initiatory trial, danger in the desert, and testament of the death of the hero (60). He then uses the betrothal scene as a case study for analyzing type-scenes. He explores the betrothal scenes of Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Rachel, Moses, Ruth, Saul, David, and Samson, concluding that no one of these should be understood as the primary one, but rather each of them draws on a shared notion of how one should narrate (either orally or written) key events in a hero s life (77). In chapter four, the discussion shifts to the relationship between narration and dialogue. Alter s primary argument is that biblical writers are less concerned with the actions of characters themselves, but rather focuses on how each character responds, and these responses are usually communicated through dialogue (82). He also identifies the prevalence of direct speech over indirect speech. These aspects together lead Alter to conclude that the biblical writers make use of a convention known as narration-through-dialogue (87). In chapter five, Alter discusses the nature and function of repetition in biblical narratives. One of the primary emphases in this chapter is the identification of Leitwort, or the significant recurrence of a word-root in a text ( ). Alter then places Leitwort into a scale of repetition moving from smallest to largest: Leitwort, motif, theme, sequence of actions, and type-scene ( ). One of the most important reasons for recognizing repetition is so that the reader can recognize variations in the repetition. Alter argues that the ideal reader (originally, listener) is expected to attend closely to the constantly emerging differences in a medium that seems predicated on constant recurrence (122). The next convention Alter discusses is characterization. He notes that Hebrew characterization is quite different from the modern conception, which is driven mostly by the novel. Characters can be revealed through actions, dialogue, and comments by the narrator,

4 4 among others, but one of the key aspects of characterization in Hebrew narrative is the recognition of the drastic selectivity of the omniscient narrator (158). In order to demonstrate this convention, Alter uses the example of Michal. Through actions, dialogue, and comments by the narrator, Michal is portrayed alternately as David s wife and Saul s daughter depending on the context and purpose of the author. In chapter seven, Alter addresses the final convention composite artistry. In this chapter he uses the example of the rebellion of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram in Numbers 16 to demonstrate how the author intends the reader to see two parties and two catastrophes as one (169). Though it is seemingly contradictory to modern minds, Alter argues that for the Hebrew writers and readers, these could be mutually reinforcing (170). This example helps demonstrate how the biblical method for incorporating multiple perspectives appears to have been not a fusion of views in a single utterance but a montage of viewpoints arranged in sequence (192). In chapter eight, Alter returns to narration and argues that the authors used this type of prose fiction presented by an omniscient narrator because of the kind of knowledge it could make possible (195). He returns to the Joseph story, this time the final episodes in Egypt with the brothers and the silver, in order to present the reader with an example of how the type of narrative used by the biblical authors can produce knowledge and ultimately serve as an instrument of insight into these abiding perplexities of man s creaturely condition (220). Alter then reminds the reader in the conclusion of four general rubrics: words, actions, dialogue, and narration (223). His final thoughts are that one ought to reject the notion that we should take the bible seriously rather than enjoy, for it is precisely in enjoying it that one sees more clearly what they say about God, man, and history (235).

5 5 Critical Evaluation Alter has provided in this work a foundational text for those seeking to understand the literary conventions of biblical narrative and the value of literary study on the Bible in general. The fact that Alter s book has remained a programmatic text since its publication thirty years ago is evidence enough of its influence. Among its numerous strengths, the most consistent strength is Alter s use of biblical examples and thorough discussion to make his points clear and accessible to the reader. For each of the conventions he discusses, he notes how they are not common to the modern way of thinking. One expects, then, that Alter will have a difficult job explaining such ignored or forgotten conventions to modern readers; yet his use of examples helps clarify these conventions for the reader. For example, he does this well in chapter four when discussing the technique of narration-through-dialogue. After explaining some of the ways that biblical writers used dialogue to drive the narrative, he focuses on occasions where the brief statement of one character and the long, extended dialogue of another character in the story speak volumes about the narrative itself, technique he calls contrastive dialogue (91). This is certainly true in his example of Joseph and Potiphar s wife. Potiphar s wife is depicted in the narrative as repeatedly making the same, short request of Joseph: Lie with me. Joseph, in response, gives a lengthy reply about the wickedness of agreeing to her petition (91). Similarly, Amnon petitions his sister Tamar to Lie with me, sister. Like Joseph, Tamar gives a lengthy reply in which she strongly pleads with Amnon not to do such a thing (92). Still a third convincing example is Ahithophel and Hushai in 2 Samuel 17. Alter notes how Ahithophel s militarily correct advice is forty words in Hebrew, while Hushai s devious advice is given in eloquent language and rhetoric nearly three and a half times as long (93). In each of these

6 6 examples, Alter provides his readers with clear examples that help support his discussion on the literary convention of narration-through-dialogue, specifically contrastive dialogue. This careful use of examples is not limited to chapter four, but is rather indicative of the entire work with one minor exception. When identifying Leitworter he uses the example of Samuel and Saul and the recurring Leitworter of listen, voice, and word (117). However, unlike his other use of examples, this example is too brief to establish the function of Leitworter and their significance. Moreover, he asserts at the end of the discussion that the key word changes from listen to see, but he does not explain how it does so or why it would be important (118). Another strength of Alter s work is his argument for type-scenes. Alter suggests that there are numerous events in the life of the biblical heroes that follow a type-scene, or recognized pattern that sets the framework for how one would portray a particular event. For example, he argues that whenever the writer desired to present the reader with an annunciation of birth, he would follow certain conventions. Alter describes the annunciation type-scene in the following way: Now, the crucial central motif in the annunciations type-scene is the barren wife s being vouchsafed an oracle, a prophecy from a man of God, or a promise from an angel, that she will be granted a son, sometimes with an explicit indication of the son s destiny, often with the invocation of the formula, At this season next year, you will be embracing a son (108). Similarly, he identifies the components of the betrothal type-scene. The betrothal typescene begins with the future bridegroom, or his surrogate, traveling to a foreign land. Second, he encounters a woman at a well. Third, one of the characters will usually draw water. Fourth, the girl will rush home and tell her family, usually with the use of the word hurry or run. Finally, a betrothal arrangement will be established between the bridegroom and the girl, usually

7 7 after invitation to a meal (62). With respect to the betrothal type-scene, Alter then gives examples of Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Rachel, Moses, Ruth, Saul, David, and Samson. Each of these examples focuses on how the story is told through the lens of the type-scene. In those cases where the narrative varies from the type-scene, Alter suggests an intentional change by the author to alert the reader to portending events. This change is evident, for instance, in Samson s betrothal. Though he is on foreign soil and sees a girl he wants to marry, there is no well scene, no hospitality, and no arrangement. Rather, he returns to his parents and demands that they acquire her for his wife, and on the way to the arrangement he scoops honey from the lion (Alter suggests this is perhaps a replacement for the well). Alter argues that this break from the typescene due to Samson s impatience shows foreshadows the impetuous rush of Samson s career (74). Though Alter does sufficient work to convince the reader that the biblical authors are indeed using this convention, several problems arise. First, Alter does not discuss the relationship between the literary convention of type-scenes and historical accuracy. The reader may wonder whether the type-scene requires the biblical author to present a character as having acted in a certain manner whether or not he actually did. In many cases, this may seem a minor problem, but it raises the questions of historical truth claims. Did Jacob really meet Rachel in the manner that the text says, or was the author concerned with presenting the event according the convention of the type-scene? If the latter, then can the reader be confident that he actually did receive his brother s blessing, or could it be that the blessing of a son by his father is yet another type-scene? Without a discussion about the relationship between a literary type-scene and the historical event, how can the reader be confident about the historical truth claims of the text? This issue is further problematic in that Ruth is included as an example of the betrothal type-

8 8 scene (70-71), but Alter argues elsewhere that Ruth, Naomi, and Boaz are fictional inventions, probably based on no more than names, if that, preserved in national memory (38). If Ruth can be an example of a type-scene when not an historical individual, does that mean that Jacob or David may also be fictional? While Ruth s fictionality would not require David to be fictional, Alter is unclear about the relationship between literary conventions and history. Moreover, this problem surfaces in his conclusion when writes that fiction fundamentally serves the biblical writers as an instrument of fine insight into these abiding perplexities of man s creaturely condition (220). So are the characters of biblical narrative merely paradigmatic of man s condition, or are they historical, or are they both? Alter never answers this question, and the reader is thus left unsure of how to reconcile the literary conventions with historical concerns. Despite this problem, there seems to be a concern for historical matters when he alters his use of historicized fiction to describe biblical narrative in favor of the term fictionalized history (47). The former suggests that the narratives are primarily fiction, but are given an historical flavor; the latter suggests that the narratives are primarily historical, but are presented by means of fiction and the literary conventions that accompany such writings. Conclusion The first publication of this work helped awaken biblical scholars to the value of literary study of the Bible, a movement that has been immensely helpful and produced promising results in the past few decades. However, one of the questions that has arisen from such literary studies is how, if at all, they relate to the historical truth claims of the text. Though Alter s book is immensely helpful, it is disappointing that he did not do more to address these concerns in the updated edition. Nevertheless, Alter s audience of those interested in the Bible and students of narrative (xiv) will find this book enlightening and helpful.

SECTION 18. Correlation: How does it fit together?

SECTION 18. Correlation: How does it fit together? SECTION 18 Correlation: How does it fit together? CORRELATION (How does it fit together?) Because Scripture is the Word of God written in the words of men we operate from the premise that it is both unified

More information

SB=Student Book TE=Teacher s Edition WP=Workbook Plus RW=Reteaching Workbook 47

SB=Student Book TE=Teacher s Edition WP=Workbook Plus RW=Reteaching Workbook 47 A. READING / LITERATURE Content Standard Students in Wisconsin will read and respond to a wide range of writing to build an understanding of written materials, of themselves, and of others. Rationale Reading

More information

Sunday School Introduction to Ruth By Josh Mauldin. What is Ruth?

Sunday School Introduction to Ruth By Josh Mauldin. What is Ruth? Sunday School Introduction to Ruth By Josh Mauldin What is Ruth? Ruth is a short story 1 of God s work from tragedy to redemption in one particular family during the time of the Judges. However, we learn

More information

Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes, Bronze Level '2002 Correlated to: Oregon Language Arts Content Standards (Grade 7)

Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes, Bronze Level '2002 Correlated to: Oregon Language Arts Content Standards (Grade 7) Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes, Bronze Level '2002 Oregon Language Arts Content Standards (Grade 7) ENGLISH READING: Comprehend a variety of printed materials. Recognize, pronounce,

More information

Table of Contents 1-30

Table of Contents 1-30 No. Lesson Name 1 Introduction: Jonah Table of Contents 1-30 Lesson Description Welcome to Course B! In this lesson, we ll read selections from the first chapter of Jonah and use these verses to help us

More information

RUTH PART 1 INTRODUCTION. Romance or The Seed of the Woman?

RUTH PART 1 INTRODUCTION. Romance or The Seed of the Woman? The Book of Ruth RUTH PART 1 INTRODUCTION Dr. Charles P. 08.03.15 Romance or The Seed of the Woman? The Book of Ruth has enjoyed many varied interpretations over the years. Probably the most prevalent

More information

Joel S. Baden Yale Divinity School New Haven, Connecticut

Joel S. Baden Yale Divinity School New Haven, Connecticut RBL 07/2010 Wright, David P. Inventing God s Law: How the Covenant Code of the Bible Used and Revised the Laws of Hammurabi Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Pp. xiv + 589. Hardcover. $74.00. ISBN

More information

Intro to Exegesis Week 7: The Interpretive Journey - OT

Intro to Exegesis Week 7: The Interpretive Journey - OT Intro to Exegesis Week 7: The Interpretive Journey - OT Amos S. Yang, MD All material amosyang.net and may not be reproduced or redistributed without permission from the author. 1! The interpretive journey

More information

Old Testament Basics. The Old Testament Story. OT128 LESSON 02 of 10. Why the Old Testament Confuses Some People

Old Testament Basics. The Old Testament Story. OT128 LESSON 02 of 10. Why the Old Testament Confuses Some People Old Testament Basics OT128 LESSON 02 of 10 Dr. Sid Buzzell Experience: Dean of Christian University GlobalNet Why the Old Testament Confuses Some People Many people find the Old Testament difficult to

More information

Sermon Preparation Worksheet - Poetry (Last Updated: November 22, 2017)

Sermon Preparation Worksheet - Poetry (Last Updated: November 22, 2017) Text: 1) Original meaning of the text. (If possible/necessary, translate text first) a) Does this poem take place in an old covenant or new covenant context? b) Divide the psalm into its various sections,

More information

Providence and Prayer

Providence and Prayer Copyright Matthew W. Bassford, 2009. This material is subject to a Creative Commons attribution-noncommercial-no derivative works license. This means that it may be reproduced, shared, used freely, provided

More information

Character in Biblical Narrative

Character in Biblical Narrative HOW TO READ THE BIBLE: EPISODE 6 Character in Biblical Narrative STUDY NOTES SECTION 1: THE ROLE OF CHARACTERS IN BIBLICAL NARRATIVE 00:00-00:48 Jon: We re talking about how to read biblical narrative,

More information

Grade 7. correlated to the. Kentucky Middle School Core Content for Assessment, Reading and Writing Seventh Grade

Grade 7. correlated to the. Kentucky Middle School Core Content for Assessment, Reading and Writing Seventh Grade Grade 7 correlated to the Kentucky Middle School Core Content for Assessment, Reading and Writing Seventh Grade McDougal Littell, Grade 7 2006 correlated to the Kentucky Middle School Core Reading and

More information

PETERS TOWNSHIP HIGH SCHOOL THE BIBLE IN LITERATURE I ONLINE

PETERS TOWNSHIP HIGH SCHOOL THE BIBLE IN LITERATURE I ONLINE PETERS TOWNSHIP HIGH SCHOOL THE BIBLE IN LITERATURE I ONLINE Course Overview and Essential Skills The Bible has been and still is one of the most influential books ever published. Its influence is seen

More information

Prentice Hall United States History 1850 to the Present Florida Edition, 2013

Prentice Hall United States History 1850 to the Present Florida Edition, 2013 A Correlation of Prentice Hall United States History To the & Draft Publishers' Criteria for History/Social Studies Table of Contents Grades 9-10 Reading Standards for Informational Text... 3 Writing Standards...

More information

Dear Brothers and Sisters in Christ,

Dear Brothers and Sisters in Christ, Dear Brothers and Sisters in Christ, The privilege and responsibility to oversee and foster the pastoral life of the Diocese of Rockville Centre belongs to me as your Bishop and chief shepherd. I share

More information

How to Teach The Writings of the New Testament, 3 rd Edition Luke Timothy Johnson

How to Teach The Writings of the New Testament, 3 rd Edition Luke Timothy Johnson How to Teach The Writings of the New Testament, 3 rd Edition Luke Timothy Johnson As every experienced instructor understands, textbooks can be used in a variety of ways for effective teaching. In this

More information

Basic Discourse Analysis

Basic Discourse Analysis Review: Basic Discourse Analysis 1 In the past few weeks we have talked about: 1. Introductory material the need for hermeneutics. 2. General principles for hermeneutics. 3. Using Bible translations in

More information

Q u i z f o r D V D S e g m e n t 1 :

Q u i z f o r D V D S e g m e n t 1 : Q u i z f o r D V D S e g m e n t 1 : 1. Don t Read it a) Measuring Rod or 73 books included in the Catholic Bible inspired by God 2. 14 Books b) The result of our sin that turns us away from God 3. Read

More information

The Torah: A Women s Commentary

The Torah: A Women s Commentary Study Guide The Torah: A Women s Commentary Parashat B Shalach Exodus 13:17 17:16 Study Guide written by Carolyn Bricklin Dr. Tamara Cohn Eskenazi, Dr. D. Lisa Grant, and Rabbi Andrea L. Weiss, Ph.D.,

More information

RUTH: A GLIMMER OF GRACE

RUTH: A GLIMMER OF GRACE S E S S I O N T W E N T Y S E V E N RUTH: A GLIMMER OF GRACE Ruth 1 4 (Subtitle: "What's a Nice Moabite Girl Like You Doing in Bethlehem?") I. INTRODUCTION The book of Ruth is actually another appendix

More information

Genesis Reading Plan

Genesis Reading Plan Genesis Reading Plan Welcome to the study of Genesis! Each day will focus on a passage of Scripture from the book of Genesis. For the full experience, we invite you to read the daily reading before reading

More information

3. Detail Example from Text this is directly is where you provide evidence for your opinion in the topic sentence.

3. Detail Example from Text this is directly is where you provide evidence for your opinion in the topic sentence. Body Paragraphs Notes W1: Argumentative Writing a. Claim Statement Introduce precise claim Paragraph Structure organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons,

More information

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS A Compilation of Question Sets from the Syllabus and Sourcebook on The Lost Matriarch: Finding Leah in the Bible and Midrash

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS A Compilation of Question Sets from the Syllabus and Sourcebook on The Lost Matriarch: Finding Leah in the Bible and Midrash DISCUSSION QUESTIONS A Compilation of Question Sets from the Syllabus and Sourcebook on The Lost Matriarch: Finding Leah in the Bible and Midrash 1. WE MEET LEAH: 1. What do the Torah s introductory verses

More information

The Torah: A Women s Commentary

The Torah: A Women s Commentary STUDY GUIDE The Torah: A Women s Commentary Parashat Chayei Sarah Genesis 23:1 25:18 Study Guide written by Rabbi Stephanie Bernstein Dr. Tamara Cohn Eskenazi, Dr. Lisa D. Grant, and Rabbi Andrea L. Weiss,

More information

IN THE BEGINNING: FIRST ENCOUNTERS. Native American Myths 1600 s

IN THE BEGINNING: FIRST ENCOUNTERS. Native American Myths 1600 s IN THE BEGINNING: FIRST ENCOUNTERS Native American Myths 1600 s WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A MYTH AND A LEGEND? A myth is an anonymous oral story that has been handed down through history that explains

More information

The Gospel of Luke 3, 4 & 5. An Overview of the Gospel

The Gospel of Luke 3, 4 & 5. An Overview of the Gospel The Gospel of Luke 3, 4 & 5. An Overview of the Gospel Notes by Linda Monyak. Last Update December 3, 2000 Topics 1. Luke, the historian 2. Luke, the theologian 3. Luke, the gospel 3.1. Introduction 3.2.

More information

Undergraduate Course Descriptions

Undergraduate Course Descriptions Undergraduate Course Descriptions Biblical Theology (BT) BT 3229 - Biblical Theology An introduction to the principles and practice of Biblical Theology, as well as its complementary relationship to Systematic

More information

Yarchin, William. History of Biblical Interpretation: A Reader. Grand Rapids: Baker

Yarchin, William. History of Biblical Interpretation: A Reader. Grand Rapids: Baker Yarchin, William. History of Biblical Interpretation: A Reader. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2004. 444pp. $37.00. As William Yarchin, author of History of Biblical Interpretation: A Reader, notes in his

More information

Earth Bible Commentary 1. Terence E. Fretheim Luther Seminary St. Paul, Minnesota

Earth Bible Commentary 1. Terence E. Fretheim Luther Seminary St. Paul, Minnesota RBL 10/2013 Norman Habel The Birth, the Curse and the Greening of Earth: An Ecological Reading of Genesis 1 11 Earth Bible Commentary 1 Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2011. Pp. xii + 140. Hardcover. $80.00.

More information

Sample Survey of the Book of Jonah

Sample Survey of the Book of Jonah Sample Survey of the Book of Jonah Sample Survey of the Book of Jonah 1.a. General Materials - Biographical (Jonah and Yahweh) Book begins with word of Yahweh to Jonah - Command -> Yahweh as Sovereign

More information

Eichrodt, Walther. Theology of the Old Testament: Volume 1. The Old Testament Library.

Eichrodt, Walther. Theology of the Old Testament: Volume 1. The Old Testament Library. Eichrodt, Walther. Theology of the Old Testament: Volume 1. The Old Testament Library. Translated by J.A. Baker. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1961. 542 pp. $50.00. The discipline of biblical theology has

More information

GCE. Religious Studies. Mark Scheme for June Advanced GCE G574 New Testament. Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations

GCE. Religious Studies. Mark Scheme for June Advanced GCE G574 New Testament. Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations GCE Religious Studies Advanced GCE G574 New Testament Mark Scheme for June 2010 Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations OCR (Oxford Cambridge and RSA) is a leading UK awarding body, providing a wide range

More information

SECTION 17. Old Testament Narrative and Poetry

SECTION 17. Old Testament Narrative and Poetry SECTION 17 Old Testament Narrative and Poetry WHAT TO LOOK FOR WHEN READING A PARAGRAPH 1. Look for that which is General and that which is Specific. 2. Look for the author s use of Questions and Answers.

More information

Sample Survey of the Gospel of Mark

Sample Survey of the Gospel of Mark Sample Survey of the Gospel of Mark Sample Survey of the Gospel of Mark I. General Materials: Biographical II. Structure: (A) Main Units and Sub-units S u p e r s c r i p t i o n Ministry of John the Baptist

More information

BSNT 520: Life and Teachings of Jesus

BSNT 520: Life and Teachings of Jesus BSNT 520: Life and Teachings of Jesus Cincinnati Bible Seminary Spring 2014 Tom Thatcher 3 graduate credits tom.thatcher@ccuniversity.edu Rationale: Christian faith originates in the life and teachings

More information

Judah During the Divided Kingdom (2 Chronicles 10:1 28:7) by Dr. Richard L. Pratt, Jr. The Reign of Rehoboam, part 2 (2 Chronicles 11:1-23)

Judah During the Divided Kingdom (2 Chronicles 10:1 28:7) by Dr. Richard L. Pratt, Jr. The Reign of Rehoboam, part 2 (2 Chronicles 11:1-23) Judah During the Divided Kingdom (2 Chronicles 10:1 28:7) by Dr. Richard L. Pratt, Jr. The Reign of Rehoboam, part 2 (2 Chronicles 11:1-23) Rehoboam's Compliance with the Prophetic Word (11:1-4) Rehoboam

More information

Old Testament #4: Wisdom Literature

Old Testament #4: Wisdom Literature Old Testament #4: Wisdom Literature WISDOM LITERATURE 1 Wisdom Literature is a group of biblical writings that deal with practical ethics and righteous living in a fallen world. It provides instructions

More information

A Story of Tragedy, Hope & Redemption. Gulf Shores, AL. BIBLE CLASS STUDY GUIDE Prepared by Ray Reynolds

A Story of Tragedy, Hope & Redemption. Gulf Shores, AL. BIBLE CLASS STUDY GUIDE Prepared by Ray Reynolds A Story of Tragedy, Hope & Redemption Gulf Shores, AL BIBLE CLASS STUDY GUIDE Prepared by Ray Reynolds 1 Study Guide for the Book of Ruth Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Author of the book of Ruth.................

More information

Preparation: 1 Dr. John Mandsager, Hebrew Bible, USC Columbia Spring

Preparation: 1 Dr. John Mandsager, Hebrew Bible, USC Columbia Spring Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) JSTU 301, RELG 301 Dr. John Mandsager Course Description: The Hebrew Bible is a cornerstone of Western culture, literature, and religion. For more than two thousand years,

More information

Behold, A Virgin Shall Conceive 4 th Sunday of Advent, December 22, 2013, Isaiah 7:10-16, Matthew 1:18-25 The Reverend Dr. Arnold Isidore Thomas

Behold, A Virgin Shall Conceive 4 th Sunday of Advent, December 22, 2013, Isaiah 7:10-16, Matthew 1:18-25 The Reverend Dr. Arnold Isidore Thomas Behold, A Virgin Shall Conceive 4 th Sunday of Advent, December 22, 2013, Isaiah 7:10-16, Matthew 1:18-25 The Reverend Dr. Arnold Isidore Thomas Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall

More information

Biblical Periods TheBible As Historical Narrative

Biblical Periods TheBible As Historical Narrative Biblical Periods TheBible As Historical Narrative http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/07/early-historical-israel-dan-beersheba-judea.png NAME of PERIOD TIME/EVENTS COVERED DATES RELATED BOOKS

More information

CALVARY. > Determine which discussion points and questions will work best with your group.

CALVARY. > Determine which discussion points and questions will work best with your group. BIBLE FELLOWSHIP TEACHING PLANS MARCH 13, 2016 CALVARY GENESIS 29:1-14A MARCH 13, 2016 TEACHING PLAN PREPARATION > Spend the week reading through and studying Genesis 29:1-14a. Consult the commentary provided

More information

HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.)

HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) 1 HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) I. ARGUMENT RECOGNITION Important Concepts An argument is a unit of reasoning that attempts to prove that a certain idea is true by

More information

4/22/ :42:01 AM

4/22/ :42:01 AM RITUAL AND RHETORIC IN LEVITICUS: FROM SACRIFICE TO SCRIPTURE. By James W. Watts. Cambridge University Press 2007. Pp. 217. $85.00. ISBN: 0-521-87193-X. This is one of a significant number of new books

More information

Fill in the blank: Joshua had seven priests carry trumpets and the ark around the city of. (Jericho)

Fill in the blank: Joshua had seven priests carry trumpets and the ark around the city of. (Jericho) Jesus is referred to as the of Judah. (Lion) No one whose is in God will ever be put to shame. (hope) Rachel s sister and Jacob s wife. (Leah) Weak eyed mother of Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah. (Leah)

More information

Notes on Job - page 1

Notes on Job - page 1 Notes on Job - page 1 NAME The book gets its name from the central character in the book. The meaning of the word Job is uncertain, but according to some it means one who turns back to God. Job was probably

More information

Joining the Feast. Year A Fall 2017 Season after Pentecost 2 Proper 17 Reign of Christ Westminster John Knox Press

Joining the Feast. Year A Fall 2017 Season after Pentecost 2 Proper 17 Reign of Christ Westminster John Knox Press Year A Fall 2017 Season after Pentecost 2 Proper 17 Reign of Christ 1 September 3, 2017 November 26, 2017 What you will find in Joining the Feast! The Church Year Calendar Describes the important church

More information

Exodus 2:1-10. Introduction

Exodus 2:1-10. Introduction Exodus 2:1-10 Introduction Exodus 1 is a story of suffering, and brutality, and terror. The king of Egypt has set for himself the goal of stopping and even reversing the astonishing multiplication of the

More information

A Book Review of Gerald Henry Wilson s book The Editing of the Hebrew Psalter Chico: Scholars Press, A. K. Lama (Box 560)

A Book Review of Gerald Henry Wilson s book The Editing of the Hebrew Psalter Chico: Scholars Press, A. K. Lama (Box 560) A Book Review of Gerald Henry Wilson s book The Editing of the Hebrew Psalter Chico: Scholars Press, 1985. by A. K. Lama (Box 560) In Partial fulfillment of the Course Requirement History of the Hebrew

More information

English Language Arts: Grade 5

English Language Arts: Grade 5 LANGUAGE STANDARDS L.5.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. L.5.1a Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections

More information

Hanna Liss Hochschule für Jüdische Studien, Heidelberg Heidelberg, Germany

Hanna Liss Hochschule für Jüdische Studien, Heidelberg Heidelberg, Germany RBL 04/2008 Watts, James W. Ritual and Rhetoric in Leviticus: From Sacrifice to Scripture New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Pp. xviii + 257. Hardcover. $85.00. ISBN 052187193X. Hanna Liss Hochschule

More information

3-Track Plan for Reading the Bible

3-Track Plan for Reading the Bible Track I Introduction to the Bible 3-Track Plan for Reading the Bible 1. Two Weeks on the Life and Teachings of Jesus Luke 1: Preparing for Jesus arrival Luke 2: The story of Jesus birth Mark 1: The beginning

More information

Exploring Visual Narratives through Thangkas

Exploring Visual Narratives through Thangkas Exploring Visual Narratives through Thangkas Subjects: visual arts; social studies Grade level: sixth grade and up Time needed: two forty-five-minute class periods Goal Students will apply the composition,

More information

UC Riverside UC Riverside Previously Published Works

UC Riverside UC Riverside Previously Published Works UC Riverside UC Riverside Previously Published Works Title Islam Translated: Literature, Conversion, and the Arabic Cosmopolis of South and Southeast Asia. Permalink https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2dg9g5zb

More information

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. by Jonathan Edwards

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. by Jonathan Edwards Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God by Jonathan Edwards Think Think about a time you tried to change someone s mind. Did you use a gentle approach, scare tactics, or something in between? Have you ever

More information

KNOWING GOD S WILL FOR MY LIFE

KNOWING GOD S WILL FOR MY LIFE KNOWING GOD S WILL FOR MY LIFE BY HUMBERTO M. RASI GOD PROVIDES US WITH GUIDANCE AND THEN ALLOWS US TO MAKE CHOICES. Life consists of a series of choices. While some choices are relatively unimportant,

More information

old testament Lesson 3 Unit 1 patriarchal Stage Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob

old testament Lesson 3 Unit 1 patriarchal Stage Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob old testament Unit 1 Lesson 3 patriarchal Stage Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob Old Testament Unit 1 Page 2 Instructions This workbook is meant to reinforce learning. It guides the learner through the Scriptures

More information

Note: Where a Scripture text is underlined in the body of this discussion, it is recommended that the reader look up and read that passage.

Note: Where a Scripture text is underlined in the body of this discussion, it is recommended that the reader look up and read that passage. 4 th Sunday of Advent Cycle B Note: Where a Scripture text is underlined in the body of this discussion, it is recommended that the reader look up and read that passage. Introduction Anticipation and preparedness

More information

The Church at Brook Hills Dr. David Platt January 5, 2014 Genesis 1:26-31; Matthew 4:18-22

The Church at Brook Hills Dr. David Platt January 5, 2014 Genesis 1:26-31; Matthew 4:18-22 Use this resource as a tool to help Christ-followers move forward in their spiritual growth. To do this well requires that the Small Group Leader is building a relationship with the individuals in the

More information

AP Literature and Composition Summer Project 2017 Athens HS

AP Literature and Composition Summer Project 2017 Athens HS 1 AP Literature and Composition Summer Project 2017 Athens HS Contents: Biblical Allusions Assignment -------2 Beowulf Reading Assignment --------3 Beowulf Creative Assignment --------5 You may type or

More information

Segment Survey Mark 4:1-34

Segment Survey Mark 4:1-34 Segment Survey Mark 4:1-34 I. Structure General Description (4:2) Specific Parables General Description (4:33-34) Segment Survey Mark 4:1-34 A. Main Units and Sub-Units 4:1 4:2 4:3 4:32 4:33 4:34 Setting

More information

A Brief Discussion about Literal vs. Allegorical Interpretation of Scripture. Presented by Gregory B. Washington

A Brief Discussion about Literal vs. Allegorical Interpretation of Scripture. Presented by Gregory B. Washington A Brief Discussion about Literal vs. Allegorical Interpretation of Scripture. Presented by Gregory B. Washington Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation.

More information

Claude F. Mariottini Northern Baptist Seminary Lombard, Illinois

Claude F. Mariottini Northern Baptist Seminary Lombard, Illinois RBL 03/2010 Oswalt, John The Bible among the Myths: Unique Revelation or Just Ancient Literature? Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009. Pp. 204. Paper. $17.99. ISBN 0310285097. Claude F. Mariottini Northern Baptist

More information

Catholic Approach to the Bible

Catholic Approach to the Bible Catholic Approach to the Bible Important Catholic ecclesiastical documents on interpreting the Christian Bible: The Pontifical Biblical Commission: The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church (1993)

More information

Jesus Christ: God s Revelation Directed Reading Worksheet Chapter 6 The Synoptic Gospels

Jesus Christ: God s Revelation Directed Reading Worksheet Chapter 6 The Synoptic Gospels Name Date Jesus Christ: God s Revelation Directed Reading Worksheet Chapter 6 The Synoptic Gospels Directions: Read through the chapter and fill in the missing information. All the questions run sequential

More information

DESIRES AND BELIEFS OF ONE S OWN. Geoffrey Sayre-McCord and Michael Smith

DESIRES AND BELIEFS OF ONE S OWN. Geoffrey Sayre-McCord and Michael Smith Draft only. Please do not copy or cite without permission. DESIRES AND BELIEFS OF ONE S OWN Geoffrey Sayre-McCord and Michael Smith Much work in recent moral psychology attempts to spell out what it is

More information

Blessed is He who Comes! : History and Eschatology in the Episcopal Church s Liturgical. Resources for Advent, Stephen R.

Blessed is He who Comes! : History and Eschatology in the Episcopal Church s Liturgical. Resources for Advent, Stephen R. Blessed is He who Comes! : History and Eschatology in the Episcopal Church s Liturgical Resources for Advent, 1928-2012 Stephen R. Shaver Graduate Theological Union December 2012 Abstract The season of

More information

literature? In her lively, readable contribution to the Wiley-Blackwell Literature in Context

literature? In her lively, readable contribution to the Wiley-Blackwell Literature in Context SUSAN CASTILLO AMERICAN LITERATURE IN CONTEXT TO 1865 (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010) xviii + 185 pp. Reviewed by Yvette Piggush How did the history of the New World influence the meaning and the significance

More information

What does the Bible say about itself?

What does the Bible say about itself? What does the Bible say about itself? The Bible is the supreme authority in all matters of faith and practice in the lives of Christians. The second letter to Timothy says that All Scripture is God-breathed

More information

TB_02_01_Socrates: A Model for Humanity, Remember, LO_2.1

TB_02_01_Socrates: A Model for Humanity, Remember, LO_2.1 Chapter 2 What is the Philosopher s Way? Socrates and the Examined Life CHAPTER SUMMARY The Western tradition in philosophy is mainly owed to the ancient Greeks. Ancient Greek philosophers of record began

More information

Judging Coherence in the Argumentative Situation. Things are coherent if they stick together, are connected in a specific way, and are consistent in

Judging Coherence in the Argumentative Situation. Things are coherent if they stick together, are connected in a specific way, and are consistent in Christopher W. Tindale Trent University Judging Coherence in the Argumentative Situation 1. Intro: Coherence and Consistency Things are coherent if they stick together, are connected in a specific way,

More information

Leadership & Submission

Leadership & Submission Leadership & Submission Sunday School Notes 9 A Portrait of the Man David Today we want to take a closer look at David. Among all the people mentioned in the Bible he is probably the one we know most about

More information

TO THE GOSPEL OF LUKE. I. THE CRITICISM OF THE GOSPEL. INTRODUCTION

TO THE GOSPEL OF LUKE. I. THE CRITICISM OF THE GOSPEL. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION TO THE GOSPEL OF LUKE. I. THE CRITICISM OF THE GOSPEL. By SHAILER MATHEWS.x Authorshizj and date.- Sources.- The author's point of view.- Literary characteristics with especial reference to

More information

Based on the translation by E. M. Edghill, with minor emendations by Daniel Kolak.

Based on the translation by E. M. Edghill, with minor emendations by Daniel Kolak. On Interpretation By Aristotle Based on the translation by E. M. Edghill, with minor emendations by Daniel Kolak. First we must define the terms 'noun' and 'verb', then the terms 'denial' and 'affirmation',

More information

Spiritual Education and Enrichment Bible Interpretation: Hebrew Scriptures BI-605

Spiritual Education and Enrichment Bible Interpretation: Hebrew Scriptures BI-605 Spiritual Education and Enrichment Bible Interpretation: Hebrew Scriptures BI-605 Instructor s Name: Mark Hicks Contact information: mark@truthunity.net (512) 923-1031 Welcome Welcome to the wonderful

More information

The Torah: A Women s Commentary

The Torah: A Women s Commentary Study Guide The Torah: A Women s Commentary Parashat Vayigash Genesis 44:18 47:27 Study Guide written by Carolyn Bricklin Dr. Tamara Cohn Eskenazi, Dr. D. Lisa Grant, and Rabbi Andrea L. Weiss, Ph.D.,

More information

Syllabus. Instructor: Dr. David W. Jorgensen

Syllabus. Instructor: Dr. David W. Jorgensen Prophecy, Poetry, & Wisdom (BibSt-Fdn 4) Part 2 of a 2-part survey of the Hebrew Bible or Christian Old Testament Maine School of Ministry ~ Spring 2018 Syllabus Instructor: Dr. David W. Jorgensen david.jorgensen@colby.edu

More information

PT 524 HOMILETICS/PREACHING LAB IIA SYLLABUS REFORMED THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY CHARLOTTE SPRING 2013

PT 524 HOMILETICS/PREACHING LAB IIA SYLLABUS REFORMED THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY CHARLOTTE SPRING 2013 PT 524 HOMILETICS/PREACHING LAB IIA SYLLABUS REFORMED THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY CHARLOTTE SPRING 2013 Rod Culbertson, Jr. Adjunct Professor of Practical Theology RCULBERTSON@RTS.EDU SYLLABUS FOR PT 524 HOMILETICS/PREACHING

More information

Theo-Web. Academic Journal of Religious Education Vol. 11, Issue Editorial and Summary in English by Manfred L. Pirner

Theo-Web. Academic Journal of Religious Education Vol. 11, Issue Editorial and Summary in English by Manfred L. Pirner Theo-Web. Academic Journal of Religious Education Vol. 11, Issue 1-2012 Editorial and Summary in English by Manfred L. Pirner This Editorial is intended to make the major contents of the contributions

More information

The Emmaus Road SESSION SEVEN SESSION SUMMARY SCRIPTURE

The Emmaus Road SESSION SEVEN SESSION SUMMARY SCRIPTURE SESSION SEVEN The Emmaus Road SESSION SUMMARY In this session, the risen King Jesus joined two of His disciples on the road to Emmaus. By taking a look at their conversation, we learn that the risen King

More information

More on whether Muslims and Christians worship the same God

More on whether Muslims and Christians worship the same God More on whether Muslims and Christians worship the same God December 20, 2015 by Gerald McDermott Yesterday I posted a very brief comment on the flap at Wheaton College over the political science professor

More information

Judah During the Divided Kingdom (2 Chronicles 10:1 28:7) by Dr. Richard L. Pratt, Jr. The Reign of Rehoboam, part 3 (2 Chronicles 12:1-16)

Judah During the Divided Kingdom (2 Chronicles 10:1 28:7) by Dr. Richard L. Pratt, Jr. The Reign of Rehoboam, part 3 (2 Chronicles 12:1-16) Judah During the Divided Kingdom (2 Chronicles 10:1 28:7) by Dr. Richard L. Pratt, Jr. The Reign of Rehoboam, part 3 (2 Chronicles 12:1-16) Rehoboam's Later Sin, Humility, and Blessing (12:1-12) Rehoboam

More information

Chapter 1 What Are We Talking about When We Talk about The Bible?

Chapter 1 What Are We Talking about When We Talk about The Bible? Chapter 1 What Are We Talking about When We Talk about The Bible? At any Episcopal worship service, you will hear passages from the Bible. What, exactly, is the text from which we read in church? In this

More information

THE BIBLICAL DESTINIES CONDITIONAL PROMISES

THE BIBLICAL DESTINIES CONDITIONAL PROMISES Uriel Simon In the ongoing discussion in our pages of the historic rights of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel, we offer a provocative essay by Dr. Uriel Simon, Professor of Bible at Bar Ilan University,

More information

On Interpretation. Section 1. Aristotle Translated by E. M. Edghill. Part 1

On Interpretation. Section 1. Aristotle Translated by E. M. Edghill. Part 1 On Interpretation Aristotle Translated by E. M. Edghill Section 1 Part 1 First we must define the terms noun and verb, then the terms denial and affirmation, then proposition and sentence. Spoken words

More information

Through the Bible in 2 years Syllabus

Through the Bible in 2 years Syllabus Through the Bible in 2 years Syllabus Year 1 Genesis Creation Genesis 1- Genesis 1:1-2:25 2 God is an orderly God, and He built us in an orderly way. Fall of Man Genesis 3:1-4:26 There are consequences

More information

Religious Studies. The Writing Center. What this handout is about. Religious studies is an interdisciplinary field

Religious Studies. The Writing Center. What this handout is about. Religious studies is an interdisciplinary field The Writing Center Religious Studies Like What this handout is about This handout will help you to write research papers in religious studies. The staff of the Writing Center wrote this handout with the

More information

Lesson Components Materials Teacher s Edition Student Activity Book (Preschool) and Student Edition (Kindergarten Grade 6) Resources CD

Lesson Components Materials Teacher s Edition Student Activity Book (Preschool) and Student Edition (Kindergarten Grade 6) Resources CD Scope and Sequence The list below provides a quick overview of the materials contained in the Purposeful Design Elementary Bible series. It is followed by an introduction to the series and sequential grade-by-grade

More information

Interpreting the Old Testament March 12, Ross Arnold, Winter 2015 Lakeside institute of Theology

Interpreting the Old Testament March 12, Ross Arnold, Winter 2015 Lakeside institute of Theology Interpreting the Old Testament March 12, 2015 Ross Arnold, Winter 2015 Lakeside institute of Theology Biblical Interpretation (CL1) Jan. 29 Introduction to Biblical Interpretation Feb. 5 Starting with

More information

WALKING IN THE LIGHT?

WALKING IN THE LIGHT? WALKING IN THE LIGHT? By Denver Cheddie What happens to Christians who sin and die before they get a chance to confess their sin or repent? Do they go to heaven or hell? It really boils down to this. We

More information

this article ponders the migration among abiding-places and the relationship between sentient beings and worldly abiding-places from the viewpoint of

this article ponders the migration among abiding-places and the relationship between sentient beings and worldly abiding-places from the viewpoint of Paper Presented at the International Conference on Supreme Master Khuong Viet and Vietnam Buddhism in Early Independence Era, in Hanoi, Vietnam, held by University of Social Sciences and Humanities - Vietnam

More information

A Psalm of the Sons of Korah. How lovely is your dwelling place, O Lord of hosts! 2

A Psalm of the Sons of Korah. How lovely is your dwelling place, O Lord of hosts! 2 A Psalm of the Sons of Korah 1 How lovely is your dwelling place, O Lord of hosts! 2 My soul longs, yes, faints for the courts of the Lord; my heart and flesh sing for joy to the living God. Psalm 84:1-12

More information

Rhetorical Analysis Free Response Deconstruction Lesson

Rhetorical Analysis Free Response Deconstruction Lesson NATIONAL MATH + SCIENCE INITIATIVE English NMSI ENGLISH AP Language and Composition Rhetorical Analysis Free Response - 2015 Deconstruction Lesson Copyright 2016 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas,

More information

CHAPTER EIGHT The Torah Up to the 18th century it was assumed that Moses wrote the Torah. People assumed that the text, therefore, gives direct

CHAPTER EIGHT The Torah Up to the 18th century it was assumed that Moses wrote the Torah. People assumed that the text, therefore, gives direct 72 CHAPTER EIGHT The Torah Up to the 18th century it was assumed that Moses wrote the Torah. People assumed that the text, therefore, gives direct insights into the communications received by Moses in

More information

SLOW KINGDOM COMING STUDY GUIDE. Reflection Questions for Individuals or Groups BY JEFF CROSBY AND KENT ANNAN. For Single- or Multiple-Session Use

SLOW KINGDOM COMING STUDY GUIDE. Reflection Questions for Individuals or Groups BY JEFF CROSBY AND KENT ANNAN. For Single- or Multiple-Session Use SLOW KINGDOM COMING STUDY GUIDE Reflection Questions for Individuals or Groups For Single- or Multiple-Session Use BY JEFF CROSBY AND KENT ANNAN Slow Kingdom Coming Study Guide 3 SINGLE-SESSION STUDY GUIDE

More information

Structure of the Book of Job

Structure of the Book of Job Book of Job I. Overview and historical context II. III. IV. Structure Poet of Job What kind of book is this? a. wisdom literature b. existentialist narrative c. tragedy d. drama e. theodicy Structure of

More information

Method in Theology. A summary of the views of Bernard Lonergan, i taken from his book, Method in Theology. ii

Method in Theology. A summary of the views of Bernard Lonergan, i taken from his book, Method in Theology. ii Method in Theology Functional Specializations A summary of the views of Bernard Lonergan, i taken from his book, Method in Theology. ii Lonergan proposes that there are eight distinct tasks in theology.

More information

Since the publication of the first volume of his Old Testament Theology in 1957, Gerhard

Since the publication of the first volume of his Old Testament Theology in 1957, Gerhard Von Rad, Gerhard. Old Testament Theology, Volume I. The Old Testament Library. Translated by D.M.G. Stalker. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1962; Old Testament Theology, Volume II. The Old Testament Library.

More information

God Acquires a People for Himself 1:1 18:27

God Acquires a People for Himself 1:1 18:27 EXODUS INTRODUCTION Author. Several statements in Exodus indicate that Moses wrote several sections of the book (17:14, 24:4; 34:27). Beyond this, other Old Testament and New Testament books ascribe Mosaic

More information