Meir Wieseltier: An Israeli Poet Reconstruction the Jewish Past

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1 Iow Review Volume 4 Issue 2 Spring Article Meir Wieseltier: An Isreli Poet Reconstruction Jewish Pst Dvid H. Hirseh Eli Pfefferkorn Follow this dditionl works t: Prt of Cretive Writing Commons Recommended Cittion Hirseh, Dvid H. Eli Pfefferkorn. "Meir Wieseltier: An Isreli Poet Reconstruction Jewish Pst." Iow Review 4.2 (1973): Web. Avilble t: This Contents is brought to you for free open ccess by Iow Reserch Online. It hs been ccepted for inclusion in Iow Review by n uthorized dministrtor of Iow Reserch Online. For more informtion, plese contct

2 Meir Wieseltier: Reconstructing An Isreli Poet Jewish Pst Dvid H. Hirsch EH Pfefferkorn A meningful discussion of modern Hebrew poetry ought to begin with recognition tht re hs been rdicl brek in Isreli culturl milieu. Americns to of mss exposed consciousness-shttering onslughts medi, New Left, counter-culture my find shift in Isreli culturl scene timid, but from more normtive point of view revolution in Isreli culture hs been considerble. full impct of revolution hs not been perceived outside of Isrel (or even fully felt in Isrel, for tht mtter) becuse trdition oriented estblishment hs retined bility to prop up "old mens of its imge" by control of universities, newsppers, stte operted rdio, ll of which re more conservtive thn ir counterprts in United Sttes. "estblishment," it my be dded, lso controls dis tribution of funds to be used for support dvncement of "culture." Neverless, one of symptoms of culturl revolution is keenly felt by rtistic community in Isrel. cretive community in Isrel hs begun to suffer, indeed, hs been suffering for some time, now, from tht common west ern ilment: liention of poet. Though divided on most or issues, both ntionl interntionl, Isreli literti seem to gree t lest on one thing: tht lst two decdes hve been chrcterized by growing rift be tween Hebrew poet his udience. It is well known dtum of Isreli history, s well s of Zionist folklore, tht poetry of Nthn Altermn Abrhm Shlonsky, mong ors, used to be red, recited, drmtized in youth cmps, round bon-fires. But while pre-stte poetry used to be ps siontely debted in dimly lit dining rooms of kibbutzim, poetry of post-plmch genertion by lrge hs met with little public cclim even less populr cceptnce. Aprt from its impct on smll circles of r dent enthusists, whose genuine devotion to lyric expression is not to be dmp ened, modern Hebrew poetry lies lnguishing in sublime seclusion. When Robert Alter wrote in 1965, tht "Isrel is one probbly of few remining countries where verse, fr from being dying technique, hs mnged to sty t vitl centre of literry culture," he ws describing sitution tht hd lredy cesed to exist. By 1965, re hd been chnge both in Isreli popultion in poets. ws no popultion longer smll cohesive group of idelists who hd come to build new stte: it hd grown rr to include victims of Holocust, cme becuse re ws no some of whom cme for idelistic resons some of whom plce else to go. genertion of Altermn 56 University of Iow is collborting with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, extend ccess to Iow Review

3 Shlonsky ddressed n educted redership with whom it shred common vlues idels. In generl, both poet reder tended to be future oriented, seek ing redemption in stte tht would one dy be creted to put n end to Jewish wering Jewish suffering. Hence, re ws n immedite under sting of, response to, wht poet wrote. In ddition, both poet reder were brought up on Bible, Tlmudic lerning, Jewish myth, ll of which provided shred intellectul emotionl frme of reference. This shred body of erudition emotionl sets, compounded with still bloody wound of Holocust, estblished closest possible ties between poet his reders. ir reltionship ws not unlike tht of minstrel his listeners who responded to song with emotionl immedicy. However, this intimte poet-reder reltionship hs vnished in new relity of Stte of Isrel. poet of post-plmch genertion hs not been blind def to Jewish history Jewish suffering, ny more thn his predecessors were, but he hs hd only remote experience of two most trumtic events in recent Jewish history: deth of Europen Jewry rebirth of Stte. No longer do young poets tke for grnted unqulified identifiction with Jewish fte explicitly expressed in verse of former genertion. ir poetry, on whole, is self-probing, ir view of history ironic, ir Weltnschuung blek. Dlih Rbicovitsch, perceptive rticulte poet of new genertion, expresses mood previling by sying tht "wht chrc terizes young in this is sense poets country of cute distress, much more cute thn tht felt by poets in or countries. This distress hs its roots in things before wr Holocust. It is kind of distress tht mkes one wnt to turn bck on Jewish fte." Wheres previous genertion looked to pst in order to project hppier more rewrding future, current sees future s its own genertion hppier non-utopin present. modern Isreli poet, n, is concerned with living gony of Jew s modern Western mn in world of destruc cught esclting technology tiveness declining fith hope. re is one furr element of chnge tht is difficult to clculte. erlier ws n poetry offshoot of Russin essentilly culture, with its trdition (still current, pprently) of "populr" nrrtive folk poetry. recent poets tend to identify more with Western poetic trdition in generl, Anglo Americn imgist trdition in prticulr. Our purpose in present essy is to exmine se new in modern qulities Hebrew poetry in work of one poet of exceptionl sensitivity tlent, Meir Wieseltier. He is, perhps, too unique in his tlents to be clled typicl, but contours of his creer re shred by mny of his Born in contemporries. Moscow in 1941, he ws tken in July of sme yer to Novosibirsk. After customry postwr peregrintions of DP through Pol, Germny, Frnce, he rrived in Isrel with his fmily in His eduction hs been Isreli, but he hs lived extensively in London. From inception of his publishing creer, Wieseltier hs been n embt?ed 57 Criticism

4 poet. This conflict comes to surfce in poem "Bewre, Secret's Out." In this poem, Wieseltier cstigtes Isreli reviewers for not hving come to grips with estics of his verse. His grievnces re well founded. Both collections of Wieseltier's poetry, Chpter A Chpter B (1967), Hun dred Poems (1969), were received unsympticlly by critics, who hve ccused Wieseltier of linguistic mnnerism, fnciful experimenttion, gen erlly blurred world view. Wht Wieseltier's critics filed to comprehend is tht his lleged poetic dventurism reflects sincere uncompromising serch for new poetic idiom tht would be pproprite to sensibility of mod ern Isreli. Prtly, Wieseltier hs puzzled his critics becuse his serch for new modes of expression reflects n wreness of Jewish history tht is, prdoxiclly enough, distnt intimte t sme time. In poem "Sul Is Crowned Second Time," Wieseltier returns to Biblicl pst lso to subject tht hs become pervsive in modern Hebrew poetry, hving inspired, mong ors, poets of such different bckgrounds sensibilities s Sul Tcherni chovsky, Nthn Zch, Amir G?boh. It is not difficult to see why Sul should ppel to poets. He ws mn complex personlity, whose life potentil gretness were inexplicbly, even perversely, cut down by trgic Job-like misfortunes, s if his inherent limittions outrn his potentil gret ness before it could rech full flower. Tlmud hs commented on this trgic fte tht befell king. In Yom 22b, Mishnh sys, "Sul sinned once it brought clmity upon him, Dvid sinned twice it did not bring evil upon him." Working with subject mtter tht hs become prt of Jewish consciousness, Wieseltier deprts from conventionl nineteenth-century ttitudes, in so doing perhps comes closer to Biblicl king himself. Tchernichovsky, for exmple, s tking his text Biblicl verse, "So Sul died, his sons his rmor berer, ll his men tht sme dy toger," writes romntic blld bout Sul's lst bttle: One by one heroes fell, t sound Of horn, gret ones on mountins of Gilbo Tchernichovsky's nrrtor strikes epic pose t once. Sul's heroism heroism of those who fought t his side is not problemtic: Fll upon your sword, fll not by [ enemy's] h. reder is invited to sympthize with cts of heroic men. ir re exploits seen from outside, s it were, wht Tchernichovsky does, essentilly, is to sentimentlize Biblicl ccount set it into heroic couplets. Wieseltier veers wy from this kind of sentimentlized nrrtive of deeds of mighty men. His interest lies not in cts of heroism per se but in psychologicl complexity tht is suggested by problemtic Biblicl nrrtive. He writes bout this hero, not in heroic couplets but in series of imges tht 58

5 seem to be confltion of events nrrted in first Book of Smuel. poem is compressive rr thn expnsive. No text is governing but given, opening imge tkes off from I Smuel 10:1, "n Smuel took vil of oil poured it upon his hed, kissed him, sid, Hs not Lord nointed you to be prince over his people Isrel?" mock-epic diminution is built into imge with which Wieseltier opens his poem: Among your curls new oil flows. Don't you feel hidden difference, Sul? imge of flowing oil shifts focus of interest from historicl events to Sul's psychologicl condition. scene of nointment becomes mens of entry into king's consciousness, s if reder is permitted to seep with oil into king's skull. In Biblicl pssge, Smuel sks, "Hs not Lord nointed you to be prince over his people Isrel?" But in Wieseltier's poem, speker ddresses n ironic question to Sul: "Do you feel/ hidden dif ference, Sul?" Both questions n imply nswer: Biblicl question tht nointment crries divine snction, Wieseltier tht question, nointment is n empty ritul. In strk contrst to Tchernichovsky's poem on Sul, emptiness pervdes Wieseltier poem. In Tchernichovsky poem, Sul dies noblest of com pny of heroes. But in Wieseltier's poem, Sul is strikingly isolted. Wieseltier's Sul begins to ssume puzzling complexities of Biblicl figure: "Cn you tell oil from oil. look on fces in crowd/ Is not so springy now." nrrtor's distnce conveys sense of Sul's precipitous decline from divine ( humn) fvor. Anor mbivlent imge conveys element of fted ness in Sul's decline: " new/ Sword, which in future will fulfill its mission/ Given to you, s present/ From legions expressing in this/ ir renewed.. loylty." For Tchernichovsky, reproducing Biblicl ccount of Sul's suicide, sword becomes symbol of Sul's heroism. But for Wiesel tier, it is symbol of mysterious implcble hostility of God mn. reson for hostility is never cler. Time hs estrnged people from king. But for speker, time hs hd opposite effect. It hs touched off flow of wrm feelings towrds slighted king. And in tking on grb of seer, speker of poem predicts trgic end of his king in tone of touching lyricism. seer sees into future tht hs lredy been predicts tht sword presented to king is bound to turn ginst him. Mny of elements present in Sul poem re present, lso, in poem tht dels with nor lyer of Jewish history. "Come See My Rebels" is requiem for defenders of Jeruslem during Gret Rebellion of yer 69 C.E. Although style of poem is bsiclly lyricl, this lyricism is under cut by subdy ironic tone. poet describes wery resigned rebels 59 Criticism

6 s men who "knew tht only on flming beds/ t lst/ would y come to rest," but this despite heroism, ir stture is diminished. Stnz fter stnz, Wiesel tier strips down lyers of myth legend tht hve ccumulted round se fersome events of rebellion. Insted of portrying muscle-bound heroes who defdy swing swords spers t Romn enemy, Wieseltier's rebels re "thin consumptive sply-footed." Wieseltier's strtegy in reducing heroic stture of Yochnn of Gush-Hlv Shimon from desert, is by no mens simple debunking of rebels nor is it demonstrtion of irrever ence for pst. Wht this strtegy indictes, it seems to us, is re-orient tion of Jewish historicl consciousness. poet conceives of historicl event of fteful dimensions from perspective of modern Isreli whose con cern is existentil humn being rr thn projection of historicl hero. But wht seems, here, most chrcteristic of, reveling bout, "Jewish consciousness" "Jewish identity" s experienced by young Isreli is its multi-lyeredness. ironies, mbivlences of mbiguities, speker's voice seem to rise from very nture of Jewish "destiny" itself, n we some, bloody history of chosen people, history which continues to develop resonte in in mystery, chosenness, in cycle of exile return tht is burdensome, troubling, totlly deming. How mixed se lyers of history hve become! Our speker envisions " rows of flts [tht] now st" in modern Jeruslem, still (in 1967, when poem ws published) n embttled And city. se rows of flts were built to welcome "olim hdshim,7' new immi grnts gred from exile. But where flts now st dreming of se olim (immigrnts lso those who scend), those who will scend out of exile up to holy city, re once stood crosses tht dremt of or olim hdshim, those who would mount to crosses s victims. strs of history projected by beutiful word ply become furr entngled: three crosses in Golgoth (where tht or Jewish "rebel" ws victimized) mix with crosses tht wit se more recent Jewish rebels, including Simon Br Gior, who lso hd messinic pretensions. skeins of re Jewish gony bound in with post-jewish symbolism of humn suffering? mixing of blood, wter, wine. Flvius represents nor link in Jewish history, but peculir link, becuse Flvius ws in events prticipnt he records. Morever, he ws n postte who dopted not only Romn style of recording history but lso Romn point of view. So re re, inevitbly, some thing tht "Flvius did not tell you." And those things tht Flvius did not tell re things tht must be re creted by imgintion of new Jew returned from exile. Wht re se things? Essentilly, y re twin mysteries of chosenness suffering, heroism tht is trnsformtion of screcrows ("And my rebels put on clos/ tht mde m look like trees") into men who will fight despertely to preserve something (tht something still mystery? commments of God who insists "Thou shlt hve no or gods before me"), even in fce of insuperble odds even in knowledge tht on "only flming beds/ 60

7 t lst/ would come y to rest." This Flvius could not tell becuse hving dopted Romn point of view he himself could no longer underst se stiffnecked screcrows, wht it ws tht mde m so intrnsigent, in fce of Romn Reson, s to refuse to buy trnquillity comfort in exchnge for worshipping pgn gods Cesrs. supreme relity of ir existence is in stunningly stnzs of projected concluding poem, which convey sense of unmitigted terror, bsorbing horror of deth cmps into gony of Jewish history. Erlier, speker told us tht "my rebels downed chep wine " sid;/ 'We will yet drink tost in cellrs of Pilte.' He lso remrked tht Flvius "knew re would be no tosts rised in cellrs of Pilte." And now, speker returns to this refrin, "my rebels drnk wine sid...," but this time re re no words, re is no brvdo or lbored self-delusion, silence. Yet out of this silence comes " only soul-prlyzing thump of hmmers/ in hs/ of honest lborers": hmmers of time?of deth. Like Jewish victims who listened to thump of wheels of trns ports wheeling m closer to deth, rebels re suddenly conscious of ir bonment, y wit in silence for deth being prepred by "honest lborers" mong ir own people. Wheres, generlly, in his imgintive reconstruction of historic pst, Wieseltier fces problem of bridging estic distnce between pst present, in his re-experience of Holocusts difficulty tht he con fronts is how to crete n estic distnce between present pst. In his description of Rebels of Second Temple, Wieseltier overcomes estic gp n by ironiclly subt?e interply between imges. Wht he does is to contrst in single imge modern prtment houses of new Jeruslem with crosses, both dreming of new-comers. Similrly, in "Sul Is Crowned Second Time," he cptures previling mood of corontion through device tht cn be best described s verbl evoction. Sul's to scendncy crown irked mny people who expressed ir displesure by deprecting newly nointed king with, wht hs become lso in modern Hebrew, proverbil expression: "Is Sul lso mong prophets?" (I Smuel 10:11-12). proverb expresses surprise t Sul's election to high post in king dom. Wieseltier re-echoes this known on widely proverb by drwing closely relted modern Hebrew phrse: "Mh Pittom," which is roughly equivlent to "How come?" thus ssociting it with "Is Sul lso mong prophets?" Through this linguistic ssocition tht comes nturlly to Isreli Hebrew speker, Wiesel tier pproximtes sensibilties of both epochs. ttempt to link pst with present through recollection of re lted or echo-structures is imges chrcteristic of Wieseltier's s strtgem, my be seen in both "Come See My Rebels" "Sul Is Crowned Sec ond Time." For modern Hebrew poet it seems emotionlly much less proble mtic to give estic shpe to, rtionl ccount of, events of remote pst thn of Holocust. In his evoction of pst, Hebrew poet's world is cushioned by buffer of time by mss of literture tht dels with events of First Second Temples. But re exists no 61 Criticism

8 similr distnce literture to soften nestizing events of Holo cust. In order to void excessive emotionlism in his poetry, Hebrew poet often resorts to employment of n objective correltive which llows him to utternce to give poetic wht is orwise unutterble, describe wht is beyond scope of humn imgintion. In choosing "set of objects situtions" through which he projects Holocust experience, Wieseltier cretes necessry poetic distnce between rtist his subject-mtter, thus sves poem from plunging into sentimentlism. poem, "Three Bby-fced Germns" is cse in point. On surfce level poem describes three young Germns sitting in Prisin cfe on riny morning. flling rin wshes street rubbish down gutters drenches pssers-by. But underneth scenic description of riny Prisin morning re lurks poclyptic vision of Holocust. beutiful opening imge lredy registers some of shocking impct of poem tht is to be fully delivered in closing lines of second stnz. dominnt element in imge is softness innocence, but observer detects lso fint trce of decy in this nesding bby-fced trio, decy under lined by contrsting imge, "so fresh upon morning." To reinforce prdoxicl nture of three bby-fced Germns, speker reclls Biblicl phrse used by Isc in describing his simple-minded son, Esu. Like Esu, who cme out of his mor's womb "red, ll over like hiry grment," three bby-fced Germns "... smell of field,/ ir fces unshod." brupt trnsition to second stnz tht presents series of gutter imges, "stle spit yesterdy's hedlines," is poigny contrsted with imges of innocence in first stnz, tkes up hints of disese decy suggested in opening imge. contrst between imge pt terns of first second stnzs produces shocking effect in finl four lines of poem tht usher in poclypse: Dripping down lshes of pssers-by Who glided like weeping columns In windowpnes on squeking hinges, Fcing m, bby-fced Germns. Wht hs tken plce in se lines is trnsmuttion of poetic mteril from concrete to symbolic. rin hs been trnsmuted to ters drip ping from lshes of pssers-by who in turn hve ssumed shpe of columns mrching to deth chmbers. depressing silence of gliding columns is brought into hrsh relief with squeking windowpnes. visul udible effect this cretes crries imge wider more ref complex erence. to imge brekdown of humn points compssion morl responsibility in residents sheltered in ir houses, who, in dys of Holocust slmmed windows t sight of columns gliding to extermi ntion. liented effect of squeking windowpne works on nor level still. speker looks t three bby-fced Germns wtching reflec 62

9 tions of moving columns in windowpnes. While for Germns Holocust emerges s n imge reflected in nnls of history, for speker experience of Holocust is pinfully live, embodied in very guts of his being. me of "Three Bby-fced Germns" provides Wieseltier with oc csion to estblish kind of dilogue with nor Holocust poem: "Ausch witz, I Herd Tht You're in Style." In this poem, Wieseltier tkes up issue of expition climed by Germn ntion. Agin on drwing Biblicl imge, Wieseltier contends tht proclimed purifiction of Germns cnnot obliterte undenible recorded fcts of history. pivotl imge of white ness on which entire constituents revolve is n indirect poetic borrowing from Pslm LI, possibly lso from Isih In s in Wieseltier's pslm, poem, whiteness snow re ssocited with innocence forgiveness. Dvid pleds with God to "Purge me with hyssop, I shll be clen, Wsh me, I shll be whiter thn snow." Squrely fc ing his Cretor, Dvid tkes responsibility for his pst deeds dmits ir irrevocbility: "I cknowledge my trnsgression, And my sin is ever before me." But Biblicl echoes in Wieseltier's poem re ironic, becuse Germns, unlike Dvid, delibertely shun ny confronttion with pst: Auschwitz, I herd tht you're in style. Nice men tlk bout you with respect. A little more, you will be so swddled In pper leves Tht you will crunch like driven snow. Everything will be whitest white, but for printed letters Sieg-heiling goose-stepping bttlions. "pper leves" once used to cover up ir crimes in bureucrtic euphe misms re put to use gin by "Nice men" to hide memories of se criminl deeds. By contrsting white with blck, Wieseltier brings into focus two oppos ing forces t work in politicl relities of twentieth century: repeted ttempts to whitewsh crimes perpetrted by Germns, on one h, words of recorded on history, or, tht st out s re grim minder of "Sieg-heiling goose-stepping bttlions." between "Auschwitz" "Three Germns" is iron dilogue Bby-fced iclly rounded off in closing lines in two poems, which seem to be mirror reflections of ech or. In se lines, victim victimizer re depicted in forwrd movement. But victimizers mrch in bet of rhythmic "Sieg-heil ing goose-stepping," while victims glide "like weeping columns." Wieseltier's poetic vision of Holocust embodied in gutter expitory imgery tkes different vntge point in "Dddy Mummy Went to Movies." poem describes response of litde girl ged five or six to Holocust, which explodes into her consciousness in form of n lbum 63 Criticism

10 of of concentrtion pictures cmp inmtes. Hers is response bizrre world inhbited by strnge ugly cretures : of fscintion to nked uncles Running nked, so skinny And lso unties with fnnies bre And men in pyjms s in tre. Unble to ber depressing sight of gloomy grownups, lin strts coloring m. She is especilly drwn to bld skinny boy She mkes him such huge red moustche And t end of moustche perches bird. By time lin hs finished retouching sombre relity of concen trtion cmp, totl pictoril effect is tht of hevy blekness dotted by myrid of light flshing colors. It is indeed picture of Hell in color. Equip ped with Freudin, Mrxist, or or philosophicl bstrctions, dult my find it esier to rtionlize events of wr. child, however, whose perceptions hve not been blunted by bstrctions, hs to soften wht she per ceives by dressing it up in color. child in poem is reminiscent in some wys of Blke's children. lin, innocent of intellectul structures, to responds "gry" book. But her efforts to give color to this gry world do not result in ny poclyptic integrtion. Rr, only wy imgintion seems to hve of coping with gry Sheol-like relity of concentrtion cmp, relity tht will not be imgined wy, is to convert experience embodied in into series of pictures grotesque imges. bizrre lredy imge of "bld skinny boy" cnnot be prettified. It cn only be mde even more grotesque with ddition of "huge red moustche," t one tip of which "perches bird." Nture hs entered this gry world through bck door, s it were, without coherence. It is instructive to compre lin poem to short lyric by Wllce ens in which re ppers similr structure: metphoricl This old, blck dress, I hve been embroidering French flowers on it. This imge hs been interpreted by Michel Benmou s follows: "Imgintion 'embroiders' on blck dress: deth is old, permnent. flowers re frgile, but dd y color, in wy French word does to sentence. re rti y ficil, not nturl flowers." for mn quintessentil problem twentieth-century remins sme: In bsence of trnscendent bsolute, wht cn img intion do to meliorte fct of deth without sugring it over or covering Stev 64

11 it entirely? In both se poems, Wieseltier's Stevens's, imgintion dds color to sombre relity. But Stevens's imgintion, fr removed from imme dite historicl trum, pproches "pure" poetry, or wht he himself would hve clled "supreme fiction." His rrefied imge is lmost entirely disengged from "impurity" of historicl events: blck dress French flowers. Wies eltier, on or h, is still oppressed by burden of history, which weighs hevily on his consciousness, from which he still cnnot liberte his img intion. So insted of immculte "blck dress," pure symbol of universl deth, Wieseltier's deth imges remin rooted in immeditely pinful flow of historic events tht continues to ssult Jewish consciousness. To modern Jewish imgintion quintessentil imge of deth remins Zwngslger which continues to st lso s physicl fulfillment of furst reches of Romntic thntoptic imgintion. Imgintion, here, is clled upon to mke recent Jewish suffering berble. In poems on rebels Sul it is clled upon to mke suffering of remote Jewish pst meningful in present. In both historicl poems, however, those tht del with recent Jewish pst, poet tries to cope with problems besetting Jewish consciousness in compct imges in lnguge liberted from more flowery discursive rhetoric of his im medite predecessors mong Hebrew poets. To some extent, this imgisitic tendency reclls poetics of Anglo-Americn modernism from Pound Imgists to present, trdition tht Wieseltier knows well. But mple prece dent for this "imgism" compctness my be found in Bible itself, n or trdition tht Wieseltier knows well. 65 Criticism

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