Number of Hours. Enduring Understandings. Focus Stds. Unit Title and Essential Questions. Geography of Roman Empire at height.

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1 Unit Title and Essential Questions Enduring Understandings Important to Know and Do Worth Being Familiar With Focus Stds. Number of Hours Geography of Roman Empire at height. Legacies of Roman art: murals, mosaics, frescoes. Examples of Roman architecture (cathedral, dome, aqueduct, etc). Fall of Rome and Rise of Byzantine Empire Even the strongest civilizations come to an end. Much of Western art, architecture, engineering, language, writing, and philosophy are legacies of Roman civilization. Rome fell because of social,, political, problems and ultimately conquest. The rise of the Byzantine Empire, led to an enduring cultural and religious divide between Eastern and Western Europe. Legacy of Roman language: roots, proverbs. Roman idea of citizenship, law, justice. Constantine moves the capitol to Byzantium into West/East cultures. Constantinople: Justinian I and public works. Eastern Orthodox Church, iconoclasm. Great Schism, Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne's empire and acceptance of Christianity, divine right of kings. Feudal class structure. Medieval church structure. Medieval Europe How do people react to disasters? In times of turmoil, people often turn to religion or to fanaticism. Bad people often hide behind religion or use religion to justify destructive actions. Major disasters usually spark significant and sudden changes. After the fall of Rome Europe fell into a series of power struggles warring Germanic nomads and Charlemagne ultimatley came out on top. The power of the RCC grew and the RCC abused that power, but also made political, educational, cultural and philosophical contributions. Feudal class structure made a few people rich and a lot of people very poor. Feudalism declined with a series of events that changed the way people viewed social status, the church, and the value of their lives. Principles of persecution, excommunication, sacraments, salvation, pilgrimages, monasticism, holidays. Medieval town life and guilds. Medieval architecture: cathedrals, gargoyles. Contributions of the church to society, preservation of Latin, St. Thomas Aquinas's philosophy. Causes and spread of the Black Death, medical treatments and explanations. Magna Carta, parliament, habeas corpus. Hundred Years War, Joan of Arc

2 Rise of Islam it come How are ideas spread? How does georgraphy disease, conflict, suffering. When people come up with a new idea, often they attract criticism and resistence. Religion unites and divides us. The geography of the Arabian Peninsula and Middle East led to a large nomadic presence and required adaptations to adopt sedentary lifestyle. Mohammad received the message from god to become a prophet, his followers became known as Muslims, and they were persecuted for their beliefs in Makkah. Like all religions, Islam has prescriptions for living an enlightened life. Islamic civilization made massive contributions to world scholarship. The Crusades affected Jews, Christians, Muslims differently and spread massive amounts of technology and ideas. Africa is huge and diverse and had advanced medieval civilizations. Islam spread South and West through Africa from trade and war. Geographic feature of Arabian Peninula. 5-pillars of Islam, jihad, shari'ah. The Qur'an. Mohammad's life, prophet, migration from Makkah to Madinah. 4 Caliphs and rise of Umayyad Dynasty Islamic and Arabic advances in architecture, medicing, navigation, math, science, art, literature. Geography of Crusades. Events leading up to Crusades, 1st, 2nd, 3rd Crusades and Reconquista. Spanish Inquisition and effects on Jews, Muslims. Early Ottoman Empire Sub-Saharan Africa in the Middle Ages it come Geography led to the of settled communities and trade routes for rare goods like ivory, gold, salt. Ghana developped into a strong trans-saharan trading empire, which contributed to the spread of Islam in West Africa. Islam grew and expanded in Mali and Songhai kingdoms. West African art and culture have rich legacy. Specific geographic features of Africa, deserts (Sahara*), forests, mountains, rivers (Niger*). Ghanaian government, military, societal structure. Gold-salt trade. Legacy of Islam in West Africa, influence on government, religion, art, architecture, language, education. West African oral traditions, music, art, griots, folklore, proverbs, drumming, dance, masks, textiles

3 China in the Middle Ages Medieval Japan and Korea it come Agriculture and the size and shape of civilizations. Eastern religion differs from Judeo- Christian religion. Social structure always leaves some people out. For about 2000 years China had dynastic government systems and experienced cyclical periods of prosper and chaos / isolationism and expansion. China had complex social structures that reflected religious and cultural values. The Mongols conquered almost all of Asia and spread ideas through commerce and conquest. Commerce and invention fed off of each other, leading to the of advancments in transportation, agriculture, urbanization. Geography and agriculture caused the of dense, populous societies in Korea and Japan. Buddhism spread from India to China to Korea and then Japan. Both Korea and Japan were somewhat isolated from China geographically, but were influenced by China culturally and socially. Japanese women had fewer rights than men, but produced some very fine art and literature. Confucianism and its tenents. Chronological understanding of Chinese Dynasties and their defining characteristics, specifically Han, Tang, Song, Yuan. Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan, Mongol Conquest. Ideas of meritocracy, bureaucracy, civil service. Changes in Chinese agriculture and commerce during Tang and Song dynasties: rice, tea, sugar, currency, urbanization. Significant inventions from China such as tea, paper, the compass, movable type, steel, vaccines, and gunpowder. Chinese contact with foreigners: Mongols, Europeans (Marco Polo), Zheng He Bushido and Samurai, technology and philosophy. Heian Period and its s. Buddhism and its tenents. Art, literature, writing, sculpture, music, architecture of Japan, Tale of Genji. Imperial Japanese government and structure

4 Meso-American and Andean Civilizations, The Age of European Invasion it come Geography affects infrastructure and agriculture. Fear is a powerful governing tool. History is written by the conquerors. The Maya were very advanced in mathematics, art, and writing. They Maya civilization declined from overpopulation and exhaustion of natural. The Aztecs were a fierce, militaristic empire, with complex religious and social structures.. Tenochtitlan was a massive city with complex social structures and agriculture. The Inca civilization was centered in the Andes Mountains, which led to the of unique agricultural systems. European invaders "discovered" and began their destruction of Native American civiliazation. Geographic features of Central/South America: Andes Mts. Mayan ball game, calendar, pyramids, hieroglyphics. Tenochtitlan, legend of discovery, floating gardens, causeways. Aztec daily life, religion and human sacrifice in the Aztec Empire. Incan infrastructure system. Incan records keeping system (quipu). Compare/contrast Incan, Aztec, Mayan social structures. Incan, Aztec, Mayan art, scince, technology, architecture, language, writing. Conquistadores. 7.7, The Renaissance and The Reformation What is religion and Major disasters usually spark significant and sudden changes. Science often clashes with religion. Religion is often abused for political purposes. Renaissance was a revival of interest in classical art and learning from Greece and Rome. Trade and the Cursades caused an influx of goods and ideas into Italy which began the Renaissance. Increased value of education, intellectual, caused spread and rapid advances in all fields, most notably literacy/printing. Corruption, abuse, and the revival of Humanism depleted the influence of the RCC. Simultaneous timeline of people/events in this period. Political, cultural, and philosophical influences led to the rise and spread of Protestantism. Protestantism coincided with the rise of nationalism and democratic principles. Compare/contrast classical, medieval, renaissance art. Dante's Divine Comety, Machiavellii, da Vinci and inventions, Michaelangelo, Gutenberg and printing press, Shakespeare. Florence and the Medicis. Martin Luther and the 95 Theses, Lutheranism. The Jesuits and the Counter Reformation, Council of Trent. Compare/contrast Protestantism and Catholicism. Henry VIII, Anglicanism Calvin, Calvinism, predestination. 7.8, 7.9,

5 The Enlightenment, The Scientific Revolution, and The Age of Reason Did Europeans invent modern science and democracy? What happens when affect civilizations Science often clashes with religion. Religion is often abused for political purposes. History is written by the conquerors. Many scientific, democratic, and navigational ideas were borrowed by Europeans from other civilizations. Europeans conquered and destroyed many civilizations for profit. Geography and politics motivated exploration. Scientific discoveries about the universe conflicted with religion (RCC). Modern democratic principles existed in some form in many civilizations, but Europeans typically get all the credit. The "great" democratic thinkers were rich white men. Development of longitude/latitude, marine transportation, cartography. Mercantilism, colonization, plantations. Major European explorers and routes. European conquest of North American and Meso-American civlizations - northwest passage. Copernicus, heliocentrism. Galileo, telescope. Newton, gravity. Bacon/Descartes, scientific method. Montesquieu, separation of powers. Voltaire, religious tolerance and free speech. Hobbes, rule of monarchs. Locke, natural rights. Women's position in the Enlightenment

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