Content. Section 1: The Beginnings

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1 Content Introduction and a Form of Acknowledgments : Memories in Context : The International Scene : Islamic Studies The Beginnings Islam as a Religion Structures and Interpretations of Islam Muslim Presentations of Islam and of Human Rights Social Reality and Islam The Case of Arabia Islamic Reform and Modernization Islamic Ideology The Political Scene and Islam Section 1: The Beginnings Chapter 1 Changes in Belief and the Rise of Islam Spiritual Beings before Islam The Bedouin Oases and Towns A Sidelight from Palmyra A New Ordering of the Spiritual Beings in the Qur ân Allâh The Jinn The Deities The Angels The Demons and Iblîs Spiritual Beings and the Doctrine of Revelation

2 X Content Chapter 2 Faith and Reason in the Argumentation of the Qur ân The Qur anic Concept of Reason A Person s Intellectual Capacities in Connection with Faith The Use a Person Makes of his or her Intellectual Capacities in Connection with Faith Forms of Argumentation in the Qur ân First, we can distinguish a kind of logic of life itself, which reveals truths inherent in life as such In the second place, there is a kind of logic of revelation, whereby it is assumed, again implicitly, that there is something like revelation Third, there is a kind of logic of faith that is developed as soon as the existence of faith is assumed, established, and defended against internal doubts With regard to the People of the Scriptures: With regard to the other unbelievers: Faith in Allâh as God Connections Between the Qur anic Concept of Reason and Specific Forms of Reasoning in Qur anic Argumentation The Study of Reason in Islam and in Other Religions Section 2: Islam as a Religion Chapter 3 Islamic Attitudes to Signs The Fundamental Signs: Revelation Signs Recognized Within Normative Islam Primary Signs Secondary Signs Signs and Symbols in Practiced, Living Islam (Popular Islam) The Symbolic Use of Islamic Elements and of Islam Itself Signification and Symbolization in Islam Chapter 4 Islam Studied in the Perspective of Science of Religion A Perspective of the Science of Religion Islam as the Interpretation and Application of Signs Islam in the Perspective of Science of Religion The Application of this Approach in Islamic Studies

3 Content XI Section 3: Structures and Interpretations of Islam Chapter 5 Official, Popular, and Normative Religion in Islam A Medieval Muslim View Popular Religion in Islam Popular Forms Popular Movements Some Characteristics of Popular Islam Popular Islam Within the Framework of Practiced Islam Official Religion and its Representatives in Islam The Concept of Normative Islam Conclusion Appendix: A Note on the Contexts of Earlier Research on Official and Popular Islam Chapter 6 Are there Hermeneutic Principles in Islam? Introduction Classical Tafsîr Some Features of Islamic Tafsîr Scholarly and Practical Tafsîr The Qur ân as Scripture Tafsîr and Ta wîl: Sûfî and Shî³î Twentieth-century Developments in Qur ân Interpretation Present-day Qur ân Interpretation Western and Muslim studies Qur anic Universes: Rationality and Presuppositions The Relevance of Hermeneutics in Islam Toward a New Scholarly View of Qur ân and Islam Conclusion Section 4: Muslim Presentations of Islam and of Human Rights Chapter 7 Some North African Intellectuals Presentations of Islam Some Common Features The Straightforward Presentation of Islam: Malek Bennabi Description of Arab-Islamic and European Civilization Side by Side: Hichem Djaït Reaching for Dialogue: Ali Merad and Mohamed Talbi

4 XII Content 5. Comparative Historical Analysis: Abdallah Laroui The Effort to Think about Commonly Recognized Problems: Mohammed Arkoun Significance for Islamic Studies and Other Religious Studies Applied Islamology Conclusion Chapter 8 Human Rights, Human Dignity, and Islam Introduction History Some Characteristics of the Declarations of Human Rights Some Religious Reactions Some Characteristics of the Religious Reactions Islam: A Special Case? Saudi Arabia Kuwait Organization of Islamic Conference Islamic Council of Europe Some Features of this Islamic Approach The Islamic and the Universal Declaration Compared General Items Specific Items Sad Human Realities Conclusion Section 5: Social Reality and Islam Chapter 9 Islamic Religious Tradition and Social Development Preliminary Remarks Religious Tradition Traditions in Third World Societies Tradition in Islam and in Muslim Societies Two Kinds of Tradition Internal Mechanisms of Change within Tradition Attitudes Taken Toward Tradition Religious Tradition in Muslim Countries Examples from the Middle East Modernization of Law Modernization and Islam in the Middle East

5 Content XIII 6.3. Development of Religious Thought Concluding Remarks on Middle Eastern Developments and Islam Conclusion Chapter 10 Islam s Function as a Civil Religion Islam The State Civil Religion Civil Religion in Islamic History The Medieval Period and the Period of the Muslim Empires The Period of Orientations toward the West (first Europe, later also the USA) The Period of Reorientations towards Islam Islam s Function as a Civil Religion Section 6: The Case of Arabia Chapter 11 The Wahhâbîs in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Arabia Muhammad ibn ³Abd al-wahhâb Doctrines The Doctrine of Tawhîd Theology Community Leadership Jihâd Religious Devotion Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century History First Expansion The Hejaz Ottoman Reaction Infrastructural Foundations of the Wahhâbî State Consolidation of the State Survival of the }l Sa³ûd

6 XIV Content Chapter 12 Saudi Arabia: The King and the Consul Some Historical Facts Daniel van der Meulen on Islam and the Rise of Saudi Arabia Daniel van der Meulen and King ³Abd al-³azîz Conclusion Section 7: Islamic Reform and Intellectual Reflection Chapter 13 Tsarist Russia and the Dutch East Indies The Scene The Colonial Presence Muslim Responses Russia and Indonesia: Differences Russia and Indonesia: Common Features The Study of Movements of Modernization and Reform Muslim Awakening and Revitalization Chapter 14 Puritan Patterns in Islamic Revival Movements Introduction Islamic Revival Movements and Revitalization of Islam Common Features of Islamic Revival Movements The Puritan Pattern Ideological und Practical Aspects The Puritan Pattern as Ideal Type The Interest of the Puritan Pattern for Islamic Studies The Islamic State and the Puritan Pattern Section 8: Islamic Ideology Chapter 15 The Call (Da³wa) of Islamic Movements The Concept of Da³wa Da³wa Movements in History Da³wa Movements in Recent History The Increase in Da³wa Movements New Social Meanings of Islam Islamic Movements Studied as Da³wa Movements

7 Content XV Chapter 16 Ideologization in Present-Day Islam: An Exploration Introduction Ideologizing a Religion The Case of Islam The Internal Context of Islamic Ideologies External Contexts: Relations with the West Ideologies Leading to Action The International Spread of Islamic Ideologies Some Special Features of Islamic Ideologies Further Study of Islamic Ideologies and Ideologization Section 9: The International Scene and Islam Chapter 17 The Rise of Islamic States The Ideal of an Islamic Order Historical Perspective Contextual Perspective Muslim Perspectives on the Role of Religion in Society Some General Considerations Some Thinkers and Groups The Salafîya The Muslim Brothers Four Islamic States Compared The Four States Themes of Comparison The Religious Dimension Islamic States and Contemporary History Conclusion Chapter 18 Islam as a Vehicle of Protest Levels of Protest Three Kinds of Religious Movements with a Protest Character Self-Defense Against Outside Domination and Interference Religious Protest against Decline: The Reform Movements Indirect Forms of Protest within Islam: Law and the Mystical Path Muslim Religious Modernism Is Religious Protest a Structural Feature of Islam?

8 XVI Content 3. Protest and Islam in the Arab Countries in Particular The Use of Islam as a Symbol of Protest Conclusion Chapter 19 Islam in Present-Day Muslim States Religious and Political Authorities Religious Authorities Political Authorities Private and State Initiatives in the Use of Islam Private Initiatives State Initiatives Tensions Between Private and State Initiatives in the Use of Islam Articulations of Islam as a Civil Religion The Nation-State Islam as a Limit to the State Civil Society and Civil Religion Further Readings Index of Arabic and Persian Terms Index of Persons Geographical Names Index of Subjects Index of Concepts

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