ISLAMIC CREED ( I ) Instructor: Dr. Mohamed Salah

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1 ISLAMIC CREED ( I ) العقيدة اإلسالمية Instructor: Dr. Mohamed Salah

2 Islamic Creed Series

3 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING AQEEDAH Imam Abu-Hanifa said, "The understanding of faith is better than understanding of the science of shariah. "The first obligation upon the slave is the knowledge of Allah. This is proven by the hadith of Muadh, when the Prophet (peace be upon him) said to him, 'You will come to a people from the People of the Book. The first thing that you should call them to is the worship of Allah. If they gain the knowledge of Allah, then tell them that Allah obligates upon them five prayers during the day and night..."

4 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING AQEEDAH Al-Bukhari in his book al-jami al-sahih, which is the most authentic book after the Book of Allah; this great Imam began his book with "The Beginning of Revelation" and then he followed it with chapters on faith, followed by the chapters on knowledge.

5 IMAN CONSISTS OF SPEECH & ACTION, IT INCREASES & DECREASES When we say Iman is speech, we mean two things: The speech of the heart The speech of the tongue When we say Iman is action, we mean three things: The actions of the heart The actions of the tongue The actions of the limbs

6 Ibn al-qayyim,and Ibn Taymiyyah: Imaan is the speech of the heart and tongue, and the actions of the heart, tongue and limbs.

7 As for the 'speech' aspect of Imaan: The speech of the heart: It refers to the belief of the heart with respect to Allaah and the other pillars of Imaan (such as the Angels, Books, Messengers, Qadar, the Last Day etc.). In other words It refers to the knowledge that the heart contains and its firm belief in this knowledge. So this would include Tawheed and its two categories of Ruboobiyyah and Asmaa was-sifaat because both of these are related to knowledge.

8 THE SPEECH OF THE TONGUE: This refers to the tongue's confirmation of what the heart contains. In other words the tongue professes what the heart contains. When a person says with his tongue; "I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone without any partners and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger" then he is confirming what is in his heart. So note how the 'speech of the tongue' still relates to knowledge.

9 AS FOR THE 'ACTION' PART OF IMAAN: The actions of the heart: This refers to the various states and feelings of the heart such as love, fear, hope, sincerity, reliance, submission etc. (and these are known as the actions of the heart).

10 THE ACTIONS OF THE TONGUE: This refers to things such as dhikr, enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, seeking forgiveness from Allaah, etc. Notice how this also relates to Tawheed ul-uloohiyyah because these actions should be for Allaah alone. And notice also, just like the heart, how the tongue has two roles; firstly, to affirm what is in the heart with respect to its belief, so the tongue says what is in the heart and secondly to perform the various acts of worship which are specific to it.

11 THE ACTIONS OF THE LIMBS: This refers to doing all the commanded things and keeping away from all the forbidden things. And this refers to the physical acts of worship, such as prayer, fasting, giving zakah, performing pilgrimage, removing something harmful from the floor, not stealing, not cheating, not backbiting, not disobeying parents etc.

12 IBN AL-QAYYIM UNDERSTOOD TAWHEED TO BE OF TWO TYPES: The Tawheed of Knowledge and Acquaintance (which would be both Tawheed ur- Ruboobiyyah and Asmaa was-sifaat, because they are both knowledge-based) The Tawheed of Purpose and Intent (which is Tawheed ul-uloohiyyah or Ibaadah because it is related to the sincerity of the actions.)

13 Terminologies 'Speech of the Heart', 'Speech of the Tongue', 'Actions of the Heart' are used to help us to understand the solid principles and concepts that are found in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah. And by using these terminologies we have not innovated any principle or concept into the religion. Rather these terms simply allow us to understand the definition of the principles and concepts found in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah.

14 IMAAN INCREASES AND DECREASES It increases with (acts of) obedience and it decreases with (acts of) disobedience. From the Qur'aan: و ج ل ت ق ل وب ھ م و إ ذ ا ت ل ي ت ع ل ي ھ م آي ات ه ز اد ت ھ م إ ن م ا ال م ؤ م ن ون ال ذ ين إ ذ ا ذ ك ر إ يم ان ا و ع ل ى ر ب ھ م ي ت و ك ل ون (2) ف م ن ك ان ي ر ج و ل ق اء ر ب ه ف ل ي ع م ل ع م ال ص ال ح ا و ال ي ش ر ك ب ع ب اد ة ر ب ه أ ح د ا (110) The believers are only those who, when Allâh is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Verses (this Qur'ân) are recited unto them, they (i.e. the Verses) increase their Faith; and they put their trust in their Lord (Alone)" Surah Anfaal 8:2

15 Other verses are 74:31 31, 48:4, 3: , 9: : ال ذ ين ق ال ل ھ م الن اس إ ن الن اس ق د ج م ع وا ل ك م ف اخ ش و ھ م ف ز اد ھ م و ن ع م ال و ك يل (173) آل عمران إ يم ان ا و ق ال وا ح س ب ن ا Those (i.e. believers) unto whom the people Those (i.e. believers) unto whom the people (hypocrites) said, "Verily, the people (pagans) have gathered against you (a great army), therefore, fear them." But it (only) increased them in Faith, and they said: "Allāh (Alone) is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs (for us)."

16 FROM THE SUNNAH: THE HADEETH: ع ل ي ه و س ل م : ع ن أ ب ي ھ ر ي ر ة ق ال أ ك م ل :ق ال ر س ول ص ل ى ال م ؤ م ن ين إ يم ان ا أ ح س ن ھ م خ ل ق ا "The most perfect of people with respect to his eemaan, is the best of them in his manners." Bazzaar And the hadeeth: ع ل ي ه و س ل م أ ن ه ق ال م ن أ ح ب ع ن أ ب ي أ م ام ة ع ن ر س ول ص ل ى و أ ب غ ض و أ ع ط ى و م ن ع ف ق د اس ت ك م ل اإل يم ان "Whoever loves for Allaah (alone), hates for Allaah (alone), gives for Allaah (alone) and withholds for Allaah (alone), then he has perfected Imaan." Abu Daawood saheeh

17 These two hadeeth show that Imaan can be complete or incomplete and therefore it can go up and it can go down. Notice how the first hadeeth contains actions of the tongue and actions of the limbs (speaking and behaving well with people) and how the second hadeeth contains both actions of the heart (loving and hating) and actions of the limbs (giving and withholding).

18 The hadeeth: ع ن أ ب ي ھ ر ي ر ة ر ض ي الل ه ع ن ه ق ال : ق ال ر س ول الل ه ص ل ى الل ه ع ل ي ه و س ل م : " اإل يم ان س تون أ و س ب ع ون أ و ب ض ع ة - و أ ح د ال ع د د ي ن - أ ع ال ھ ا : ش ھ اد ة أ ن ال إ ل ه إ ال الل ه و أ د ن اھ ا إ م اط ة األ ذ ى ع ن الط ر يق و ال ح ي اء ش ع ب ة م ن اإل يم ان " Iemaan consists of seventy-odd branches, the highest of which is to testify 'None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah' and the lowest of which is to remove something harmful from the floor, and modesty is a part of eemaan." Bukhaaree, Muslim Abu Daawood, Ahmad, Ibn Maajah, and others

19 ع ن أ ب ي ھ ر ي ر ة ر ض ي الل ه ع ن ه ق ال ق ال ال نب ي ص ل ى الل ه ع ل ي ه و س ل م ال ي ز ن ي ال زان ي ح ين ي ز ن ي و ھ و م ؤ م ن و ال ي ش ر ب ال خ م ر ح ين ي ش ر ب و ھ و م ؤ م ن و ال ي س ر ق ح ين ي س ر ق و ھ و م ؤ م ن.

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