MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

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1 Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) From a Confucian viewpoint, the Roman Empire might have been criticized for placing too much confidence in A) divine backing for the emperor. B) religious conviction. C) laws rather than trained officials. D) public works functions. E) harsh punishments of criminals. 2) One of China's key economic strengths was A) cheap slave labor. B) extensive overseas trade. C) high levels of technological innovation. D) government encouragement of the merchant class. E) early introduction of steam-powered equipment. 3) Which of the following was a Confucian belief? A) A good society has a firm hierarchy. B) Merchants must be valued for their money-making skills. C) Governments must not interfere with individual rights. D) People should be actively involved in government. E) Change is the goal of a sensible state. 4) The Mauryan dynasty differed from the Gupta dynasty in that A) it attacked Buddhist beliefs. B) Mauryan rulers opposed the caste system. C) it was imposed by conquerors from Greece. D) it refused to develop a strong army. E) it ruled a larger territory. 5) Despite major differences, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all show interest in A) life after death. B) strong priesthood. C) absolute hostility to the worship of religious images and spirits of nature. D) clearly organized church structures. E) polytheism. 6) One difference between classical civilizations and river-valley civilizations was that in classical civilizations A) religious beliefs were widely held. B) political organizations were more elaborate. C) trade was introduced. D) most people farmed the land. E) writing was developed. 1

2 7) The spread of Buddhism to China is an example of A) cultural diffusion. B) the end of Daoism in China. C) religious intolerance. D) technological determinism. E) the cultural superiority of India. 8) The end of the Gupta empire differed from the decline of Rome in that it did not involve A) big cultural changes. B) a change in political institutions. C) the introduction of a new religion for the majority. D) outside invasion. E) the weakening of central government. 9) Compared to China, Indian social and economic structure A) showed greater interest in technological innovation. B) made it easier for a peasant to rise to higher status. C) relied on conquest of foreign territories. D) tended to discourage commerce. E) gave greater latitude to merchants. 10) The Greek and Hellenistic approach in science A) emphasized the mysterious forces of nature. B) stressed the importance of practical applications. C) heavily influenced China's scientific approach. D) used mathematics to try and explain nature's patterns. E) was purely theoretical. 11) Compared to modern American ideas about democracy, Athenian democracy was distinctive A) urging that all citizens participate directly in law- and policy-making. B) in electing representatives to govern the city-state. C) separating foreign residents from citizens. D) naming experienced leaders as military generals. E) urging that the state adopt policies to benefit ordinary citizens. 12) In characterizing the period from 1450 to 1750 in the West, which of the following statements is NOT accurate? A) The popular outlook, including ideas about personality and family as well as concepts of nature, had shifted. B) Better military techniques were used. C) What was once an agricultural society had become a predominantly manufacturing economy. D) Government powers had expanded. E) Science came to form the centerpiece of Western intellectual life. 2

3 13) Which of the following was NOT considered a factor in the development of large kingdoms in Africa? A) a population expansion that followed the diffusion of iron tools and improved agriculture B) European demand for slaves C) Indian Ocean trade D) the collapse of the Christian kingdom in Ethiopia in the face of Muslim advance E) the use of firearms 14) What permitted the Janissaries to gain a position of prominence in the Ottoman empire? A) Their control of the bureaucracy made them indispensible to the operation of the empire. B) Islamic law defined their authority. C) They rapidly gained control of the mosques of the Ottoman empire and were able to define religious orthodoxy. D) As members of the royal family, they had access to the Sultans. E) Their control of artillery and firearms gave them prominence over the aristocratic Turkish cavalry. 15) What was the nature of the sea routes in the Asian trading network? A) The only sea-going routes crossed the Indian Ocean from the Swahili ports of East Africa to India. B) They were restricted to the South China Sea. C) Most of the navigation was along the coastlines. D) Well-established routes directly crossing the major oceans were maintained from ancient times. E) Only the Chinese and Arabs practiced navigation in the Asian trading network. 16) Which of the following statements concerning the volume of the slave trade to the American colonies is most accurate? A) Demand for slaves continued to remain high due to the competing demand for slaves in Europe. B) The volume of the slave trade dwindled rapidly after the seventeenth century because the plantation economies of the Americas collapsed. C) The volume of the slave trade decreased as mortality rates increased. D) The high volume of the slave trade was a necessity because slave mortality was high and fertility was low leading to a loss of slave population. E) The shift from plantation economies to mining economies in which slaves were not utilized rapidly diminished the American demand for slaves. 17) Which of the following does NOT represent a similarity between the three Muslim early modern empires? A) All were derived from Turkic nomadic cultures of central Asian steppe. B) Support of the bureaucracies and military was drawn from taxes levied on the peoples of the agrarian societies that each conquered and ruled. C) All dynasties depended on effective use of firearms on the battlefield and in siege warfare. D) Each empire was based on based on religion and its society was oriented toward domination of the mullahs. E) They produced a flowering of Islamic civilization. 18) Which of the following statements concerning the agricultural system of Spanish America is NOT accurate? A) In places where large sedentary populations existed, Indian communal agriculture of traditional crops continued. B) Plantation crops like sugar and later cacao were exported to Europe in sufficient quantities to exceed the value of bullion exports. C) South America was not known as a producer of wheat or rye. D) Spanish America remained predominantly an agrarian economy. E) Colonists faced with declining Indian populations found landownership more attractive. 3

4 19) How did Caribbean cities differ from those of Europe? A) American cities lacked churches. B) They were built near water. C) American cities were laid out in a grid plan. D) There was an absence of commerce in American cities. E) There were no Caribbean cities 20) What was one of the major differences between African civilizations and other post-classical societies? A) Prior to 800, African civilizations had no prior contacts with civilizations outside of the African continent. B) There were no civilizations in Africa until the post-classical period. C) African civilizations were based on European models. D) African civilization was almost entirely dependent on cultural importations from Islam and the Arabic world. E) African civilizations were built somewhat less clearly on prior precedent than was the case in other post-classical societies. 21) In what way were the early Dutch and British exploration and trade projects different from those of the Iberian nations? A) Dutch and British exploratory expeditions were independent of their respective governments. B) The Dutch and British operated joint explorations in the names of both governments while Portugal and Spain competed in the competition for conquest. C) Dutch and British exploration owed much to private initiative of merchant groups and the formation of chartered trading companies. D) The expeditions of Spain and Portugal did not enjoy government support. E) The Dutch and British projects were financed with banking capital from Italy. 22) How did the Western view of science compare with that of other civilizations? A) In China, science was based on practical, empirical advances. B) The West was not alone in developing crucial scientific data, but its thinkers were the only ones to see science in broader philosophical terms as central to intellectual life. C) In the West, science was seen as separate from religion. D) Islam remained vastly ahead of the West in terms of scientific knowledge, despite the clear advances made during the scientific revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. E) The West was the only civilization to develop scientific and technological expertise. 23) The religious wars that followed the Protestant Reformation led generally to A) the restoration of Catholic unity. B) the end of the involvement of the state in religion. C) a limited acceptance of the idea of religious pluralism. D) a monolithic Protestantism in Europe. E) the establishment of Protestant dominance. 24) Which of the following was NOT a reason used by the Ming dynasty to halt the trading expeditions? A) the expense of building the new capital in Beijing B) the growing military expenses of the campaigns against the Mongols C) the traditional preference of the Chinese for Asian products D) the technological inferiority of Chinese ships and navigation E) the opposition of the scholar-gentry and bureaucracy 4

5 25) Which of the following was NOT one of the positive aspects of Chinggis Khan's imperial rule? A) He ordered the creation of huge pastures in northern China for the use of the Mongol clans. B) He promulgated a legal code to end divisions and quarrels among the Mongol clans. C) He brought peace to much of Asia. D) He promoted the growth of trade and commerce. E) He promised religious toleration for many different religious groups. 26) From what source did many technological innovations arrive in the West during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries? A) the Americas B) Eastern Europe C) Africa D) Asia E) the Islamic regions of the Middle East 27) What accounts for the growing political dominance of Moscow under Mongol rule? A) Kiev had been destroyed by the Golden Horde. B) As the city located farthest south in Russia, Moscow was better able to benefit from renewed trade under the Mongols. C) Moscow became the capital of the Golden Horde. D) The princes of Moscow collected tribute for the Mongol khans and became the seat of the Metropolitan of the Orthodox Church. E) Moscow was the only Russian city that was not destroyed during the invasion. 28) What proved to be the most damaging attack on Buddhism's popularity with the people during the early Tang dynasty? A) the Confucians' successful campaign to convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic establishment represented an economic threat B) the aristocracy's concern that the growing Buddhist monastic establishment was monopolizing land that otherwise would belong to them C) the Buddhists' insistence on rebellion against the emperor D) the entry of nomadic invaders who were Islamic during the ninth century E) the challenge from Daoism 29) Which of the following was utilized in the Inca empire, but NOT by the Aztecs? A) identification of the nobility with the administrative and military functions of the state B) a semi-divine emperor C) elaborate road systems D) extensive use of colonization E) use of local rulers in exchange for recognition of sovereignty 5

6 30) Which of the following statements concerning entry into the Chinese bureaucracy is most accurate? A) Under the Tang family connections ceased to be of significance, as all candidates received office based on their score in the examination system. B) Only candidates in law were judged solely on their exam scores. C) The examination system was eliminated during the Tang dynasty, and only members of the imperial family served in the bureaucracy. D) Although the examination system continued to be monitored, almost all official received positions as a result of family connections. E) Although a higher percentage of candidates received office through the examination system than during the Han dynasty, birth continued to be important in securing high office. 31) Which of the following statements concerning the Holy Roman Emperors after the tenth century is most accurate? A) Building on a feudal framework rather than the Carolingian Germanic foundations, the Holy Roman Emperors created a strongly centralized government. B) The rule of the Holy Roman Emperors became increasingly hollow, because they did not build a solid monarchy from regional foundations. C) They built upon the Carolingian foundations to establish the most centralized government found in the medieval West. D) Dukedoms and city-states yielded political authority to the Holy Roman Empire. E) Discarding much of the former Carolingian empire, the Holy Roman Emperors reestablished a centralized government in northern Italy. 32) What was the impact of expansion and conquest on the Aztec social system? A) Aztec society was transformed in the sense that the Mexicans adopted the social patterns of the Maya. B) Despite the stress of warfare and invasion, the Aztec society remained remarkably unchanged by the process. C) Conquest opened up Aztec society to incursions by the indigenous peoples who began to form a trained bureaucracy. D) From a loose association of clans, Aztec society became a stratified society. E) Aztec social institutions became more inclusive. 33) Which of the following statements concerning urbanization within the Byzantine Empire is most correct? A) Like China, the Byzantine Empire was heavily urbanized with many cities numbering more than 100,000. B) Constantinople controlled the economy and grew to enormous size, but other cities were relatively small. C) Constantinople began to decline in population in the later years of the Byzantine Empire and was surpassed by the growth of other urban centers. D) Constantinople was never a center of trade, but dominated the Empire culturally. E) Most people in the Byzantine Empire lived in five great cities: Constantinople, Nicaea, Smyrna, Rome, and Athens. 6

7 34) Which of the following statements concerning the impact of Christianity on polytheistic religions in western Europe is most accurate? A) The process of conversion produced a religious amalgam in which beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with Christianity. B) Christianity eradicated all traces of those earlier religions as the new religion became universal in western Europe. C) Small islands of polytheistic belief remained, but Christianity eradicated belief in magic and spirits wherever the new religion was accepted. D) Although Christianity made inroads, many areas of Europe retained polytheistic beliefs and rejected the new religion. E) Few polytheistic religions existed in Europe during the Middle Ages, but their influences grew. 35) Which of the following represents a difference between the spread of civilization in eastern and western Europe? A) Eastern Europe retained less fully the culture of the later Roman Empire than did the West. B) They produced different versions of Christianity, culturally as well as organizationally separate. C) Only eastern Europe developed north-south commercial ties. D) Centralized government and well-organized bureaucracy was more a feature of western Europe than eastern Europe. E) Only the east faced the threat of an Islamic invasion. 36) What accounted for the downfall of Songhay? A) defeat and incorporation within the Mali Empire B) invasion by the Portuguese C) invasion by a Moroccan Muslim army equipped with firearms D) the collapse of the irrigation system on which the agricultural economy depended E) the rise of the Swahili coast 37) What was the principle advantage of the Islamic concept of the ummah? A) It provided for an annual treaty that would restore the trade routes of Arabia. B) It provided dietary restrictions that allowed for more equitable distribution of food in Arabia. C) It transcended old tribal boundaries and made possible political unity among Arab clans. D) It emphasized the value of individualism and fostered self-reliance. E) It provided a clear principle of political succession that would provide the basis for an Islamic state. 38) What was the nature of urbanization within the Mali Empire? A) Mali possessed "port cities" along the Niger River such as Jenne and Timbuktu that flourished both commercially and culturally. B) Few mosques were ever built in Malinke cities. C) Mali failed to develop cities prior to its fall. D) As a conquest empire, Mali possessed garrison cities for its soldiers, but failed to develop commercial centers. E) The "cities" of Mali were essentially religious and palace complexes that lacked populations of specialists other than men devoted to religious observances. 7

8 39) What was the nature of the Abbasid government? A) The Abbasids abandoned the formality and absolutism of the Umayyads and established an open and representative government. B) The Abbasid government was extremely efficient. C) The Abbasids outdid the Umayyads in establishing an absolutist government symbolized by the growing powers of the wazirs and the sinister presence of the executioner. D) The Abbasids continued the policies of the Umayyads virtually without change, including the maintenance of an exclusively Arabic elite. E) The Abbasid government represented a return to the principles of government in the first days of the Orthodox Caliphate. 8

9 Answer Key Testname: FIRST SEM FINAL 1) C 2) C 3) A 4) E 5) A 6) B 7) A 8) C 9) E 10) D 11) A 12) C 13) D 14) E 15) C 16) D 17) D 18) B 19) C 20) E 21) C 22) B 23) C 24) D 25) A 26) D 27) D 28) A 29) D 30) E 31) B 32) D 33) B 34) A 35) B 36) C 37) C 38) A 39) C 9

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