Unit 4: Africa, Middle East, & Islam Middle Ages. The Rise of Islam

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1 Unit 4: Africa, Middle East, & Islam Middle Ages The Rise of Islam

2 Islam SSWH5 Examine the poli7cal, economic, and cultural interac7ons within the Medieval Mediterranean World between 600 CE/AD and 1300 CE/AD. 5a. Analyze the origins of Islam and the growth of the Islamic Empire. 5b. Understand the reasons for the split between Sunni and Shi a Muslims. 5c. Assess the economic impact of Muslim trade routes to India, China, Europe and Africa. 5d. Iden7fy the contribu7ons of Islamic scholars in science, math, and geography 5e. Analyze the rela7onship between Judaism, Chris7anity, and Islam.

3 5a. Analyze the origins of Islam and the growth of the Islamic Empire.

4 Islam Based on the teachings of a Meccan trader, Muhammad Muhammad claimed to have been visited by the angel Gabriel who told him to preach that Allah was the one and only god Statement of belief: There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. The word Allah was not originally a proper name for the god of Islam; it is derived from al (Arabic for the ) and ilah (Arabic for god ) Allah was worshipped by Arabs long before Muhammed as one of many gods in their pantheon; some scholars equate Allah with the moon god of the pre-islamic Arabs

5 Islam Some Meccans were hoslle to monotheism causing Muhammed & his followers to migrate to Medina (the hijrah) where he became a polilcal & religious leader. Muhammed returned to Mecca with 10,000 followers in 630, took over the city & caused many to convert. He died in 632 at the age of 62.

6 Islam Five Pillars Statement of faith Prayer: 5 Lmes a day facing Mecca; some assemble at mosques or a Muslim place of worship) Charity: alms for the poor Pilgrimage (hajj): to Mecca if possible Fast during Ramadan (a month): no food between dawn & sunset; meal at day s end

7 Islam Religious Customs/Beliefs Forbidden to eat pork Forbidden to drink alcoholic beverages Communal worship on Friday a\ernoon Belief in Allah as the one and only God. Belief in angels. Belief in the holy books.

8 Islam Customs/Beliefs con7nued Belief in the Prophets... e.g. Adam, Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Dawud (David), Isa (Jesus). Muhammad is the final prophet. Belief in the Day of Judgement... The day when the life of every human being will be assessed to decide whether they go to heaven or hell. Belief in Predes7na7on... That Allah has already decided what will happen. Muslims believe that this doesn't stop human beings making free choices.

9 Islam The Qur an holy book of the Muslims Muhammad s revelalons from Gabriel RevelaLons memorized by his followers & wri_en down a\er his death Only in Arabic is it considered the true word of Allah Sharia: Islamic law (Qur an & the Sunna or Muhammed s example) regulates daily life for Muslims The Hadith is also a major source of guidance for Muslim & contain tradilons about Muhammed & sayings

10 Muslim Expansion Abu-Bakr: first successor to Muhammed; invoked jihad (striving against unbelievers) to jus7fy Islamic expansion Umar: 2 nd Caliph; under him Muslims controlled Arabia, Syria, lower Egypt Uthman & Ali: next 2 caliphs; both assassinated Umayyad family took over in 661; moved capital to Damascus; changed from simple life to luxury of non-muslim rulers; caused Sunni-Shi a split

11 Muslim Expansion

12 Muslim Expansion Muslim Berbers took Spain but defeated at Ba^le of Tours (France), 732 Several rebel groups overthrew Umayyads & Abbasids took over in 750 Capital moved to Baghdad in 762 to increase trade & communica7on Developed bureaucracy, treasury, military office, sent ambassadors to Europe

13 Muslim Expansion

14 5b. Understand the reasons for the split between Sunni and Shi a Muslims.

15 Sunni/Shi a Split 656 A.D.: 3 rd Caliph (leader) of Islam is assassinated by army rebels 4 th Caliph, Ali (relalve of Muhammed) was challenged by 2 of Muhammed friend s & his favorite wife A isha but defeated them in the Ba_le of the Camel Ali is also challenged by Mu awiya but a truce was negolated with him Some of Ali s followers disagreed with his decision to negolate & had him assassinated

16 Sunni/Shi a Split Ali s death allows Mu awiya to become caliph & establish the Umayyad Caliphate. Ali s son Husayn tried to reclaim his family s right to rule in 680 but the Umayyad s massacred him & his family Husayn became a martyr to his followers & formed the Shi a branch of Islam Supporters of the Umayyads became known as Sunni

17 Sunni Islam Contras7ng Muslim Sects Believe the first four caliphs were rightly guided Believe Muslim rulers should follow Sunna (Muhammad s example) Claim Shi a have distorted the Quran 90% of Muslims 9% of Muslims Shi a Believe that Ali, (Muhammad s son-inlaw) should have succeeded Muhammed Believe Muslim rulers should be descended from Muhammad; do not recognize Sunni authority Claim Sunni have distorted the Quran

18 5c. Assess the economic impact of Muslim trade routes to India, China, Europe and Africa.

19 Muslim Expansion & Trade Muslims traded with the rest of the world through: the Mediterranean Sea Indian Ocean Silk Roads of China/India connnected Europe & Africa Trans-Saharan caravan route Muslim banks issued le^ers of credit called sakks for merchants to exchange for cash other parts of the empire. Hence the use of checks.

20 Muslim Trade cont. The routes linked the manufactures, mines, and markets of Chine, SE Asia, India, East Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, West Africa, & Europe Silk & Porcelain from China Spices & texlles (cloth) from South & Southeast Asia Ivory, slaves & gold from Africa Glass from Europe Metalware, slaves & texlles from the Middle East

21 Muslim Trade cont. These trade routes were facilitated by technological advances: Arab ships on the Indian Ocean (called dhows) had a lateen (triangular shaped)sail that allowed it more maneuverability against the wind (tack) Arabia camel saddles improved security & efficiency of the trans-saharan trade in North Africa

22 Muslim Trade cont. These Afro-Eurasian trade routes connected in the Muslim world & increase economic growth of the enlre region Many adhered to Muslim moral codes promoted & protected trade as well

23 5d. Iden7fy the contribu7ons of Islamic scholars in science, math, and geography

24 Muslim Culture Ci7es like Cordoba (Spain), Jerusalem, Damascus, & Baghdad were centers of Muslim culture & learning 4 social classes: -1 st : People born Muslim -2 nd : Converts to Islam -3 rd : Protected peoples (Jews, Chris7ans, Zoroastrians) -4 th : Slaves

25 Muslim Culture Muslim Women: Expected to submit to men Shari a gave legal rights for family, marriage, & property Poorer women worked the field; wealthier women managed the household. Some were educated & became poets & scholars Expected to care for children Became isolated over 7me; expected to be veiled

26 Muslim Culture A burkha worn by Muslim women

27 Muslim Art & Science Literature: Qur an, A Thousand and One Nights Medicine: Al-Razi wrote medical encyclopedia & about smallpox & measles; Ibn Sina wrote about meningi7s, the eye, heart valves, & nerves/pain Ibn al-haythem s op7cs studies helped develop microscope & telescope lenses Math: Muslim scholars believed math was the basis of all knowledge; Al-Khwarizmi developed al-jabr or algebra

28 Muslim Art

29 Muslim Arts & Science Ibn Ba^uta, a great traveler made contribu7ons to cultural & physical geography Astronomy: observed planets, stars, comets; developed astrolabe to measure posi7on on earth & 7me Calligraphy: decora7ve wri7ng Art: used geometric shapes, Arabesque, intricate detail, symmetry Architecture: blended Muslim concepts with other cultures.

30 Muslim Architecture

31 Muslim Calligraphy

32 The Crusades 1095: Pope Urban II called for Western Europeans to aid the Byzan7nes against the Turks & fight to regain the Holy Land from Muslim control 1 st Crusade: Holy Land regained; 4 feudal states established 2 nd Crusade: Unsuccessful a^empt to retake part of feudal states which had been a^acked by Muslims (1144). Saladin takes Jerusalem in rd Crusade: Richard I (Lion-heart) of England a^acked with other kings. Muslims kept Holy Land but a truce allowed Chris7an pilgrims.

33 The Crusades

34 The Crusades 5 more crusades were unsuccessful in retaking the Holy Land 1492: Spanish drove out the Muslims from Spain (the Reconquista) Inquisi7on: Catholic Spanish court would try, torture, & execute those suspected of heresy (false Chris7an doctrine) including Jews & Muslims 1492: All prac7cing Jews & Muslims were expelled from Spain

35 Effects of the Crusades Showed power/influence of the Catholic Church Gave opportuni7es for women & others at home to manage estate affairs or operate businesses Increased trade between Europe/SW Asia (Fruits, spices, cloth) Lessened papal power

36 Effects of the Crusades Increased power of kings in Europe Weakened Byzan7ne Empire Len Muslims bi^er & rela7ons with Chris7ans & Jews in Muslim controlled regions worsened Increased Jewish persecu7on in Europe

37 5e. Analyze the rela7onship between Judaism, Chris7anity, and Islam.

38 RelaLonship to Judaism & ChrisLanity Muslims view Jesus as a prophet and not as God and the son of God; Jews do not accept Jesus as Messiah (He is the main difference in the three religions.) Some have claimed that all three worship the same God but this fact sets Chris7anity & Judaism apart & in opposi7on to Islam All three accept prophets such as Abraham and Moses Muslims accept Old & New Testaments but believe they have been distorted over 7me All three are Monotheis7c All claim ancestry and/or origins through Abraham All believe in heaven, hell, and judgment All claim Jerusalem as a holy city

39 Differences in ChrisLanity & Islam In Ma_hew 11, Jesus says come unto me all who are burdened & I will give you rest but in the Koran Ch. 35:18 it says you must bear your own burdens, no one can bear them for you John 3:16 says that God gave his only bego_en son so that whoever believes in him might have everlaslng life. In the Koran 112:3 says he (Allah) begets not nor is he bego_en

40 Differences between ChrisLanity & Islam ChrisLans hold to the crucifixion (death), burial, & resurreclon of Jesus as key to their faith. The Koran in 4:157 says they did not kill him (Jesus) nor did they crucify him, it was someone like him Allah and Yahweh (Jehovah) are not the same God. ChrisLans believe in one God but with 3 dislnct persons (Trinity); Muslims would view this as polytheism

41 Differences between ChrisLanity & Islam SalvaLon in ChrisLanity is based on faith in Jesus Christ and His sacrifice for us on the cross we could not earn it because we were born in to sin & needed a savior to reunite us with God SalvaLon in Islam is works based and arbitrary. Allah leads astray whomever he pleases 14:4. Allah acts arbitrarily. ChrisLans accept the Old and New Testaments as divinely inspired. Muslims accept the Torah, the Psalms of David & the Gospel but not what we have today; Muslims believe these have been corrupted

42 Notes Quiz 1. Who is the founder of Islam? 2. List 2 of the 5 Pillars of Islam that Muslim are required by their religion to do. 3. What is the main difference in the Sunni & Shi a Muslims? 4. Which dynasty took over the rule of Islam in 661 A.D.? 5. What are the 4 trade routes made successful by the Muslims? 6. What is an example of technology the improved trade routes?

43 Notes Quiz 7. Which Muslim scholars wrote about medicine? 8. Which Muslim scholar & traveler wrote about geography? 9. What is an example of something ChrisLans, Muslims, & Jews all share? 10. What is the main difference in the 3 religions?

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