DETAILED CONTENTS. The Classical Period, The Rise of Agriculture and Agricultural Civilizations 2 PART II PART I. Chapter 2 China 34

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1 List of Maps xv Preface xvii Supplements xxv About the Authors Prologue xxix xxvii PART I The Rise of Agriculture and Agricultural Civilizations 2 Chapter 1 From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations 6 The Neolithic Revolution 11 Civilization 13 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Mesopotamia in Maps 17 DOCUMENT: Hammurabi s Law Code 19 IN DEPTH: The Idea of Civilization in World Historical Perspective 23 The Heritage of the River Valley Civilizations 24 IN DEPTH: The Legacy of Asia s First Civilizations 26 The First Civilizations 28 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Early Civilizations and the World 29 Further Readings 29 On the Web 29 PART II The Classical Period, 1000 B.C.E. 500 C.E. 30 Chapter 2 China 34 Classical Civilization: Patterns in Classical China 35 Political Institutions 38 Religion and Culture 40 DOCUMENT: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools 42 Economy and Society 44 IN DEPTH: Women in Patriarchal Societies 45 How Chinese Civilization Fits Together 47 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Classical China and the World 48 Further Readings 49 On the Web 49 Chapter 3 India 50 Classical Civilization: The Framework for Indian History: Geography and a Formative Period 51 Patterns in Classical India 53 Political Institutions 55 Religion and Culture 57 v

2 vi Economy and Society 61 IN DEPTH: Inequality as the Social Norm 62 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Pattern of Trade in the Ancient Eurasian World 64 Indian Influence 65 China and India 66 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: India and the Wider World 66 Further Readings 67 On the Web 67 Chapter 4 Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean: Greece and Rome 68 The Persian Tradition 70 Patterns of Greek and Roman History 71 Greek and Roman Political Institutions 74 IN DEPTH: The Classical Mediterranean in Comparative Perspective 77 Religion and Culture 79 Economy and Society in the Mediterranean 83 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Commerce and Society 84 DOCUMENT: Rome and a Values Crisis 86 Toward the Fall of Rome 87 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Greece, Rome, and the World 88 Further Readings 88 On the Web 89 Chapter 5 The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E. 90 Expansion and Integration 91 Beyond the Classical Civilizations 92 IN DEPTH: Nomads and Cross-Civilization Contacts and Exchanges 94 Decline in China and India 98 Decline and Fall in Rome 99 The New Religious Map 103 DOCUMENT: The Popularization of Buddhism 104 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Religious Geography 109 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Late Classical Period and the World 110 Further Readings 110 On the Web 111 PART III The Postclassical Era 112 Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam 120 Desert and Town: The Arabian World and the Birth of Islam 122 The Life of Muhammad and the Genesis of Islam 127 The Arab Empire of the Umayyads 130 IN DEPTH: Civilization and Gender Relationships 136 From Arab to Islamic Empire: The Early Abbasid Era 138 DOCUMENT: The Thousand and One Nights as a Mirror of Elite Society in the Abbasid Era 141 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Early Islam and the World 142 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Mosque as a Symbol of Islamic Civilization 143 Further Readings 145 On the Web 145 Chapter 7 Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asia 146 The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras 147

3 vii DOCUMENT: Ibn Khaldun on the Rise and Decline of Empires 152 An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements 153 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Patterns of Islam s Global Expansion 157 The Coming of Islam to South Asia 158 The Spread of Islam to Southeast Asia 165 IN DEPTH: Conversion and Accommodation in the Spread of World Religions 166 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Islam: A Bridge Between Worlds 168 Further Readings 168 On the Web 169 Chapter 8 African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam 170 African Societies: Diversity and Similarities 172 Kingdoms of the Grasslands 176 DOCUMENT: The Great Oral Tradition and the Epic of Sundiata 178 The Swahili Coast of East Africa 182 IN DEPTH: Two Transitions in the History of World Population 184 Peoples of the Forest and Plains 185 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Internal Development and Global Contacts 189 Further Readings 190 On the Web 191 Chapter 9 Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe 192 The Byzantine Empire 195 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Women and Power in Byzantium 198 The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe 203 DOCUMENT: Russia Turns to Christianity 207 IN DEPTH: Eastern and Western Europe: The Problem of Boundaries 209 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Eastern Europe and the World 210 Further Readings 210 On the Web 210 Chapter 10 A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe 212 Stages of Postclassical Development 214 IN DEPTH: Western Civilization 223 Western Culture in the Postclassical Era 224 Changing Economic and Social Forms in the Postclassical Centuries 227 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Peasant Labor 228 DOCUMENT: Changing Roles for Women 231 The Decline of the Medieval Synthesis 232 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Medieval Europe and the World 236 Further Readings 236 On the Web 236 Chapter 11 The Americas on the Eve of Invasion 238 Postclassic Mesoamerica, C.E. 240 Aztec Society in Transition 246 DOCUMENT: Aztec Women and Men 248 IN DEPTH: The Troubling Civilizations of the Americas 250 Twantinsuyu: World of the Incas 251 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Archeological Evidence of Political Practice 253 The Other Indians 257 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Americas and the World 260 Further Readings 260 On the Web 261

4 viii Chapter 12 Reunification and Renaissance in Chinese Civilization: The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties 262 Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Era 264 DOCUMENT: Ties That Bind: Paths to Power 268 Tang Decline and the Rise of the Song 271 Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Age 275 IN DEPTH: Artistic Expression and Social Values 281 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: China s World Role 284 Further Readings 284 On the Web 285 Chapter 13 The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam 286 Japan: The Imperial Age 287 The Era of Warrior Dominance 293 IN DEPTH: Comparing Feudalisms 295 Korea: Between China and Japan 299 Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam 302 VISUALIZING THE PAST: What Their Portraits Tell Us: Gatekeeper Elites and the Persistence of Civilizations 304 DOCUMENT: Literature as a Mirror of the Exchanges Between Civilized Centers 308 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: In the Orbit of China: The East Asian Corner of the Global System 309 Further Readings 310 On the Web 310 Chapter 14 The Last Great Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur 312 The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan 314 DOCUMENT: A European Assessment of the Virtues and Vices of the Mongols 317 The Mongol Drive to the West 320 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Mongol Empire as a Bridge Between Civilizations 321 The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History 325 IN DEPTH: The Eclipse of the Nomadic War Machine 330 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Mongol Linkages 332 Further Readings 333 On the Web 333 Chapter 15 The West and the Changing World Balance 334 The Decline of the Old Order 335 The Rise of the West 338 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Population Trends 339 DOCUMENT: Italian Renaissance Culture 342 Western Expansion: The Experimental Phase 343 Outside the World Network 344 IN DEPTH: The Problem of Ethnocentrism 346 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: 1450 and the World 348 Further Readings 348 On the Web 348 PART IV The World Shrinks, Chapter 16 The World Economy 358 The West s First Outreach: Maritime Power 360 IN DEPTH: Causation and the West s Expansion 365 Toward a World Economy 366

5 ix VISUALIZING THE PAST: West Indian Slaveholding 368 Colonial Expansion 370 DOCUMENT: Western Conquerors: Tactics and Motives 373 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The World Economy And the World 378 Further Readings 378 On the Web 379 Chapter 17 The Transformation of the West, The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce 382 Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change 388 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Versailles 391 IN DEPTH: Elites and Masses 393 The West by DOCUMENT: Controversies About Women 396 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Europe and the World 399 Further Readings 400 On the Web 400 Chapter 18 The Rise of Russia 402 Russia s Expansionist Politics Under the Tsars 403 Russia s First Westernization, DOCUMENT: The Nature of Westernization 411 Themes in Early Modern Russian History 412 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Oppressed Peasants 414 IN DEPTH: Multinational Empires 416 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Russia and the World 416 Further Readings 416 On the Web 417 Chapter 19 Early Latin America 418 Spaniards and Portuguese: From Reconquest to Conquest 421 DOCUMENT: A Vision from the Vanquished 425 The Destruction and Transformation of American Indian Societies 428 IN DEPTH: The Great Exchange 430 Colonial Economies and Governments 432 Brazil: The First Plantation Colony 435 Multiracial Societies 437 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Race or Culture? A Changing Society 439 The 18th-Century Reforms 440 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Latin American Civilization and the World Context 444 Further Readings 445 On the Web 445 Chapter 20 Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade 446 The Atlantic Slave Trade 449 African Societies, Slavery, and the Slave Trade 454 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Symbols of African Kingship 458 White Settlers and Africans in Southern Africa 461 IN DEPTH: Slavery and Human Society 463 The African Diaspora 464 DOCUMENT: An African s Description of the Middle Passage 465 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Africa and the African Diaspora in World Context 470 Further Readings 470 On the Web 471

6 x Chapter 21 The Muslim Empires 472 The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders 473 DOCUMENT: An Islamic Traveler Laments the Muslims Indifference to Europe 481 The Shi a Challenge of the Safavids 482 IN DEPTH: The Gunpowder Empires and the Shifting Balance of Global Power 484 The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India 489 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Basis of Imperial Power in the Rival Muslim Empires 491 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Gunpowder Empires and the Restoration of the Islamic Bridge Between Civilizations 496 Further Readings 496 On the Web 497 Chapter 22 Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Change 498 The Asian Trading World and the Coming of the Europeans 500 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Intruders: The Pattern of Early European Expansion into Asia 506 Ming China: A Global Mission Refused 508 DOCUMENT: Exam Questions as a Mirror of Chinese Values 509 IN DEPTH: Means and Motives for Overseas Expansion: Europe and China Compared 515 Fending Off the West: Japan s Reunification and the First Challenge 517 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: An Age of Eurasian Closure 521 Further Readings 522 On the Web 522 PART V Industrialization and Western Global Hegemony, Chapter 23 The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, The Age of Revolution 536 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The French Revolution in Cartoons 539 The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, DOCUMENT: Women in the Industrial Revolution 545 Cultural Transformations 550 Western Settler Societies 552 IN DEPTH: The United States in World History 556 Diplomatic Tensions and World War I 558 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Industrial Europe and the World 559 Further Readings 560 On the Web 560 Chapter 24 Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order 562 The Shift to Land Empires in Asia 564 IN DEPTH: Western Education and the Rise of an African and Asian Middle Class 571 Industrial Rivalries and the Partition of the World, Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Change 576

7 xi VISUALIZING THE PAST: Capitalism and Colonialism 577 DOCUMENT: Contrary Images: The Colonizer Versus the Colonized on the Civilizing Mission 581 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: A European-Dominated World Order 586 Further Readings 587 On the Web 587 Chapter 25 The Consolidation of Latin America, From Colonies to Nations 590 New Nations Confront Old and New Problems 593 DOCUMENT: Confronting the Hispanic Heritage: From Independence to Consolidation 596 Latin American Economies and World Markets, Societies in Search of Themselves 606 IN DEPTH: Explaining Underdevelopment 609 The Great Boom, GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: New Latin American Nations and the World 614 Further Readings 614 On the Web 615 Chapter 26 Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China 616 From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey 619 IN DEPTH: Western Dominance and the Decline of Civilizations 620 Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands 624 The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China 629 DOCUMENT: Building a New China 636 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Muslim and Chinese Decline and a Shifting Global Balance 637 Further Readings 638 On the Web 638 Chapter 27 Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West 640 Russia s Reforms and Industrial Advance 642 DOCUMENT: Conditions for Factory Workers in Russia s Industrialization 647 Protest and Revolution in Russia 649 Japan: Transformation Without Revolution 652 IN DEPTH: The Separate Paths of Japan and China 654 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Two Faces of Western Influence 657 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Russia and Japan in the World 660 Further Readings 661 On the Web 661 PART VI The 20th Century in World History 662 Chapter 28 Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order 670 The Coming of the Great War 671 A World at War 675 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Trench Warfare 676

8 xii Failed Peace 682 World War I and the Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order 684 DOCUMENT: Lessons for the Colonized from the Slaughter in the Trenches 685 IN DEPTH: Women in Asian and African Nationalist Movements 694 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: World War and Global Upheavals 696 Further Readings 697 On the Web 698 Chapter 29 The World in the 1920s: Challenges to European Dominance 700 The Disarray of Western Europe, Industrial Societies Outside Europe 706 Revolution: The First Waves 710 IN DEPTH: A Century of Revolutions 718 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The 1920s and the World 724 Further Readings 724 On the Web 725 Chapter 30 The Great Depression and the Authoritarian Response 726 The Global Great Depression 727 IN DEPTH: The Decline of the West? 733 Economic and Political Changes in Latin America 736 The Militarization of Japan 740 Stalinism in the Soviet Union 742 DOCUMENT: Socialist Realism 745 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Socialist Realism 746 New Political and Economic Realities 747 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Depression and Retreat 747 Further Readings 748 On the Web 748 Chapter 31 A Second Global Conflict and the End of the European World Order 750 Old and New Causes of a Second World War 752 Unchecked Aggression and the Coming of War in Europe and the Pacific 753 IN DEPTH: Total War 754 The Conduct of a Second Global War 757 DOCUMENT: Japan and the Loss in World War II 763 War s End and the Emergence of the Superpower Standoff 764 Nationalism and Decolonization 766 VISUALIZING THE PAST: On Nationalist Leadership 770 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Persisting Trends in a World Transformed by War 775 Further Readings 775 On the Web 776 Chapter 32 Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War 778 After World War II: International Setting for the West 779 The Resurgence of Western Europe 783 Political Stability and the Question Marks 785 IN DEPTH: The United States and Western Europe: Convergence and Complexity 790 Cold War Allies: The United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand 790 Culture and Society in the West 793 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Women at Work in France and the United States 795 Eastern Europe After World War II: A Soviet Empire 799 Soviet Culture: Promoting New Beliefs and Institutions 802 DOCUMENT: 1986: A New Wave of Soviet Reform 808

9 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Cold War and the World 809 Further Readings 810 On the Web 810 Chapter 33 Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Century 812 Latin America After World War II 815 Radical Options in the 1950s 816 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Murals and Posters: Art and Revolution 818 The Search for Reform and the Military Option 821 DOCUMENT: The People Speak 822 IN DEPTH: Human Rights in the 20th Century 827 Societies in Search of Change 829 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Struggling Toward the Future in the Global Era 832 Further Readings 833 On the Web 833 Chapter 34 Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence 834 The Challenges of Independence 836 IN DEPTH: Artificial Nations and the Rising Tide of Communal Strife 842 DOCUMENT: Cultural Creativity in the Emerging Nations: Some Literary Samples 847 Paths to Economic Growth and Social Justice 848 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Globalization and Postcolonial Societies 857 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Postcolonial Nations in the Cold War World Order 860 Further Readings 860 On the Web 861 Chapter 35 Rebirth and Revolution: Nation-building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim 862 East Asia in the Postwar Settlements 864 Japan, Incorporated 868 The Pacific Rim: New Japans? 871 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Pacific Rim Growth 873 IN DEPTH: The Pacific Rim as a U.S. Policy Issue 875 Mao s China and Beyond 876 DOCUMENT: Women in the Revolutionary Struggle 881 Colonialism and Revolution in Vietnam 883 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: East Asia and the Pacific Rim in the Contemporary World 889 Further Readings 890 On the Web 890 Chapter 36 Globalization and Resistance: World History The End of the Cold War 895 The Great Powers and New Disputes 902 IN DEPTH: How Much Historical Change? 904 Globalization 908 DOCUMENT: Protests Against Globalization 914 A World of Religious and Ethnic Conflict 916 Global Warming and Other Perils 918 Toward the Future 920 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Civilizations and Global Forces 922 Further Readings 922 On the Web 924 Glossary G-1 Credits C-1 Index I-1 xiii

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