By Dr. Monia Mazigh Summer, Women and Islam Week#4

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1 By Dr. Monia Mazigh Summer, 2016 Women and Islam Week#4

2 2 Remember our Week#1 Why a course about Women and Islam? Stereotypes Misinformation Orientalism Confusion: who to believe?

3 3 What do you know about Women and Islam?

4 4 The course objectives Historical perspective Ignite curiosity of participants Navigate through history books, articles, novels and biographies with some reference points Introduce the participants to the diverse world of Muslim Women

5 5 Outline Week #1: Introduction and Historical Context Week#2: Muslim Women in the Media Week#3: Islamic Feminism Week#4: Conclusion

6 6 What makes a Muslim woman? Muslim women have the same requirements as men: Modesty Belief Religious responsibilities Education

7 7 Culturally and legally Women all across the Muslim world still suffer from: Lack of education Lack of economic opportunities Lack of rights

8 8 Who or what to blame Patriarchy has been in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions for centuries before Islam The ijtihad or reinterpretation of the religious text hasn t been achieved so far(reformists, Musawah) Colonialism: women have been always used as a pretext to invade regions and exploit its natural and human resources Women have been used by many secular AND religious groups to advance their agenda

9 9 Who else to blame The oppressive regimes after the independence The education system Cultural habits (women can t drive in Saudi Arabia, boys preferred over girls in some countries, honour killing in Jordan)

10 10 The question of the veil Veil has many meanings. The most known one: Modesty If a woman doesn t wear a veil, then she isn t a good Muslim: NO! Why is veil a symbol of oppression?

11 11 Marriage in Islam There is no forced marriage in Islam Women must be consulted and must give their approval

12 12 Marriage in Islam Between a man and a woman Sexual relationship Love and serenity Raising families Protection for the children Financial responsibility: man Nothing said about the division of tasks expect the financial aspect

13 13 Divorce in Islam Divorce is allowed in Islam but kept as last resort Men usually divorce women Women can divorce men but rarely in pratice In the Muslim world, there is a lot of stigma around divorcees. Many women still can t obtain divorce. Laws are a hybrid of religious and patriarchal cultural references

14 14 Death and Inheritance Muslim believe in a life after death Women and men will be rewarded equally after death Men are considered as breadwinner in families. They are financially responsible Men receive more than women in inheritance

15 Literacy rates in Muslim world 15

16 16 Poverty in Muslim world The combined annual GDP of 57 Muslim countries remains under $2 trillion. USA $10.4 trillion China $5.7 trillion Japan $3.5 trillion Germany $2.1 trillion

17 Poverty and Fertility 17

18 18 Video 1 ed_what_do_you_think_when_you_look_a t_me?language=en

19 19 Muslims in Canada 2016 Environics Institute for Survey Research conducted in 2006 the first-ever national survey of Muslims in Canada. In 2016, the Institute conducted a second survey

20 20 Muslims in Canada The first recorded Muslim family arrived in Upper Canada from Scotland in the early 1850s By 2011, the Muslim population passed the one million mark, comprising more than three percent of the total population and representing one of the fastest growing religious groups.

21 Muslims in Canada 21

22 22 Muslim Female and Ethnicity Ethnicity of Muslim Women South Asian (36.7%) Black(8.8%) Arab (24.2%) West Asian(13.7%) Not visible minority(12.4%) Other visible minority(3.6%) 12% 4% 37% 14% 24% 9%

23 23 A Muslim is a foreigner? Canadian-born Muslim females surpassed the number of immigrants from the principal source country by a big margin in 2001.

24 24 Would you say you are very, somewhat, not very, or not at all proud to be a Canadian? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% % 20% 10% 0% Total Quebec Ontario West Non-Muslim

25 25 Thinking about Canada, overall, are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the way things are going in our country today? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% Muslims Non-Muslims 30% 20% 10% 0%

26 26 Patriarchy: The father in the family must be master in his own house 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% Muslims Non-Muslims 20% 10% 0% Totally agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Total disagree Depends/dk/na

27 27 Do you believe that Muslim youth today tend to be more religious, less religious, or about the same as their parents? 40% Muslim youth 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% Muslim youth 10% 5% 0% More religious Less religious About the same Depends(e.g. on parents) dk/na

28 28 Muslim Family Structure Muslim Family Structure Common-law partners 13% Lone parents 2% Married spouses 85%

29 29 Marriage and Fertility rate Some 14.1% of young Muslim women were married by 24 years of age The Muslim fertility rate in 2001 was 2.4, moderately higher than the 2.1 replacement level. In 2010, there were only two children per Muslim. The overall fertility rate in Canada is 1.6 (2012)

30 30 In your opinion, how many Canadians do you think are hostile toward Muslims? Would you say, most, many, just some or very few? (Muslims) 60% 50% 40% 30% % 10% 0% Most Many Just some Very few dk/na

31 31 In your opinion, how many Canadians do you think are hostile toward Muslims? Would you say, most, many, just some or very few? (Non-Muslims) 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% % 10% 5% 0% Most Many Just some Very few dk/na

32 32 In the past five years, have you experienced discrimination or been treated unfairly by others in Canada because of any of the following? 25% 20% 15% 10% Muslims General Population 5% 0% Because of your religion Because of your ethnicity Because of your language Because of your sex

33 33 Women and the future Muslim women are less optimistic about the reaction of Canadians toward Muslims. They are more concerned about media portrayal of Muslims and stereotyping by colleagues and neighbours.

34 34 Discrimination Of women who experienced xenophobia, 60% are identifiable Muslims 42% of Muslim women compared with 27% of men say that they have experienced some form of discrimination or ill-treatment during the past five years. The incidents occurred mainly in public spaces: stores, restaurants, banks, public transit.

35 35 Do you wear a hijab, a chador or niqab in public? 60% 50% 40% 30% % 10% 0% Total Hijab Chador Niqab

36 36 In Québec Some 84 % of Quebec Muslim females can converse in French, 11 % speak English only and 5.7 % cannot carry on a conversation in either French or English.

37 37 Unemployment Unemployment. among Muslim females is high and persistent. Some 16.7 % of Muslim females 15 years of age and older were unemployed in 2011, a figure more than double the national average of 7.4 % for all Canadian women

38 38 Female Unemployment Rates, 2011 Female Unemployment Rates, % 11% 11% 8% Canada All VM Muslims Canadian-born Muslims graduating from Canada

39 39 Sources s/instituteprojects/survey%20of%20muslims%20in%20 canada%202016%20- %20final%20report.pdf content/uploads/2014/09/canadian- Muslim-Women.pdf ab_final.pdf

40 40 Your thoughts

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