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1 Chapter 17: Nomadic Empires and Eurasian Integration Chapter 18: States and Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa Chapter 19: The Increasing Influence of Europe 1. Marco Polo wrote that the Mongols were "stout and valiant soldiers, and inured to war." Why were the Mongols such great warriors? Why couldn't they turn their conquests into long-lasting empires? 2. Examine the life of the Turkish and Mongol nomadic tribes. How did they adjust to their environments? How did the environment limit their development? How did the environment and their nomadic lifestyle influence their intellectual world? 3. How were Persia and China influenced by Mongol conquests? How were the Mongols transformed by their contact with the Persians and Chinese? 4. Examine Map 17.2, The Mongol empires, ca C.E. How were the Mongols able to create the largest empire in history? Did they form a unified empire? How did they influence Eurasia? 5. Read the passage from Marco Polo (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Marco Polo on Mongol Military Tactics). Discuss the relationship between the Mongols and their environment. How were they dependent on their horses? How did their nomadic existence influence the manner in which they governed their empire? 1

2 6. In the epic story of Sundiata, the point is made that the lion king has turned his capital, Niani, into "the navel of the earth." What does this statement mean? What were the foundations of Mali? What role did Sundiata and Mansa Musa play in its rise? 7. Discuss the significance of Mansa Musa's pilgrimage to Mecca. How symbolic was this event? Discuss the importance of Islam in sub-saharan Africa. 8. Compare the appearance of Islam and Christianity in sub-saharan Africa to their spread in other areas studied so far. What are the differences? In what ways did the more traditional African religious beliefs remain? 9. How did geographic and agricultural factors influence early sub-saharan societies? 10. Where and how did Islam spread to sub-saharan Africa? How was it different from north African and southwest Asian Islam? Why? 2

3 11. Why were England, France, and Spain able to unify when the Italian states and the Holy Roman Empire struggled? What were the foundations of these new nation-states 12. An old saying described the social structure of medieval Europe as "those who pray, those who fight, and those who work." What does this saying really mean? Compare this social system and its eventual transformation during the high middle ages to the social structure of other societies during the same period. 13. How did the role of women change during the high middle ages? Relate the role of women to the rise of new cities and guilds. 14. Examine the intellectual world of the high middle ages. What role did the new universities play? What was the influence of the rediscovered works of Aristotle and the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas? 15. Voltaire stated that the Holy Roman Empire was "neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire." Is his statement a true assessment of the Holy Roman Empire? Did any of the European states that developed during the high middle ages deserve this title? 3

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12 1. The invasions of the nomadic Turkish and Mongol tribes between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries a. left nothing but devastation in their wake. b. facilitated greater cross-cultural communication and integration. c. led to the rise of a centralized imperial state that ran from China to Persia. d. was brought to an end by increasingly powerful European states. e. was inspired by their devotion to Islam. 2. The Turkish peoples a. were a single, homogeneous group. b. established a tightly structured centralized government. c. abandoned their urban existence because of disease and economic pressures. d. spread Islam to southwest Asia. e. never formed a single, homogeneous group. 3. The environment of central Asia a. guaranteed a bountiful harvest. b. does not receive enough rain to support large-scale agriculture. c. was marred by such violent flooding that urbanization was almost impossible. d. facilitated urbanization because of its tremendous agricultural potential. e. was dominated by devastating monsoon rains. 4. The noble class, in nomadic society, a. ruled with absolute authority at all times. b. based their wealth and power on extensive landholdings. c. received their position through inheritance, and couldn't lose it. d. was based on divine sanction. e. was fluid, with many opportunities for rising and falling. 5. The political power of the khans was based on a. a tightly structured imperial framework. b. indirect rule through the leaders of allied tribes. c. an extension of the traditional Turkish urban kingship. d. the shamanistic belief in the divinity of the ruler. e. an educated class of scholarly bureaucrats an idea borrowed from China. 6. In an effort to strengthen the Mongol fighting forces, Chinggis Khan a. emphasized the traditional tribal affiliations. b. traded with the Europeans to obtain more powerful modern artillery. c. disbanded the Mongol cavalry and instead placed emphasis on the infantry. d. inspired them with a devotion to Allah. e. formed new military units with no tribal affiliations. 7. Khubilai Khan's military and imperial pursuits a. copied his father's when he conquered Persia. b. had little success when he tried to conquer Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, and Japan. c. successfully brought Japan under Mongol control. d. incorporated Russia into the growing Mongol empire. e. conquered eastern Europe. 12

13 8. Which food, first domesticated in southeast Asia, provided a nutritious supplement to Bantu diets and allowed the Bantu to expand into forested regions? a. yams b. wheat c. potatoes d. bananas e. pineapples 9. In regard to political structure, the early Bantu societies a. governed themselves mostly through family and kinship groups. b. depended a strong, centralized kingship. c. developed an elaborate hierarchy of officials. d. were influenced by their trading contacts with Rome. e. were governed by a centralized, theocratic structure. 10. One of the central factors in the establishment of trans-saharan trade was the a. invention of lighter, but still powerful, artillery. b. use of large caravans of donkeys. c. spread of a common religion. d. invention of a wider horseshoe. e. domestication of the camel. 11. The conversion to Islam by east African merchants and princes did all of the following EXCEPT a. completely eliminate the animistic religions. b. allow for the formation of alliance with other Islamic princes. c. give a greater sense of legitimacy for east African princes. d. allow for greater trade. e. allow for greater cooperation with other Islamic merchants. 12. In regard to gender issues in sub-saharan Africa, a. the position of women was essentially the same as in other societies of the time. b. women played the dominant role in society. c. women played a strictly subservient role. d. women had more opportunities open to them than did their counterparts in other societies. e. women had no opportunities and suffered more than their counterparts elsewhere. 13. The conversion to Islam by east African merchants and princes did all of the following EXCEPT a. completely eliminate the animistic religions. b. allow for the formation of alliance with other Islamic princes. c. give a greater sense of legitimacy for east African princes. d. allow for greater trade. e. allow for greater cooperation with other Islamic merchants. 14. Ethiopian Christianity a. was identical to Roman Catholicism. b. was influenced much more profoundly by the Greek Orthodox church. c. retained both traditional African and Christian beliefs. d. was much closer to certain Islamic beliefs than to Roman Catholicism. e. was almost entirely African in nature. 13

14 15. Most sub-saharan African religions a. developed an elaborate theology. b. were based on a belief in a powerful creator god, who took a very active role in everyday human affairs. c. were based on a belief in a main powerful female fertility goddess. d. centered on the practical business of explaining and predicting the experiences of individuals. e. were influenced by Zoroastrian thought. 16. Which of the following was NOT a problem faced by the late Byzantine empire? a. accumulation of land by wealthy landowners b. reduced incentives to join the Byzantine military c. foreign invasions d. the inability of leaders to get the population to practice Christianity e. diminished tax receipts 17. The single biggest obstacle to the rise of a powerful Holy Roman Empire was a. continual invasions by the French. b. the reoccurring appearance of epidemic diseases. c. occasional invasions from the Huns. d. an ongoing conflict with the papacy. e. continuous tensions caused by border disputes with England. 18. Hugh Capet was crowned King of France in 987 a. and immediately turned France into a powerful, centralized state. b. and was immediately excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII. c. and was eventually overthrown by the Holy Roman emperor. d. but it took centuries for the French kings to build a powerful, centralized state. e. and immediately launched an unsuccessful invasion of Spain. 19. Which of the following factors does NOT help explain the increased agricultural production of the high middle ages? a. the expansion of arable land b. government financial support c. the use of new tools d. the introduction of new crops e. the introduction of new technology 20. The guilds of the high middle ages a. were exclusively male. b. were designed to fight for better wages from the factory owners. c. almost always admitted women as members. d. were designed to fight against the increasing materialism of the age. e. were extensions of the monasteries. 21. St. Thomas Aquinas a. stressed the importance of an emotional, unquestioning devotion to God. b. founded the Dominicans. c. believed that it was possible to prove rationally that God exists. d. looked to the Cathars for inspiration. e. was the author of The City of God. 14

15 22. Pope Urban II a. led the fight against the Albigensian heresy. b. excommunicated Henry IV. c. launched the crusades in d. was forced to step down after a confrontation with Henry IV. e. both excommunicated Henry IV and was forced to step down after a confrontation with Henry IV. 23. Which of the following was a consequence of the fourth crusade? a. the establishment of an Islamic regime in Constantinople b. a new spirit of cooperation between Constantinople and western Europe c. the sacking of Constantinople d. the rise of Salah al-din e. a union of the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches 24. The crusades a. stopped all trade between the eastern and western Mediterranean because of the constant warfare. b. had virtually no impact on trade whatsoever. c. increased trade between the eastern and western Mediterranean. d. led to a slight decline in trade in the Mediterranean. e. introduced the Black Death into Europe. 25. The Dominicans and Franciscans a. were openly criticized during the high middle ages because of their vast wealth. b. were dangerous heresies during the high middle ages. c. attacked materialism and allowed no personal possessions. d. played a key role in financing the crusades. e. pushed for reconciliation among Christians, Jews, and Muslims. 15

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