Contemporary Iran A Realistic Perspective

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1 Contemporary Iran A Realistic Perspective M O H S E N K A D I V A R D E P A R T M E N T O F R E L I G I O U S S T U D I E S D U K E U N I V E R S I T Y W O R L D V I E W S E M I N A R O N T H E M O D E R N M I D D L E E A S T U N C A T C H A P E L H I L L M A R C H 2 6,

2

3 Cyrus Cylinder (538 BC) Charter of Human rights and Tolerance

4 Persepolis Capital of the Achaemenid Empire ( BC)

5 Four pillars of Persian literature Ferdowsi, Rumi, Sa di & Hafiz

6 Iranians Identity Ferdowsi, Hafiz, Saadi, & Rumi

7 Iran General information Etnicites and Languages: Fars (65%), Azeris (16%), Kurd (10%), Lurs (6%), Baluch 2%), Arab (2%), Turcoman (1%) Main Religions: Zoroastrian (until 7 th century) Sunny Islam (7 th - 15 th century) Shi ite Islam (since 1500s) Religion in Contemporary Iran: o Shi ite Muslims (90%) o Sunny Muslims (9%) o Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, & Baha is (0.9%) Iran was under conquest and ruling of non- Iranian tribes in its 2,500 century history: Turks (more than 13 centuries), Moghuls (more than 3 centuries), Arabs (less than 2 centuries) Iran was superpower: BC CE CE Area: Land: 1,648,195 km2 Water: 0.7% Demographics of Iran (2011) o Population: 75,000,000 Average annual growth: 1.3% Population density/km: 46 Proportion urban: 71.4 Household size: 3.55

8 Political bacground Qajari Dynasty ( ): Weakness influence of Russia in the North and UK in the South Pahlavi Dynasty ( ): Centralism Modernism Secularism UK/US poppet First Iranian Constitution 1906 One of the first constitutions in the Asia A democratic, semi-secular constitution King as the figure head not the ruler Prime minister, parliament, judiciary power Reza Shah Pahlavi: Was brought to power by UK in 1925 UK sent him to exile in 1940 Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi: Crowned as the king of Iran when he was 20 years old He as the last king of Iran and was in power for 37 years

9 Spring of Democracy in Iran Mohammad Mossadeq ( ) Democrat secular nationalist Muslim lawyer Nationalized Iran s oil industry Prime minister of Iran since 1951 Was overthrown in a coup orchestrated by British MI6 and American CIA Died after 14 years in jail and house arrest Shah became US poppet after the coup US Gendarme in Persian Gulf The major producer of Israel oil Harsh dictatorship Overcome of religious rebellion of 1963 and sending Khomeini to exile

10 Why Iranian regime is Anti- Imperialist? US imposed Shah as a secular monarch for 25 years to Iranians at the administrations of six Presidents: Dwight Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter

11 Iranians Reactions to American Monarch Death to Shah, removing him from the power Death to America, and buring the US flag Hostage crisis (444 days) Iran s Prime minister Mahdi Bazargan condemned the event and resigned from his job (November 1979)

12 Revolution of 1979 Major demands of Iranian Revolution of 1979: Freedom (against dictatorship) Justice (against discrimination & corruption) Sovereignty (against dependence to US, antiimperialism, anti-zionism, but not Communist) Islam as one of the source of public virtues and rules (against aggressive secularism) The constitution of Islamic republic of Iran 1979: Duality of democracy and theocracy Contradiction of rights of citizens with appointive guardianship of the jurist Three kinds of Ayatollah Khomeini s legitimacy: Democratic Religious Charismatic

13 Khomeini s Legacy Main events in Khomeini s administration: Rebellion of communist militant groups in the name of ethnicities a few weeks after victory of revolution in Kurdistan, Baluchistan, Turcoman-Sahra, & Khuzestan Rebellion of militant Islamic- Marxist group The People of Mujahidin, since 1980 Attach of Iraqi Army by leadership of Saddam Husain to Iran in 1981, eight years war with direct support of US, European countries, and many Arab countries for regime change including chemical weapons Evaluation of Khomeini s Record: Successful in sovereignty and independence Fine in justice and public affairs Failed in democracy, freedom and human rights The clergies and hardliners high jacked Islamic Republic Their interpretation of Islam is narrowminded, intolerant and theocratic

14 US & War of Saddam agianst Iran Casualties from Iraq's use of several chemical weapons: more than 300,000 (half of them were civilians) Chemical weapons were obtained from: US, West Germany, the Netherlands, UK & France U.S. Navy shoots down civilian airliner of Iran on 3 July 1988 killing all 290 passengers Captain W. Rogers was awarded the Legion Merit in 1990

15 Axis of Evil Mohammad Khatami thr reformist Presidant of Iran ( ) Under pressure of hardliners and supreme leader Year 2001 as the United Nations' Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations because of Katami s suggestion Iran Condemned September 11 attacks President George W. Bushin 2002 asserted Iran as an Axis of Evil Bush administration was one of the result of AhmadiNejad s presidancy

16 Green Movement Fraud election of 2009 Ppopular demonstration House arrest of the Mir- Hossein Mousavi, Mahdi Karrubi and Zahra Rahnavard since Feb Hardliner Supreme leader and president

17 Two faces of contemporary Iran First power in the region More than 85% of Iranians are literate More than 65% of college students are female More than 73% of all Iranians have healthcare coverage Public health, health of the children and the women in Iran are among the first ranking in Asia according to UN Iran is among the first jail of journalist in the world Iran is top of the world countries in the brain drain phenomenon Obligatory veil for the female is a problem Intolerance to dissidents and religious minorities Censorship and restriction of freedom of express, press and religion

18 Iran: Victim of Terrorism Mortada Mottahari (head of Supreme Revolutionary Committee) Qarani (Chef commander of Army) S. Mohammad Beheshti (head of Judiary power) Mohammad Ali Raja I (president) Mohammad Javad Bahonar (prime minister) 70 members of the parliament 4 Friday parayer Imams of major cities of Iran

19 Iran in opposition to Taliban, al- Qaeda, ISIS & Israel Iranian Revolutionary Guard Iran in Afghanistan, Syria and Iraq Bashar Assad dictator of Syria Hizbullah of Lebanon Himas of Palestine Israel

20 Iran-US in 21 st Century

Iran had limited natural resources Water was relatively scarce, and Iran s environment could only support a limited population Because of the heat,

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