Indian Ocean Trade. Height C.E.

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1 Indian Ocean Trade Height C.E.

2 Key Vocabulary: Zanj Arab name for the people of East Africa Monsoons the seasonal wind of the Indian Ocean and southern Asia, blowing from the southwest in summer and from the northeast in winter Entrepots cosmopolitan cities (often ports) Trade diasporas (see definition later) Geniza Hebrew for depository of old papers. Jewish law requires that religious papers not be destroyed- secular and sacred manuscripts- gold mine for historians. Ibn Battuta Muslim explorer Zheng He Chinese explorer

3 Key Vocabulary (cont.) Cowry shells (cowries) used as money along trade routes Astrolabe an astronomical instrument for taking the altitude of the sun or stars and for the solution of other problems in astronomy and navigation, helps calculate latitude Dhows sailing vessels used by Arabs on the east African, Arabian, and Indian coasts, generally lateenrigged on two or three masts Junks a seagoing ship with a traditional Chinese design and used primarily in Chinese waters, having square sails spread by battens, a high stern, and usually a flat bottom Emporia/Emporium a place, town, or city of important commerce, esp. a principal center of trade

4 The General Idea: Importance of Asia and Africa in the world economic system Usually trade between outer ends was handled by Arab intermediaries but occasionally people traveled the distance Zheng He and Ibn Battuta

5 Examples of the Impact Indian Ocean Trade Had on the World: India becomes emporium Indian ports very cosmopolitan Siraf also becomes an emporium (located in the Persian Gulf) Trade increased with establishment of Umayyad and Abassid dynasties in west and Tang and Song in the east- prosperity increased trade Swahili city states culture that merged Arab and East African peoples Arabic world sahil means coast coastal trade culture with strong Bantu base Kilwa (Swahili coast s main emporium) Chinese role- naval expeditions Europeans arrive in Indian Ocean in 1497 and while Portuguese dominated access to Europe for Asia they did NOT wrest control from the Arabs for control of Indian Ocean trade.

6 Items Traded mostly luxury goods for elites- similar to trade on Silk Routes Ivory better quality in Africa easier to carve Slaves- Islamic law prohibits enslaving fellow Muslims but they did capture and enslave non- Muslims and trade them to India, China, Persian Gulf (small trade compared to ivory and gold)

7 Challenges Distances of voyages Dhows and other technologies (expensive and difficult to develop) Pirates Monsoons Being away from family

8 Technology As a Result of Indian Ocean Trade: lateen (triangular sails) compass astrolabe dhows junks

9 Results CULTURAL DIFFUSION!!!!!! Exchange of ideas including religion, people, goods, agricultural crops, currency including cowries and gemstones Specialized goods in certain places; cotton textiles in India as well as carpet weaving, stone carving, leather tanning, steel for knives and swords, and sugar refining. silk, porcelain and laquerware in China SE Asia- spices SW Asia horses, incense and dates east Africa slaves, ivory and gold Trade diasporas - trade communities of merchants cross cultural brokers- helping and encouraging trade between host society and people of their own origin who moved along trade routes (since 3500 BCE) ex. of Zanzibar today

10 Trade Diaspora Definition an interrelated net of commercial communities forming a trade network

11 Advantages of trade diasporas helped to deal with familiar people who knew local laws, people, officials, bribes others who could carry home news, letters, gifts for family increased honest dealings social prestige at home local rulers saw advantage of foreigners having wealth instead of local elites

12 Examples of Trade Diasporas (Islam) rise of Islam Muslims, Arabs and Persians began to dominate this network cultural change via traders not conquerors. Muslim trading diasporas throughout Indian Ocean world- trade, travel and communication encouraged within Islam, prosperity from commerce success of Muslim merchants along Indian coasts encouraged converts expansion into SE Asia with decline of Mongols (increased instability on land routes) Chinese Ming rulers had anti-barbarian sentiments so restricted their trade mostly to SE Asia where Muslim traders picked goods up and took them west

13 Case Studies: Kilwa (Other city states also on east Africa coast- Mombassa, Sofala, Malindi) initially fishing village with limited trade imported pottery from within Africa- increased agriculture due to increased population trade brought wealth location is everything Kilwa was the most southerly point where ships could land and still return the same season taking the reverse monsoon further south to Sofala meant waiting an extra year! So gold from Zimbabwe sent to Sofala was taken north to Kilwa which became the main trading port powerful city state ruled by king who supervised trade and public life in region by 12th c. coral building construction

14 Case Studies: Kilwa (Other city states also on east Africa coast- Mombassa, Sofala, Malindi) Cont d ruling elites dressed in Chinese silk and ate off porcelain mosques by 13th c. multi-story buildings with sewage/ toilets height-- 12,000 pop. trade with India, China, SE Asia Decline in 14th century due to Black Death sacked by de Gama

15 Case Study: Great Zimbabwe (interior kingdom- traded with Sofala which then interacted with Indian Ocean system) Zimbabwe means dwelling of the chief stone complexes 13th c. height 18,000 people cattle was main symbol of wealth but gold, ivory, slaves were traded to the ports and porcelain, Indonesian beads etc. has been found at the site. controversy over its discovery

16

17 Case Study: Java 11th 15th c. international spice marketmonopoly of fine spices (cloves, nutmeg, and mace) Malay sailors brought goods to harbors of east Java geographic advantage. Winds usually ensured that traders didn t meet suppliers myth arose that spices were locally grown

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