Decline of Mughal. Fill in the blanks: True/False. 1. Nadir Shah invaded Bengal. Answer: False 2. Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.

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1 Decline of Mughal True/False 1. Nadir Shah invaded Bengal. Answer: False 2. Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore. Answer: False 3. Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth guru of the Sikhs. Answer: True 4. Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the 18th century. Answer: True Fill in the blanks: 1. Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the. Answer: Deccan 2. Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal. Answer: Administration 3. Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in. Answer: The founder of the Awadh state was. Answer: Sa'adat Kha

2 Answer the following question: 1. What were the offices held by Sa adat Khan? Answer: Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa adat Khan held the combined offices of political (subadari), financial (diwani) and military (faujdari) affairs of the province of Awadh. 2. Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system? Answer: Doing away with the jagirdari system was a strategy adopted by the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal to reduce the Mughal influence. 3. How were the Sikhs organized in the 18th century? Answer: In the eighteenth century, the Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls. These bands were under competent leaders. Their combined forces were called the grand army (dal khalsa). 4. Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan? Answer: Because expansion brought enormous resources to the empire. 5. What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position? Answer: Asaf Jah brought skilled soldiers and administrators from northern India, who welcomed the new opportunities in the south. He appointed mansabdars and granted jagirs. Though still a servant of the Mughal emperor, he functioned quite independently without seeking any directions from Delhi or facing any interference. The mughal emperor merely confirmed the decisions already taken by him. 6. Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the 18th century? Answer: The extent of influence of the merchants and bankers on the state was very high in the 18th century. They had a powerful say in politics and administration. In modern times, merchants and bankers hold importance just in the economy. But they do not have such a powerful say in politics and administration.

3 Match Columns Column I Column II (1) Subadar (a) A revenue farmer (2) Fauzdar (b) A high noble (3) Ijardar (c) Provincial governor (4) Misl (d) Maratha peasant warriors (5) Chauth (e) A Mughal military commander (6) Kunbis (f) A band of Sikh warriors (7) Umara (g) Tax levied by the Marathas Answer: 1-c, 2-e, 3-a, 4-f, 5-g, 6-d, 7-b What is khalsa? Answer: Guru Gobind Singh had inspired the Khalsa with the belief that their destiny was to rule (raj karega khalsa). They were a well-knit organization and hence they could put up a tough and successful resistance to the Mughal governors and then to Ahmad Shah Abdali who had seized the rich province of Punjab and the Sarkar of Sirhind from the Mughals. The Khalsa declared their sovereign rule by striking their own coin in the year 1708 and This coin also bore the same inscription that the coin during the time of Banda Bahadur bore. Briefly describe Bharatpur. Answer: The kingdom of Bharatpur emerged as a strong state under Suraj Mal. Many of the city s notables took refuge in Bharatpur when Nadir Shah sacked Delhi in His son Jawahir Shah; who had troops of his own, managed to hire another Maratha and Sikhs to fight the Mughals. The Bharatpur fort was built in a fairly traditional style.

4 Briefly describe the methodology adopted by Sa adat Khan to reduce Mughal influence. Answer: Sa adat Khan managed to reduce the Mughal influence by reducing the number of office holders (jagirdars) appointed by the Mughals, reducing the size of the jagirs and appointing his own loyal servants in the vacant positions. The accounts of the jagirdars were strictly checked to prevent cheating and the revenues of all districts were reassessed by the officials appointed by the Nawab s court. He also seized a number of Rajput zamindaris and also the agriculturally fertile lands of the Afghans of Rohilkhand. Write a note on the decline of the Mughal empire. Answer: The Mughal Empire gradually fragmented into a number of independent regional states. These states can be broadly divided into three overlapping groups: a) States that were old Mughal provinces- These included Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad. Though these were extremely powerful and quite independent, the rulers did not break their ties with the Mughal emperor. b) States which had enjoyed considerable independence under the Mughals as watan jagirs. For e.g. Rajput principalities. c) States under the control of the Marathas, Sikhs and others like Jats. These were of differing sizes and had seized their independence from the Mughals after an armed struggle for a long time.

5 Write a note on Bengal. Answer: Under Murshid Quli Khan Bengal broke away from Mughal control. He was appointed as the naib, deputy to the governor of Bengal. Though he was never a subadar, he very quickly seized all the power that went with that office. He also commanded the revenue administration of the state, like the rulers of Awadh and Hyderabad. Methodology to reduce Mughal influence He managed to reduce the Mughal influence by Transferring all Mughal jagirdars to Orissa. Ordering a major reassessment of the revenues of Bengal- Revenue was collected from zamindars, in cash with great strictness. This forced the zamindars to borrow money from bankers and moneylenders. Those who were not able to pay were force to sell their lands to bigger zamindars. There was a lot of change amongst the zamindars caused by the formation of a regional state in 18th century Bengal. The close connection between the state and bankers was evident in Bengal during the rule of Alivardi Khan. The banking house of Jagat Seth became extremely prosperous during his reign.

6 Describe the watan jagirs. Answer: Many Rajput kings, particularly belonging to Amber and Jodhpur had served extremely well under the Mughals. In exchange, they were allowed to enjoy considerable autonomy in their watan jagirs. These rulers, in the 18th century, attempted to extend their control over adjacent areas. The ruler of Jodhpur, Ajit Singh, was involved in the factional politics at the Mughal court. These Rajput families were influential. They claimed the subadari of the rich provinces of Gujarat and Malwa. Raja Ajit Singh of Jodhpur held the governorship of Gujarat whereas Sawai Raja Jai Singh of Amber was governor of Malwa. In 1713, these offices were renewed by Emperor Jahandar Shah. As an effort to extend their territory, they also seized portions of imperial territories neighbouring their watans: Nagaur was conquered and annexed to the house of Jodhpur and Amber seized many portions of Bundi. Sawai Raj Singh founded his new capital at Jaipur. He was given the subadari of Agra in There was severe pressure on these principalities by Maratha campaigns in Rajasthan from the 1740s. This checked their further expansion.

7 Describe the expansion of the Maratha empire and their administrative system. Answer: 3. The Maratha empire expanded between 1720 and It slowly chipped away at the authority of the Mughal Empire. By the 1720s Malwa and Gujarat were seized from the Mughals. The Maratha king was recognized as the overlord of the entire Deccan peninsula by the 1730s. He had the right to levy chauth and sardeshmukhi in the entire region. After the raid in Delhi by the Marathas in 1737, the frontiers of the Maratha domination expanded fast: Into Rajasthan and Punjab in the north Into Bengal and Orissa in the east Into Karnataka and the Tamil and Telugu states in the south Though these were not formally included in the Maratha empire, they were made to pay tribute as a way of accepting Maratha sovereignty. The Administration system of the Marathas was well organized. After the Maratha rule became secure subsequent to the conquests, revenue demands were gradually introduced taking local conditions into account. Agriculture was encouraged and trade was revived.

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