BUSINESS AND PROPHET MUHAMMAD

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1 BUSINESS AND PROPHET MUHAMMAD Halim, Halimah; Mohammad, Maisarah; Zahari, Fatin Nadia; Kassim, Mass Hazilla Food Biotechnology Department Faculty Science and Technology Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia Mohd Dali, Nuradli Ridzwan Shah Faculty of Economics and Muamalat Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia Keywords : Sunnah, Place, People, Ethics. Donald Trump and Robert Kwok were examples of successful entrepreneurs, however in Islam, Prophet Muhammad pbuh is the role model in business. We will discuss on how Prophet Muhammad pbuh deals with business and trade until he became the most successful entrepreneurs in the world. One of the reasons is that he was always be fair and honest in dealings with others even before his prophet s hood (Mohd Dali et al., 2008). Later, we will discuss more about the history on business dealings of Prophet Muhammad since child until adult. There were many Prophet Muhammad s attitudes that can be followed such as observing justice and equity, avoiding telling lies and fraud, never being too strict to buyers, neither argue nor blame others (Nadawi, Abdul Hasan Ali, 1982). On the other hand, Prophet Muhammad went to many places and experienced many kind of business dealings. Since his youthful age, he went to Bursa with his uncle, Abu Talib to do some business. Bursa was the first place where he did business and trade after he achieving mature age. There were also many kind of people that Prophet Muhammad pbuh met and deales with during his business and trade. Prophet Muhammad met Siti Khadijah, who was a provider of the capital in Mecca. She provided Prophet Muhammad an amount of cost to do business 1

2 dealings. This is one of type of Islamic investment which is called Mudarabah (Afzar Rahman, ). Indeed Prophet Muhammad pbuh had been given the glorious tittle Al-Amin as he is a very truthful person in any situations and with anyone involving business dealings. Prophet Muhammad pbuh had showed to us how to do business dealings kindly and correctly so that the purpose of getting Allah s blessings and love by others are achieved. Prophet Muhammad pbuh said: God knows mercy to a man who is kindly when he sells, when he buys, when he makes a claim (Bukhari) Trade Journeys of Prophet Muhammad started when he achieved his matured age. He was accompanied by his uncle Abdul Talib to Bursa to do business trade at the age of 17 years old. Later, he went to do trade in Syria and Yemen. Many of trade s techniques had been learned by Prophet Muhammad as he joined and involved in the business trade. Besides, he always gave big profits to his business and got good impressions with his business dealings from the people around him. He met Siti Khadijah at the early age of 20 years old. Siti Khadijah was the provider of capital whom he married to, later. Siti Khadijah gave an amount of money to Prophet Muhammad s business as the cost. Syam is the last place that he went to do a business trade, accompanied by Siti Khadijah (Ali, Muhammad Mohar, 1997). Prophet Muhammad pbuh had no particular job at his early youth, but it was reported that he worked as a shepherd for Bani Sa d and in Makkah. At the age of 25, he went to Syria as a merchant for Khadijah. Ibn Ishaq reported that Khadijah, daughter of Khwalid was a businesswoman of great honors and fortune. She used to employ men to do her business for a certain percentage of the profits. Quraish people were mostly tradespeople, so when Khadijah was informed of Prophet Muhammad pbuh, his truthful words, great honesty and kind manners, she sent for him. She offered him money to go to Syria and do her business, and she would give him a higher rate than then others. She would also send her hireling, Maisarah, with him. He agreed and went with her servant to Syria for trade. Besides, it is reported that he traveled to Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, and many more places in Arabia for trade. Some historians have also suggested that he probably traveled to Iraq and Ethiopia. From his early age, he was involved in commerce. He had a good reputation as a hardworking, honest, truthful and very successful businessman. 2

3 Based on history, Prophet Muhammad pbuh dealed with many people in business and trade. One of the most important person is Siti Khadijah. It all started when Abu Talib knew that Siti Khadijah was preparing merchandise to be brought to the Quraish caravan in Syria. He called his niece, Prophet Muhammad pbuh who was twenty-five years old at that time to join the caravan. Siti Khadijah was very happy to know that Prophet Muhammad pbuh is one of the person who will be joining her caravan. This is because Prophet Muhammad is well-known to be a person with high spiritual virtues, magnanimity and with his superiority attitudes that the community called him as a very honest and fair man (Al-Amin). These good and noble attitudes are very important as the Holy Quran has stressed the importance of fairness in business. And, O my people, give full measure and weight justly, and defraud not men of their things, and act not corruptly in the land making mischief. What remain with Allah is better for you, if you are believers. (Surah Hud, 11 : 85-86) Thus, Siti Khadijah can put her trust on Prophet Muhammad pbuh during the business in Syria without any doubt or worries. Besides, she also agreed and promised to pay Prophet Muhammad pbuh twice as much as what she gave to others. After seeking the advice from his uncle, Muhammad went to see Maisarah, a slave of Khadijah. Quraysh caravan took the desert road headed to Syria with all the merchandise of Khadijah. Caravan through Wadi'l - Qura, Midian and Thamud Diar and counties were once traveled by Muhammad with his uncle Abu Talib when he was just twelve years old stomping. After commencement of business at their destination, trade goods brought by Muhammad including herbs, fabrics, perfumes, raisins, dates and luxury goods were sold to many rich people in Syria. With tenderness, honesty and capability, Muhammad turned out a very successful trade goods business of Khadijah. All the members of his entourage were profitable, but with different means of trade done by Muhammad, it was more profitable than their lucrative. This shows the greatness of Muhammad in business. Similarly, with such sweet and sincere characters, he was able to attract love and honor of Maisara on him. After that, he returned to Mecca and felt to be liked by Khadijah. After marrying Siti Khadijah, the Prophet Muhammad becomes a full time manager of business and properties that belongs to his wife. He do trade travels to Syam and Yemen 3

4 frequently. This is indeed a tarbiyah from Allah SWT, as a preparation for his future as a prophet and apostle. That you actually Muhammad, came to the Sham and Yemen to determine their properties. Syam was a trading center of Roman and Persian. At that time, King of the Romans and King of Persia were always cultivating their finances in Syam. So, the Prophet came to Syam frequently, stays for 1 or 2 weeks or 1 month, interacting with the Romans and Persians. As if he was taught how their properties will be faced when he had the task of prophetic treatise because Islam would later evolve into the Roman and Persian. So that at least, the Prophet Muhammad have known how their customs. The same wisdom when he traveled to Yemen. Yemen is a trade center of Arabs. Various Arab tribes meet and conduct trade there. Business ethics in Islam is a very enormous and immense term. The ethics exist greater in quantity and powerful. A lot can be demonstrated on this term. The Holy book Quran and Sunnah of our beloved prophet Muhammad pbuh provides us the open invitation to make our vision clear about business ethics in Islam. Islamic teachings strongly stress the observance of ethical and moral code in human behaviour. The example of business ethics of Prophet pbuh are truthfulness, trustworthiness, honesty and righteous. Our beloved Prophet Mohammad pbuh was also famous as a truthful trader. Before the Prophet invited his people towards Islam, it was his truthfulness and trustworthiness which had earned for Muhammad pbuh the glorious titles of Sadiq (truthful) and Amin. In the hadith, it says that, Do not envy one another; do not inflate prices one to another; do not hate one another; do not turn away from one another; and do not undercut one another, but be you. O servants of Allah, brothers. A Muslim is a brother of Muslim: he neither oppresses him nor does he fail him, he neither lies to him nor does he hold him in contempt. The whole of a Muslim for another is inviolable; his blood, his property and his honour. (Muslim) (Forty Hadith translated by Ezzedin Ibrahim and Denys Johnson-Davies). Therefore, he presented in front of us how to be a successful Muslim trader. He had a remarkable reputation in dealing. He had developed trust through business ethics than presenting faith not only amongst Muslims but also amongst non-muslims. Besides, honesty and righteous trade in business dealing are shown by Prophet pbuh which is not to betray in purchasing. Our prophet pbuh said: 4

5 The buyers and the sellers have the option to cancel or to confirm the deal as long as they have not parted or till they part and if they spoke the truth and told each other the defects of the things, then blessings would be in their deal and if they hid something and told lies, the blessings of the deal would be lost. As the conclusion, Islamic teachings strongly stress the observance of ethical and moral code in human behaviour. More principles and code of ethics are repeatedly stressed throughout the Holy Quran Besides there are numerous teachings of prophet pbuh which cover the areas of moral and ethical values and principles. Islam gives us the complete picture of livings both how to deal in a community and how to deal with Deen following Quran and the teachings of our beloved Prophet pbuh, and turn Muslim people to be a good Muslim businessman by teaching them the seeds of honesty, truthfulness, sincerity, if we see today, Muslims have lost their identity amongst the trade & business community. Different cases of corruptions have totally spoiled the image of Muslims among business community. It s just because we have changed our path and not following the Islamic ethics taught by our beloved Prophet pbuh. REFERENCES: Fatima, is-business-ethics-html. www. values.com.au/services/business-ethics/business Business Ethics in Islam by Ishtiaq Ahmad Gondal Mohd Dali Nuradli Ridzwan Shah, USIM, 2013, 2nd Edition, Muamalat : The Malaysian Perspective. Mohd Dali, N. R. S., Marzuki, A., Sabri, H., Muhammad, I., Zainuddin, M. T., Basah, M. Y. A.,... Shafii, Z. (2008). Introduction to Muamalat. Kuala Lumpur: MacGraw Hill (Asia). 5

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