The Middle East in Conflict: A Century of War and Peace University of Pennsylvania, Spring, 2018

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1 1 The Middle East in Conflict: A Century of War and Peace University of Pennsylvania, Spring, 2018 Instructor: Dr. Samuel Helfont Office Hours: Monday 2:30 to 4:30 or by appointment most days Office Address: 255 S. 36th Street 635 Williams Hall Philadelphia, PA Phone: (215) Overview: The modern Middle East has witnessed tremendous conflict and turmoil since it emerged following World War One. It would be impossible for one course to cover all conflict in the Middle East over the past century. Therefore, this course investigates three prominent conflicts (the Arab Israeli Conflict, Islamist Terrorism, and the Iraq Wars), which represent case studies on ethno-national conflict, religious conflict, and great power intervention. Thus, the courses uses these conflicts to expose students to the primary types of conflicts that have manifested in the region over the past one hundred years. After a brief introduction to the Middle East and the emergence of the modern political system that developed in the wake of World War One, the first case that the course will discuss is the Arab-Israeli conflict. This case will be used to investigate ethno-national conflict in the region. At the end of the first case, the class will use the spring break holiday to travel to Israel and Jordan. This will give students a hands-on perspective to some of the issues discussed in the classroom. The second case that this course covers in Islamist terrorism. It will be used investigate whether and to what extent that religious ideas intersect with violence. This section will cover the rise of various international terrorist networks as well as intra-islamic strife. Finally, the course will use American wars in Iraq as a case study of great power intervention in the region. Grades: Class Participation 25% Responses to Readings 15% Midterm 20% Final Paper 40% [Please note that failure to complete any of these assignments will result in failure of the class. For example, if a student does not complete the midterm, he or she will fail the course regardless of his or her grades on the other assignments. Also, more than two unexplained absences will result in a lower grade.]

2 2 Responses to Each student will be required to submit 8 brief responses to the readings throughout the semester. Students are free to choose which 8 of the 11 sets of readings to submit responses. The responses should be ~ words. Often, a specific question will be provided. Students are encouraged to address this question, but are free to respond to a different issue raised by the weekly readings if they feel particularly inspired to do so. Responses will be submitted by midnight before class. Take-Home Midterm: Due on Monday, February 20. Students will write a 1,500 word essay on one of four questions. The questions will be broad and theoretical. Final Paper: Students will write a narrative or analytical paper on some aspect of Iraq and the Iraq Wars. Students should consult with the instructor to find additional outside sources. The paper should be pages in length. Book for Purchase: -Asher Susser, Israel, Jordan, and Palestine: The Two-State Imperative (Brandeis University Press, 2012). - William L. Cleveland and Martin Munton, History of the Modern Middle East (Bolder CO, Westview Press, 2013) -Other readings will be provided on Canvas. -Readings marked with an * are primary sources. Class Schedule Week 1 Wednesday, January 10 Introduction. Cover Syllabus. Basics of The Middle East and the course Week 2 Monday, January 15 The Middle East and the Islamic World -William L. Cleveland and Martin Munton, History of the Modern Middle East (Bolder CO, Westview Press, 2013), TBD Week 3 Monday, January 22 How was the Middle East created? Does it matter? - Cleveland, William, pp

3 3 -Sara Pursley, 'Lines Drawn on an Empty Map': Iraq s Borders and the Legend of the Artificial State (Part 1) Jadaliyya, June 2, Sara Pursley, 'Lines Drawn on an Empty Map': Iraq s Borders and the Legend of the Artificial State (Part 2) Jadaliyya, June 3, *The McMahon Letter *The Sykes-Picot Agreement *The Balfour Declaration CASE ONE: ARAB ISRAELI CONFLICT Week 4 Monday, January 29 The Birth of Israel and the Refugee Crisis -Cleveland, pp Khalidi, Rashid. The Palestinians and 1948: the Underlying Causes of Failure. In Eugene Rogan and Avi Shlaim, Eds., The War for Palestine, Rewriting the History of Cambridge University Press, pp Karsh, Efraim. Were the Palestinians Expelled? Commentary (July-August, 2000): pp Susser XXX *Jabotinsky, The Iron Wall, Razsviet, 1923 *Declaration of Independence for the State of Israel. Week 5 Monday, February 5 Arab Israeli Conflict Cont -Susser XXX Week 6 Monday, February 12 Arab Israeli Conflict Cont -Susser XXX

4 4 Week 7 Monday, February 19 Attempts at Peace -Cleveland, William, pp , , , Clinton, Bill. My Life. pp ; ; 911-6; *UN Security Council Resolution 242 (Nov. 22, 1967); *The Clinton Plan (Dec. 23, 2000) ****Mid Term Exam Handed Out in Class**** CASE TWO: ISLAMIST TERRORISM Week 8 Monday, February 26 The Rise of Islamic Politics -Cleveland, William, pp Kepel, Giles. The Roots of Radical Islam. (London: SAQI, 2005). pp Gellner, Ernest. The Unknown Apollo of Biska. Muslim Society. Cambridge (1983). pp * Hasan al-banna, Toward the Light, in Princeton Readings, * Sayyid Qutb, Signposts along the Road, and In the Shade of the Qur'an, in Princeton Readings, ****Midterm Exam Due**** Week 9 March 3 11: CLASS TRIP TO ISRAEL AND JORDAN! Week 10 Monday, March 12 Iranian Revolution and Shi ism - Cleveland, William, pp Sanam Vakil, Iran in Assaf Moghadam ed., Militancy and Political Violence in Shiism (New York: Routledg, 2012)

5 5 -Toby Jones, Saudi Arabia in Assaf Moghadam ed., Militancy and Political Violence in Shiism (New York: Routledg, 2012) Dominique Avon and Anaïs-Trissa, Hezbollah A History of the "Party of God", pp Vali Nasr, When Shiites Rise, Foreign Affairs, July-August Week 11 Monday, March 19 Saudi Arabia and Salafism -Stéphane Lacroix, The Politics of Religious Dissent in Contemporary Saudi Arabia, Quintan Wiktorowicz, Anatomy of a Salafi Movement, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 29, no. 3 (May 2006), Week 12 Monday, March 26 Al-Qaida and ISIS -Will McCants The Believer September 1, * Usama bin Laden, Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places XXX Week 13 Monday, April 2 Gulf Crisis Cleveland, William, pp , CASE THREE: AMERICAN AND THE IRAQ WARS -Richard Haass, The Gulf War: Its Place in History in Jeffrey A. Engel, ed., Into the Desert: Reflections on the Gulf War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013) Fred Halliday, The Gulf War and the Study of International Relations. Review of International Studies, 20 (2). (1994) pp

6 6 -Kevin M. Woods and Mark E. Stout, Saddam's Perceptions and Misperceptions: The Case of Desert Storm, Journal of Strategic Studies 33, Issue 1 (2010): Week 14 Monday, April 9 Aftermath of Gulf War and Sanctions -Tripp, pp Gregory D. Koblentz Saddam Versus the Inspectors: The Impact of Regime Security on the Verification of Iraq s WMD Disarmament The Journal of Strategic Studies pp TBD Week 15 Monday, April War - Cleveland, William, pp Foreign Policies of the George W. Bush Administration: Memoirs, History, Legacy Diplomatic History (2013) 37 (2). *2002 National Intelligence Estimate, pp *CIA Report: Misreading Intentions, Week 16 Monday, April 23 US Occupation of Iraq -Tripp pp Abu Bakr Naji, The Management of Savagery: The Most Critical Stage through which the Umma Will Pass, * CPA Orders 1 and 2

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