Day 9: PART 1: SUMMARY OF THE ENTIRE SESSION: 2. Commanding & Forbidding 3. Passive Voice In Past & Present Tenses

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1 Day 9: PART 1: SUMMARY OF THE ENTIRE SESSION: ف ع ل Involving The ةل ي ة 1. The إ 2. Commanding & Forbidding 3. Passive Voice In Past & Present Tenses PART 2: REVISITING TO ةل ف عل ي ة FIRST ل means sentence. When a sentence begins with a ةل The Arabic grammatical term and ةل ف ع ل ي ة it is called,ف ع when it begins with an ا س م (it s a little more complicated than that, but for this level this definition suffices), it is called ةل إ ي ة. In the sentence structure that was introduced in the last session, the ف عل was always mentioned first. It is probably a good idea to share with you ALL the scenarios of ةل ف ع ل ي ة that we learned about previously as a recap here. ف عل is mentioned after the اسم Before you read through the numerous examples below, remember that if the and ع AND its an takes over the pronoun. In each of the ف عل serves as the doer of the فاع ل A.فاع ل, it is called the رف ع meets these conditions, i.e. it is فاع ل cases below, the ع Note that the.ف عل and after the رف can be due to ending ف ر sound or ending combinations that we learned about on page 6. For Past Tense ةل ف عل ي ة helped. The muslim المسل م ص ر helped. The two muslim المسل ما ص ر و helped. The muslims المسل م ص ر (actually pronounced ل مة ص ر س الم المس ر ت ص ل متا (originally ت المسل مة ل متا helped. س الم phonetically) The two muslim women helped. سل مات الم so it connects better phonetically) The muslim woman صر ت changes to ت but the صرت so it connects better ت The muslim women helped (the same change of صر ت ت to ت that occurred in the previous two cases).

2 ةل ف عل ي ة For Present Tense : ل م س helps. The muslim ي رالم ص سل ما help. The two muslims ي رالم ص و سل م help. The muslims يصرالم ل مة س رالم ص helps. The muslim woman ت ل متا س م رال ص help. The two muslim women ت سل مات The تصرالم muslim women help. I want you to visualize the ةل ف ع ل ي ة scenarios above in an overview form. The first word (the فعل regardless of being past or present) is always singular, matching the second word only in gender. The second word in each case is always plural. but changes in number from singular to pair to (فاع ل (because it s the رفع Present Tense (39) Past Tense (33) المسل م ص ر المس ل ما ص ر و سل م الم ص ر صر ت صر ت صر ت ل مة س الم ل متا س الم الم س ل مات ل م س يصرالم سل ما يصرالم و سل م يصرالم ل مة س تصرالم ل متا س تصرالم سل ما ت تصرالم PART 3: LOOKING AT ةل إ ي ة IN CONTRAST I share all of this with you because the first lesson we covered in class was one in which we reversed the sequence of the ر words above. Instead of mentioning ص المسل م first, we discussed mentioning ي ر or ص in any of its variations first. This would mean that the sentence would begin with an اسم and therefore no longer be a ةل ف ع ل ي ة (sentence

3 ل ةل ف ع ل ي ة While a.(اسم (a sentence beginning with an ةل ا ي ة but rather (ف عل beginning with gender, the ي ة ةل إ must match in number and in gender. Here s the comparative picture: only had to match in Present Tense (39) المسل مي ر ص Past Tense (33) المسل م ر ص المس ل ما صرا المس ل ما يصرا مويصر و المس ص المسل مةت ر وصر ا المسل م و المسل مةصرت المسل متا رتا المس ل مات ص ص ر المسل متا المس ل ما ت تصرا ص ي ر ل م In each case above, as the word س changed from singular to pair ف ع ل changed from singular to pair to plural, the الم ةل ف ع ل ي ة to plural. This did not happen in but is a necessity in ةل إ ي ة ةل ف ع ل ي ة vs. ةل ي ة whether we speak in إ. One might ask what difference it makes. Isn t it really saying the same thing? The answer in modern Standard Arabic seems to be that they are essentially the same in meaning. The answer in classical Arabic, the Arabic of the Qur an, is that there is a significant difference: a. The ي ة ةل إ is obviously harder to construct so it is easy to appreciate that it wasn t the norm in classical ل م Arabic speech. The Arab would typically say س circumstances. in unusual ص ر ص ر المسل م and use الم إ ي ة (which replaces the pronoun), the فاع ل as the المسل م has ةل ف عل ي ة ةل b. While the does not employ ل م س but we know ف عل must come AFTER the اسم the,فاع ل This is so because in order to be a.فاع ل as a الم ةل ي ة that in.ف ع ل is occurring BEFORE the اسم, the إ

4 c. A further indication that the اسم is not فاع ل in ةل إ ي ة is that the ف ع ل needs to express its embedded pronoun in every case individually instead of just staying singular and relying on the اسم to do all the work as it ةل ف ع ل ي ة does in ل م d. While س الم examples in part 2 above. would be translated He helped, ص ر ص ر المسل م would be translated either The muslim, HE helped! or It is in fact the muslim who helped!. It isn t simply a case of translating one word then the other. The ةل إ ي ة scenario is therefore doing at least two things that weren t being done before: (i) it is alluding to the fact that someone is confused about who ACTUALLY did the act and so it must be strongly iterated that it is being done by the اسم mentioned (in our case, the muslim). (ii) It is mentioning the اسم first, then repeating the reference to the اسم in the form of a pronoun embedded in the ل.ف ع It is like the muslim is being ةل ف ع ل ي ة mentioned twice, once as the muslim and then again as he. In muslim فاع ل) replaces the he ). ةل ف ع ل ي ة usage where ةل ي ة e. Another benefit of إ, the mention was just once as the was possible too is that it indicates an emotionally charged context. It is like the speaker is angry, pounding a podium or even yelling depending on the context. PART 4: SOME EXAMPLES OF ةل إ ي ة IN THE QUR AN: knows! It is in fact Allah who knows! or Allah, He االله يعلم تهذا THIS? Was it really you who did this? Or DID YOU?!... YOU DO أأت فعل خلقا THEM! It is in fact We who have created them! Or WE!...WE CREATED ح By comparison if the above were ةل ف ع ل ي ة the implied meanings would have differed: knows. Allah االله يعلم تهذا this. You committed فعل

5 خلقا We created them. PART 5: COMMANDING & FORBIDDING: On a completely separate note, we spoke in class about common sense observations about commanding & forbidding: a. You can t command in the past ( Brought me some water please, Child! makes no sense) b. You can t command someone who isn t there (the most you can say is She should or Shouldn t do something which would still constitute a comment not a command.) c. You can t command yourself (even if you do it s like a weird out of body experience or you re really just talking to a mirror) d. A command isn t always a command. It can be a request, an allowance or permission, encouragement, advice, prayer or an actual command. Only context can determine how to properly analyze speech. e. It is easier to forbid than it is to command. Commanding and forbidding doesn t use the past tense as noted in point a. Therefore we won t be employing page 33 for this lesson. It doesn t employ the third person so we won t be using the first two rows of page 39 (3 rd person is people who aren t there or people you are not talking to, rather about). We won t be using the bottom row (1 st person) because we noted that we can t command ourselves. Not out loud anyway. What we are left with then are the 2 nd person present tense conjugations outlined ONLY in rows 3 and 4 on page 39. I m re writing them here for convenience: you help صرا تص ر you both help ت you all help تصر و ي ص ر you women help ت FORBIDDING: both of you women help تصرا ص ر you women help ت If we add لا to each of the فعل cases above, the statement simply changes from positive to negative: help. You don t لا help. None of you لاتصر تص help. Neither of you لا را تص ر و ي ص ر Sing.). You don t help (fem. لات صرا help. None of you ladies لاتص ر help. Neither of you ladies لات

6 The لا statements above can t be called cases of forbidding. They are simply comments, not instructions. To change them to instructions, we kept the لا and made the present tense LIGHTEST. If you re forgetting how that works, read up on the notes on day 8. ص ر را HELP! DON T لات ص YOU! DON T HELP, EITHER OF لات وا HELP! DON T ANY OF YOU لاتصر ص ر ي را Fem.) DON T HELP (Sing. لات ص DON T ANY OF لاتص ر HELP! DON T EITHER OF YOU LADIES لات YOU LADIES HELP! The bottom line is, to forbid we use لا + the lightest 2 nd person present tense. Here is a list of numerous words from page 40 turned into forbidding statements: و ي ح وا becomes ت ي تو,لاتح و لا becomes تم ا ر becomes لاي لو,لات قو قو لوا becomes ت د,لات و و لا becomes تع ل خ ر,لا تفص ست و ا وا becomes لا خ ر ا ت,لا س و ل م ظ ا becomes ي و ل م,لاتظ م becomes فص ل,لاتح و ذك ر وا becomes ت,لا تذك ر و توا م م, ت و becomes لاتر و ر م,لات ر ا وا ود ع,ت سب و ا becomes ي ح و سب و د م ق ست وا becomes لا د م ق ست وا becomes ي و,لا قص قص خلوا becomes لاي خلو,لات د.لا تد Here are some examples of forbidding from the Qur an: لوا ت Allah! Don t commit shirk (associate partners) with لا كب االله لا رسف kill! Don t any of you لاتق فر ك ربا disbelieve! Don t لات ق ز Don t worry! لا تحز near! Don t either of you come لات Don t worry لاتح (sing. Fem. Used for Maryam لا تحز وا( Don t any of you worry! COMMANDING: Let s go back to the 6 conjugations of the present tense that are 2 nd person: you help صرا تص ر you both help ت you all help تصر و ي ص ر you women help ت both of you ladies help تصرا ص ر you ladies help ت

7 And while we re at it, let s also list these six conjugations for another word: you teach تعل م you both teach تعل ما all of you teach تعل مو م Both of you ladies teach تعل ما (sing.fem.) you teach تعل م ي You ladies teach تعل The thing that commanding and forbidding have in common is that they both require the word to be its lightest. So when constructing commands, the first step is that the present tense must be in its lightest form. Let s reiterate the words above in their lightest form: تص ر ص ر ص تص يت را ر وات صر رات ص ت ل اتع م ي تعل ما تعل م تعل م تعل ما تعل مو For commands, after you meet the first condition (Lightest), you must meet the second condition, which is to remove the ت from the beginning. If we meet the second condition for the above words, we get: ص ر وا صر صرا ص ر ي ص را ص ر م اعل م ع ي ل ما ع ل ع ل م ع ل ما ع ل مو م The row that begins with.ت is clearly unreadable after we removed the ص ر The row that begins with ع ل on the other hand is readable. When you run into a situation where the word is readable, you ve got yourself a command. The ل م line is a bunch of commands. Here s translation for them: ع م وا you! Teach, both of عل ما ع Teach! ل م Teach, both of ل ما ع (sing.fem.) Teach! ل م ي ع you! Teach, all of ل ع م Fem.) you! (pair. ladies! Teach, ل ع But what about the ص ر row of words? We ll say that these words are handicap and so they need additional.ا assistance to be functional (or pronounceable). That assistance comes by means of an

8 ص ر صرا Help! ا you! Help, all of اصر ا you! Help, both of ا و ص ر ي صرا (sing.fem.) Help! ا ladies! Help, اص ر fem.) Help, both of you! (pair ا You noticed that the ا was marked ا in the command cases above. This is done when the second last letter (in this case (ص has an u. If that second last letter doesn t have an u, simply apply an ا. This is a minor point because in the Qur an the commands are punctuated for your non Arab convenience. Let s try applying this process to a bunch of present tense words: Meaning (command) Thank! Worship, all of you! Struggle! Honor, all of you! Cleanse yourselves, ladies! Fight, all of you! Prostrate! Listen carefully, all of you! Remove ت (add alif only when necessary) Lightest Form ش كر اش كر Normal Present Tense ش كر ب تع دو تجاه د دوا ب تع تجاه د دوا اعب جاه د كر موا طه ر ت تكر موا تطه ر ت مو تكر تطه ر ت تقات لو د ج س و م ت ع س تت قو تقات لو ا قات لو ا د سج وا م ت ع س د ج اس وا م ا ست ع Be extremely cautious, all تت قو ا ا ت قو ا you! of Listen! Look! م س ع ت ظر ع ا س مع ظر ا تظر PART 5: PASSIVES First, let s get the definition out of the way. A Passive فعل is defined as a ف ع ل in which the doer isn t known.

9 In English when you say, He saw, the doer is known. When you say He was seen, the doer isn t known and therefore that is considered passive. The passive version of a sentence is almost opposite in meaning to the active version. Consider the following English sentences: He killed vs. He was killed. He helped vs. He was helped. He saw vs. He was seen. He teaches vs. He is being taught. He writes vs. It is being written. فعل in the past tense is pretty simple. While leaving the last letter of the فعل The way to construct passive alone, the first part of the word should be invaded with two sounds, u followed by i. killed. means he was قت ل means he killed and قتل dominated. means she was غل بت means she dominated and غ ت لب ض ر ب means he struck and ض ر ب means he was struck. ل fought. means he was قو ت ل means he fought and قات ز ل ل means he sent down and أ down. means it was sent أ ز وا ع means they heard and عوا means they were heard. means he wrote and كت ب written. means it was كت ب ت حت means she/it opened and فتح opened. means it was فت رت ث ت means she upturned and ب ع ث upturned. means she was بع ر

10 The way to construct passive فعل in the present tense is also pretty simple. While leaving the last letter of the a. alone, the first part of the word should be invaded with two sounds, u followed by فعل ل ت killed. means he is being يقت ل means he kills and يق و ل ب dominated. means they are being ت غل بو means they dominate and تغ ب means he strikes and يض ر يقات لو means they fight and struck. means he is being يضرب fought. means they are being يقات لو sent. means it is being يز ل means he sends down and يز ل س means you both hear and معا heard. means you are both being سمعا ت means he writes and يك ب written. means it is being يكتب ت فتح means she/it opens and تف ح opened. means it is being ت يب means he thoroughly informs and ي ب ي informed. means he is being thoroughly ا SUMMARY: The past passive required u followed by i. The present passive requires u followed by a.

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