Sirah of Sayyida Fatima al-zahraa d

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1 Sirah of Sayyida Fatima al-zahraa d ALI 233 Session 1: Tuesday, JCC, Toronto 5 Jamadi II 1434/ 16 April

2 Sûrah al-kawthar 108:1-3 ب س م اهلل الر ح ن الر ح يم إ ن ا أ ع ط ي ن اك ال ك و ث ر Surely We have given you the Kawthar, ف ص ل ل ر ب ك و ان ح ر Therefore pray to your Lord and make a sacrifice. إ ن ش ان ئ ك ه و ا ل ب ت ر Surely your enemy is the one who shall be without posterity. 2

3 Family blossoms thru a girl Sons being awaited to be born in a family. Sons to bring strength, credit and nobility to the family of the Messenger of Allah 1. The first born is Zaynab, a girl not a boy. The second born Ruqayyah. Again a girl, not a boy. The third, Umm Kulthum. Two boys, follow: Qasim and Abdullah. They hold great promise. But they die in infancy. Now there three are girls. The mother has aged. She is over 60 years old. The father loves his three daughters. But the tribe prefers sons. Can Khadîjah now bear a sixth child? Some historians believe Zaynab, Ruqayyah & Kulthum were Prophet s step daughters. Question: Can we prove that Fatima was the only daughter of the Holy Prophet (a)? 3

4 Here comes the great child Hope has become very dim. Yes! Khadija is pregnant again. Everyone is happy & excited. This is the last chance for the family of Abdul Muttalib, the last hope. But once again, a daughter. They name her Fatima. Mixed reactions, but the Prophet is pleased. The enemy of the Prophet is also happy, whispering and even at time screaming: Muhammad is abtar cut-off of progeny. The man who is the last link in his family & claims nubuwwah (apostleship), has four daughters. No sons to inherit. Aaas b. Waa il, Abu Jahl, Uqbah b. Abi Mu it & Ka b b. al-ashraf referred to HP as abtar 4

5 Allah declares a family can surely perpetuate through a girl The occasion of the revelation of Surat Al- Kawthar: Aas b. Waa il, one of the chiefs of the pagans, once spoke with the Holy Prophet (s) coming out of the Sacred Mosque. A few men of the Quraysh witnessed this and asked Aas: To whom were you speaking? He said: With this abtar ( cut off, tail less); A derogative remark! The surah was revealed to console the Prophet & give glad tidings of abundant of Divine grace Allah calls the enemy abtar and keeps them so. 5

6 Why was she named Fatima? A number of Hadiths on this. ع ن أ ب ه ر ي ر ة ق ال إ ن ا س ي ت ف اط م ة ف اط م ة - 1:178 Ial al-sharī ah ل ن الل ه ت ع ا ل ف ط م م ن أ ح ب ه ا م ن الن ار ق ال اب ن ع ب اس ل م ع او ي ة أ ت د ر ي 2:73 al-ridhā, Uyūn Akhbār ل س ي ت ف اط م ة ف اط م ة ق ال ل ق ال ل ن ه ا ف ط م ت ه ي و ش يع ت ه ا م ن الن ار س ع ت ر س ول الل ه ص ي ق ول ه إ ن ا س ي ت ف اط م ة ف اط م ة ل ن ه ا ف ط م ت :148 al-imāmah, Dalā il ه ي و ش يع ت ه ا و ذ ر ي ت ه ا م ن الن ار الن يب ع: إ ن ا س يت فاطمة فاطمة :180 Nafsiyyah, Majmū at لن الل ه فطمها و فطم من أحب ها من الن ار Because she, her descendants, followers, those who love her are abstained from (fatama) from the Fire 6

7 A houri amongst the human إ ذ ا اش ت ق ت إ ل ا ل ن ة أ د ن ي ت ه ا ف ش م م ت ر يح ا ل ن ة ف ه ي ح و ر اء إ ن س ي ة When I longed for Paradise I got close to her, and lo! I smelled fragrance of Paradise, for she is a houri amongst the human ع ن ع ائ ش ة :ك ن ت أ ر ى ر س ول الل ه ص ي ف ع ل ب ف اط م ة ع ش ي ئا م ن الت ق ب يل و ا ل ل ط اف ف ق ل ت ي ا ر س ول الل ه ت ف ع ل ب ف اط م ة ل أ ر ك ت ف ع ل ه ق ب ل ف ق ال ي ا ح ي ر اء إ ن ه ل م ا ك ان ت ل ي ل ة أ س ر ي ب إ ل الس م اء د خ ل ت ا ل ن ة ف و ق ف ت ع ل ى ش ج ر ة م ن ش ج ر ا ل ن ة ل أ ر ش ج ر ة ف ا ل ن ة أ ح س ن م ن ه ا ح س نا و ل أ ن ض ر م ن ه ا و ر قا و ل أ ط ي ب م ن ه ا ث را ف ت ن او ل ت ث ر ة م ن ث ر ه ا ف أ ك ل ت ه ا ف ص ار ت ن ط ف ة ف ظ ه ر ي ف ل م ا ه ب ط ت إ ل ا ل ر ض و اق ع ت خ د جي ة ف ح م ل ت ب ف اط م ة ف أ ن ا إ ذ ا اش ت ق ت إ ل ا ل ن ة س ع ت - ش م ت - ر حي ه ا م ن ف اط م ة ي ا ح ي ر اء إ ن ف اط م ة ل ي س ت ك ن س اء ا ل د م ي ني... )الطرائف ف معرفة مذاهب الطوائف 1:111 اخلوارزمي ف مقتل احلسني: 63 و البحار: 65 37/ ) 7

8 Translations of the Hadiths Bibi Āisha reports: I used to see the Messenger of Allah 1 kissing and showing (special) affection to Fātima. So I said, O Messenger of Allah, I see you (loving) Fātima (in a way), I have not seen you doing it before! So he said, O Humayra, it is (because) when I was taken to the heavens I entered the Paradise and stopped beside a tree, the like of which I never saw a better tree than this in Paradise, nor fresh leaves than from it, and nor a fruit more pleasant than from it. So I took a fruit from it and ate it, which resulted in a blood clot (nutfa) in my back. When I descended on the earth, I neared Khadījah and she conceived Fātima. Whenever I longed for Paradise, I smelled its fragrance from Fātima. O Humayra!, Fātima is not like any other women of human being 8

9 Promise of Allah to Fatima In Shawāhid al-tanzīl li-qawā id al-tafsīl, 2:445 ح د ث ن ا ح ا د ب ن ع يس ى غ ر ي ق ا ل ح ف ة ]ق ال :[ ح د ث ن ا ج ع ف ر ب ن م م د ع ن أ ب يه ع ن ج اب ر ق ا ل د خ ل ر س و ل الل ه ع ل ى ف اط م ة و ع ل ي ه ا ك س اء م ن ج ل د ا ل ب ل ف ل م ا ر آه ا ب ك ى و ق ا ل: ي ا ف اط م ة ت ع ج ل ي م ر ار ة الد ن ي ا ب ن ع ي م ا ل خ ر ة ]ا ل ن ة [ غ دا ف أ ن ز ل الل ه ت ع ا ل و ل س و ف ي ع ط ي ك ر ب ك ف ت ر ضى Status of the reporter Hammad b. Isa Intro on Surat al-duhaa (No. 93) 9

10 Similar Hadith Imam al-sādiq (a) said: Once, the messenger of Allah (a) came to and found her wearing a garment of camel-hair while grinding [for flour] with her hands and suckling her child. The Prophet s eyes shed tears when he saw her in that case. He said to her, O my daughter, suffer the bitterness of this life for the sake of the sweetness of the afterlife; for Allah has revealed to me: And soon will your Lord give you so that you shall be well pleased. 93:5 She said, O messenger of Allah, praise be to Allah for His gifts, and thanks be to Him for His blessings. (Az-Zahra Sayyidatun Nisa, vol.1 p.30.) 10

11 Sunni Hadîths on Fatima d فاطمة بضعة مين من أغضبها أغضبين Al-Bukhari: Al-Mustadrak and Kanzul Ummal: إن اهلل يغضب لغضب فاطمة ويرضى لرضاها Al-Mustadrak: عن عائشة : ما رأيت أحداكان أصدق هلجة منها غري أبيها عن عائشة أيضا : كانت إذا دخلت عليه قام إليها فقبلها ورحب هبا وأخذ بيدها فأجلسها ف جملسه قال لعلي : فاطمة أحب إيل منك وأنت أعز علي منها Al-Mustadrak: Tibrani: 11

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