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1 6.3 Gupta Empire pp Essential Question: What makes a culture unique? Standard 6.23

2 Success Criteria: 1. The Gupta Empire prospered through trade of which goods? 2. Explain pilgrimages in your own words. 3. Describe the following Literature: a. The Vedas b. Mahabharata c. Bhagavad Gita d. Ramayana

3 Vocabulary Golden Age Pilgrimage Exile

4 The Gupta Empire Came to power around the Ganges River Valley

5 Golden Age time period of peace and prosperity (wealth)

6 Source:

7 Ganges River = Sacred or Holy River: Millions of Hindus plunge into Ganges River in India to wash away their sins

8 Ganga: Goddess of the Ganges River Goddess Ganga is represented as a faircomplexioned woman, wearing a white crown and sitting on a crocodile and is the only living Goddess in the Hindu pantheon. She holds a water lily in Her right hand and a lute in Her left. When shown with four hands she carries a water-pot, a lily, a rosary and has one hand in a protective mode. Descent Of Ganga painting by Raja Ravi Varma journeyingtothegoddess.wordpress.com

9 The Hindu Triad: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva

10 Shiva Under his feet, Shiva crushes the demon of ignorance called Apasmara Purusha, caused by forgetfulness.

11 Pilgrimages Pilgrimage in Hinduism, as in other religions, is the practice of journeying to sites where religious powers, knowledge, or experience are deemed especially accessible. Hindu pilgrimage is rooted in ancient scriptures. According to textual scholars, the earliest reference to Hindu pilgrimage is in the Rigveda c BCE, in which the wanderer is praised. Numerous later texts, including the epic Mahabharata c. 300 BCE 300 CE describes sacred sites to grant health, wealth, children, and deliverance after death. Texts ask Hindu pilgrims to perform rites or ceremonies on behalf of ancestors and recently deceased kin. Sanskrit sources as well as other sacred texts say that certain places can have miracles happen there. So, pilgrims journey from holy city to holy city performing these ceremonies hoping for miracles.

12 Pilgrimages The Ganges at Varanasi, the city closely connected to Lord Shiva Perhaps the most famous of all holy places is Varanasi, situated on the banks of the Ganges some 450 miles south of Delhi. It may be one of the oldest cities in the world and is included in the list of India's "seven ancient cities. It is mentioned in the Epics as "the foremost city of Shiva." Its most famous, the Golden Temple dedicated to Shiva, was destroyed and then rebuilt under Muslim rule. Many Hindus retire to Varanasi in the hope of achieving liberation. The city is famous for its cremation ghats. Corpses are transported hundreds of miles for burning here. Relatives often bring the ashes of their loved ones and scatter them in the Ganges in the belief that this will benefit the departed soul.

13 Culture In Hindu art showing scenes from the Bhagavad Gita, the heroic Lord Krishna is shown as having blue skin. (6:8) That yogi who is blissfully absorbed in the wisdom of the self is known as being unshakably united to spirit. Unchangeable, the controller of his senses, he views with equal gaze a clod [chunk] of Earth, a stone, and a bar of gold. (6:9) He is a supreme yogi who gazes equally upon patrons [supporters], friends, enemies, strangers, peacemakers, those who cause trouble, relatives, virtuous [doing good], and the ungodly. Bhagavad Gita, Translation and Annotation by Shukavak N. Dasa. Copyright 2004 by Sanskrit Religions Institute. Published by Sri Publications. Source:

14 Culture Click on The Ramayana to watch ~10mins Prince Ram (Rama) and Princess Sita Exile - forced absence from one s home or country Literature The Vedas Mahabharata Bhagavad Gita The Ramayana

15 Success Criteria: 1. The Gupta Empire prospered through trade of which goods? 2. Explain pilgrimages in your own words. 3. Describe the following Literature: a. The Vedas b. Mahabharata c. Bhagavad Gita d. Ramayana

16 Success Criteria 1. Which scientific advancement helped to create the Iron Pillar of Delhi? 2. Which feature of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system was an improvement over previous number systems? Vocabulary: Metallurgy, Culture

17 Culture During the Gupta Empire, architecture, sculpture, and painting thrived. The mural image here is from the caves at Ajanta.

18 Culture The sculptures and murals at the Ajanta Caves are excellent examples of the magnificent artistry created during this time period. The art found in these caves portrays the daily life of Indians. Several of the caves have elaborately carved entrances and deep chambers within. Nearly every surface of the caves is covered in paintings, many of them religiously themed masterpieces. Some of the chambers and hallways have finely carved columns. The artwork within the caves is meant to teach about the life and works of the Buddha. Today, tourists can visit the caves to marvel at the grand artwork. The site is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

19 Culture Many of the numbers you know today were first developed by the ancient Indians. Indians were among the first people to use the concept of the number 0, which would shape mathematics for thousands of years.

20 Hindu Arabic Numbers

21

22 Modern day surgical tools

23 Culture Sushruta Samhita, Sushruta s surgical textbook, shows illustrations of over 100 surgical instruments, some of which were made of steel. These instruments included scissors, needles, syringes, pincers, scalpels, knives, forceps, saws (for amputations), lancets, and irons used to heat body tissue. Although some of these instruments evolved over time, many still resemble instruments used in today s operating rooms.

24 Cultural Contributions of Ancient India The Gupta Empire of India experienced a Golden Age, or time of great prosperity and creativity. Trade made the empire wealthy. Literature flourished. Musical instruments and songs were popular at festivals and ceremonies. Advances were made in mathematics, including algebra, the idea of infinity, and the symbol zero. Advancements were made in science and medicine. Check your notes.

25 Metallurgy Early gold and silver ornaments from the Indian subcontinent are found from Indus Valley sites such as Mohenjodaro (ca 3000 BC). These are on display in the National Museum, New Delhi. The earliest firm evidence for the production of metallic zinc is from India. Mercury is a metal that has been of great alchemical importance in ancient times. Early copper artifacts of about the sixth millennium BC are also reported from the pre-indus Valley. There is also some evidence for smelting furnaces from the Harappan civilizations of the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. Copper mixed with Tin makes Bronze

26 Metallurgy Amongst the earliest bronze castings in the world is the well executed statue of a dancing girl from Mohenjodaro from the Indus Valley. So they must have had which metals to make bronze? and This is the bronze statue of Shiva dancing on the demon

27 Iron Pillar at New Delhi The earliest large forging is the famous iron pillar at New Delhi dated by inscription to the Gupta period of the 3rd c. AD at a height of over 7 m and weight of about 6 tons. Apart from the dimensions another remarkable aspect of the iron pillar is the absence of corrosion which has been linked to the composition, the high purity of the wrought iron.

28 Success Criteria: 1. Which feature of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system was an improvement over previous number systems? 2. The Gupta Empire prospered through trade of which goods? 3. Which scientific advancement helped to create the Iron Pillar of Delhi? 4. Explain pilgrimages in your own words. 5. Describe the following writings: a. The Vedas b. Mahabharata c. Bhagavad Gita d. Ramayana

29 Essential Question What is unique about India s culture? Religion - Literature - Math - Metallurgy

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