1 Sources of the Gospels Q and the So-Called Search For the Historical Jesus Randy Broberg 2004
2 Class Theme Verse: 1 Thess. 2:13 For this reason we also constantly thank God that when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but for what it really is, the word of God, which also performs its work in you who believe.
3 ATTACKS ON THE GOSPELS
4 Old Attacks on Jesus Albert Schweitzer Albert Schweitzer The historical investigation of the life of Jesus did not take its rise from a purely historical interest; it turned to the Jesus of history as an ally in the struggle against the tyranny of dogma. This dogma had first to be shattered before men could once more go out in quest of the historical Jesus,. That the historic Jesus is something different from the Jesus Christ of the doctrine of the Two Natures seems to us now self-evident..
5 Old Attacks on Jesus Rudolf Bultmann In the 1950s and 60s, Rudolf Bultmann, argued that most the Gospel accounts of Jesus' life grew out of the myths of the early church. All that remains of Jesus is an eschatological call to decision; the picture of His person and work has disappeared.
6 New Attacks on Jesus Christ
7 Network TV Attacks In 2000, ABC s Peter Jennings Reporting: The Search for Jesus, had 16 million viewers!
8 Time Magazine Attacks
9 THE GOSPELS: ORAL SOURCES
10 Luke s Oral and Written Sources Luke 1:1-4: In as much as many have undertaken to compile an account of the things accomplished among us, just as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word have handed down to us, it seemed fitting for me as well, having investigated everything carefully from the beginning, to write (it) out for you in consecutive order, most excellent Theophilus; so that you might know the exact truth about the things you have been taught. 1. Written sources (1:1) 2. Oral sources (from eyewitnesses) (1:2) 3. Luke confirmed this with his own investigations (1:3) 4. Luke couldn t embellish, since the material was already widely known in the early church (1:4)
11 Apostolic Oral Tradition As Source of Gospels 1 Thess 4:15-18 For this we declare to you by a word from the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the voice of an archangel, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we will always be with the Lord. Therefore encourage one another with these words.
12 Apostolic Oral Tradition As Source of Gospels 1 Thess 5:1-2 Now concerning the times and the seasons, brothers, you have no need to have anything written to you. For you yourselves are fully aware that the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night. While people are saying, "There is peace and security," then sudden destruction will come upon them as labor pains come upon a pregnant woman, and they will not escape.
13 Apostolic Oral Tradition As Source of Gospels 1 Corinthians 15:3-8 For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me.
14 Apostolic Oral Tradition As Source of Gospels 1 Corinthians 11:3-25 For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me. In the same way also he took the cup, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me."
15 Apostolic Oral Tradition As Source of Gospels 1 John 1:1-3 That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we looked upon and have touched with our hands, concerning the word of life-- the life was made manifest, and we have seen it, and testify to it and proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and was made manifest to us-- that which we have seen and heard we proclaim also to you, so that you too may have fellowship with us; and indeed our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ.
16 THE GOSPELS: WRITTEN SOURCES
17 Evidence of Written Sources of the Gospels The general scheme of the three Synoptic Gospels is the same. Not only do Jesus words match, but also the narrative events. There are passages that Matthew and Luke have that Mark does not. Each Gospel has its own material.
18 Early Church Views of Order of Gospels and Their Sources Early Church Tradition Matthew wrote first. Mark wrote his Gospel independently, using Peter as his source. Luke used Matthew to write his Gospel and was companion of Paul. Eusebius quotes a man named Papias who wrote early in the second century. Papias states that Matthew wrote down the logia (sayings, oracles) of Jesus in the Hebrew dialect.
19 Eusebius (c c. 340) (Citing Clement c 120): on the Order of the Gospels "The Gospels containing the genealogies, [Clement] says, were written first. The Gospel according to MARK had this occasion. As Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome, and declared the Gospel by the Spirit, many who were present requested that Mark, who had followed him for a long time and remembered his sayings, should write them out. And having composed the Gospel he gave it to those who had requested it. When Peter learned of this, he neither directly forbade nor encouraged it. But, last of all, JOHN, perceiving that the external facts had been made plain in the Gospel, being urged by his friends, and inspired by the Spirit, composed a spiritual Gospel." This is the account of Clement.
20 Irenaeus ( AD) on the Authorship of the Gospels "Matthew published his Gospel among the Hebrews in their own language, while Peter and Paul were preaching and founding the church in Rome. After their departure Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, also transmitted to us in writing those things which Peter had preached; and Luke, the attendant of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel which Paul had declared. Afterwards John, the disciple of the Lord, who also reclined on his bosom, published his Gospel, while staying at Ephesus in Asia."
21 Matthew First Theory Eyewitnesses of Jesus AD Matthew 50s Paul Peter Luke 60s Mark 60s John 70-95
22 Mark First Theory The percentage of Mark found in the other Gospels. Assumption that we should not expect Mark to cut so much of the sayings material order of events used. Sometimes, Matthew and Mark have a different order than Luke. Sometimes Luke and Mark differ from Matthew. But Matthew and Luke never differ from Mark. Matthew exhibits consistent patterns in the ways he abbreviates Mark Matthew mixes use of Greek & Hebrew versions in his OT quotations--except where he agrees with Mark (suggesting he follows Mark)
23 Mark First Theory Mark Matthew Luke John
24 Gospels Overlap Exclusive Common Mark 7% 93% Matthew 42% 58% Luke 59% 41% John 92% 8%
25 Mark 8:12 Matt 16:4 Matt 12:39-40 Luke 11:29 Why does this generation seek a sign? Truly, I say to you, no sign shall be given to this generation. An evil and adulterous generation seeks for a sign, but no sign shall be given it except the sign of Jonah. An evil and adulterous generation seeks for a sign, but no sign shall be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was three nights in the belly of the whale, so will the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. This generation is an evil generation; it seeks a sign but no sign shall be given to it except the sign of Jonah.
26 The Second Source Theory 1. Some stuff in Matthew and Luke is similar, but not identical, so probably Matthew did not copy Luke or Luke copy Matthew 2. Often the common material in Matthew and Luke diverges from Mark 3. There are extra passages that Matthew and Luke both have but Mark does not. 4. Matthew/Luke common material often in the same sequence
27 The Second Source Theory Mark? Matthew Luke
28 Q Hypothesis Matthew and Luke used (1) Mark and (2) an unknown source called Q. From the German Quelle meaning source. Collection of 250 verses, mostly sayings with very little narrative found in Matthew and Luke but not Mark. ca AD Q has no passion account. Portrays Jesus as itinerant prophet and wisdom teacher, but not Son of God/Redeemer Actual text of Q is unknown no one has ever found it.
29 Arguments for Existence of Q Exactness in Wording in Matthew and Luke Doublets in Matthew and Luke (Same wording, different context)
30 Looking For Q! Gnostic Gospel of Thomas From the Publisher "In 1945, twelve ancient books were found inside a sealed jar at the base of an Egyptian cliff. One of those texts was the Gospel of Thomas, one of the most important religious archaeological discoveries of the twentieth century. While illuminating the origins of Christianity, it raises the question whether the New Testament's version of Jesus' teachings is entirely accurate and complete." "Written at the same time as the canonical Gospels, the Gospel of Thomas portrays Jesus as a wisdom-loving sage. The aphoristic sayings emphasize the value of the present, teaching that the Kingdom of God is here and now, rather than a future promise or future threat. It presents a new way of looking at the challenging and intriguing figure of Jesus, and reminds us that the Divine can be found right here on earth." This Skylight Illuminations edition. and gives you deeper understanding of Thomas' innovative message; that self-knowledge and contemplation of the nature of this world are the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven.
31 Looking for Q: Gnostic Gospel of Thomas John Dominic Crosson s Theory Thomas belongs to what he calls the First Stratum which dates from AD with Q No canonical gospels appear in the first stratum but some epistles do. John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, With all due hesitation, I am inclined to the view that the Gospel of Thomas is dependent on the Synoptics tradition.
32 Arguments Against Existence of Q It has never been found It was never mentioned by the Church Fathers Similarities between Luke and Mathew can be explained alternatively Speeches, catchphrases, slogans, etcetera, were probably repeated on more than one occasion and in multiple locations Not Enough Time For Q Mark Before 70 AD Dead Sea Scrolls (?) Matthew c. 50 AD (Magdalen Fragments) Luke Before 68 AD (Luke stops writing when Paul was still alive)
33 Establishing the Gospels Dates B.C. 50 WHERE DOES Q FIT? 4 B.C. Jesus born 30 A.D. Jesus crucified Dead Sea Scrolls Last Mark Date Last John Date 100 AD A.D. 150 Oral Tradition Period AD Last Luke Date Matthew
34 THE GOSPELS: EMBELLISHMENT THEORIES
35 Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography if you read them horizontally and comparatively, focusing on this or that unit and comparing it across two, three, or four versions, it is disagreement rather than agreement that strikes you most forcibly. And those divergences stem not from the random vagaries of memory and recall but from the coherent and consistent theologies of the individual texts. John Dominic Crossan
36 The Q Embellishment Theory Oral Traditions of Jesus Sayings Paul s Sacrifice/ Redemption Theology Q 70 AD Jewish Messianic Expectations Mark Matthew Luke Hellenistic God Man Expectations & Miracle Stories
37 Q and Embellishment Theories The Gospels miracles and Passion accounts, not found in Q were all added later by the church for polemical purposes. Q Theorists argue that we need to strip the layers from Gospels to get to the real Jesus and the real words of Jesus. This lead to the so-called search for the historical Jesus.
38 Historical Jesus Embellishment Theory Jesus AD Saw Jesus as a wise teacher No need for a messiah No Cross, No Resurrection, No Gospel Christ AD Added narrative myths upon Q sayings Proclamation of the death and resurrection of Jesus
39 Embellishment Theory Presuppositions Naturalism: Miracles aren t possible so stories must be embellishments Desire to reject Divinity of Christ while preserving him as a prophet or philosopher. Post Modern Tolerance Bias: Wisdom of Jesus applicable and accepted by all but Gospel implies hell and damnation Political Correctness Bias: Desire to preserve Jewishness of Jesus Chronological Circular Logic Assume Gospel Writers didn t have first hand knowledge of events It s just plain easier to believe in a Jesus of history than Christ, the Son of God
40 Jesus Seminar Presuppositions John Dominic Crossan: Confessed I do not believe in a God who could forgive gratuitously but actually does so only after Jesus has been beaten to a bloody pulp in our place. If I accepted--as I emphatically do not--gibson's vision of this savage God, I hope I would have the courage to follow Mrs. Job's advice: "Curse God, and die" (2:9).
41 Arguments Against Embellishment Theory Speed Problem-- A little more or less than a generation separates Mark from the event Eyewitness Problem--Ignores the memory of men who were eyewitnesses Oral Tradition Alternative -- Makes insufficient allowance for the existence of an authentic tradition of Christ's words
42 Circular Logic Problem Strip Out Christ s Miracles, Passion, & Divinity from Gospels What s left is non-miraculous wise philosopher Jesus Conclude Miracles, Passion, & Divinity added later as Jesus evolved Into Christ
43 Our Team: Historical Jesus
44 A quote from N. T. Wright The guild of NT studies has become so used to operating with a hermeneutic of suspicion that we find ourselves trapped in our own subtleties. If two ancient writers agree about something, that proves one got it from the other. If they seem to disagree, that proves that one or both are wrong. If they say an event fulfilled biblical prophecy, they made it up to look like that. If an event or saying fits a writer's theological scheme, that writer invented it. If there are two accounts of similar events, they are a "doublet" (there was only one event); but if a single account has anything odd about it, there must have been two events, which are now conflated. And so on. Anything to show how clever we are, how subtle, to have smoked out the reality behind the text. But as any author who has watched his books being reviewed will know, such reconstructions again and again miss the point, often wildly. If we cannot get it right when we share a culture, a period, and a language, it is highly likely that many of our subtle reconstructions of ancients texts and histories are our own unhistorical fantasies, unrecognized only because the writers are long since dead and cannot answer back. In _The Meaning of Jesus_ (HarperSanFrancisco 2000), 18.
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