The Medieval Period

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1 The Medieval Period

2 The Norman Conquest William the Conqueror (French-Norman) defeated Harold Godwinson to win British throne French language and culture took over French language of the nobility Latin language of church and law English used by common people but influenced by French

3 Feudalism All landowners in England became vassals (tenants) of King William I William redistributed lands to his followers New hierarchy: King, Lords, Knights, Skilled Tradesmen, Skilled Laborers, Serfs Priests had a high position as well

4 Knight Mounted warrior Followed chivalric code: code of honor including piety, chastity, honor, reputation, extravagant rules for manners & behavior Courtly love tradition began a knight devoted himself (from afar) to a lady he could not win; he wore a token of hers and fought in her honor

5 Catholic Church Official church; tithing (10% of income) required Pope = God s emissary on earth Priest = Pope s emissary Priest had to grant permission to marry or even to take a trip (usually a pilgrimage) Priests allowed to grant pardons and indulgences (sell forgiveness for sins, guaranteeing entrance into Heaven upon death)

6 Crusades Religious holy wars fought by European knights (especially French) Goal: to free Jerusalem (Palestine) from Muslim occupation Many Muslims converted or were killed

7 Architectural Accomplishments William the Conqueror had Tower of London built Canterbury Cathedral was begun

8 Henry II vs. Thomas Becket King fought with Becket (Archbishop of Canterbury) over rights of the clergy Becket argued that Clergy was not subject to the law or court system Henry II exiled Becket Becket returned and was murdered by Henry s knights Becket canonized (made saint) 3 years later

9 Canterbury Tales Connection Sir Thomas Becket is the holy blissful martyr whose shrine the pilgrims are going to visit in The Canterbury Tales He is a martyr because he died in connection with the religious service

10 Royal Families of the Middle Ages Normans Angevins Plantagenets House of Lancaster House of York Tudors

11 Weakening of Feudalism and the Medieval Church People fled to larger cities like London John Wycliffe translated Bible into English in 1381 (people no longer needed a priest to read Bible to them) Bubonic Plague (Black Death) killed so many serfs that feudalism failed as an economic system

12 Literature of Medieval Period Ballads songs that tell a story Arthurian Romances Miracle or mystery plays (depicting life of Jesus or the saints) Morality plays (virtues and vices were acted out as characters) Lyric poetry & troubadour music Rhyme increased; alliteration decreased

13 Famous Literature Dante s The Divine Comedy / The Inferno Boccaccio s Decameron (Chaucer imitated this work) Chaucer s Canterbury Tales considered the first great work in English. It is a long verse narrative in a frame story structure written in rhyming iambic pentameter couplets.

14 Printing Press Gutenberg invented printing press in 1453 in Germany William Caxton had first press in London in 1476 Literacy rates increased The seeds of religious freedom were planted due to the Bible s translation into English

15 Medieval World View Divine Plan / World Order Extremely hierarchical system No social mobility; where you were born was where you stayed in status Fortune s wheel (fate) still a popular concept

16 Travel Most trips were pilgrimages Pilgrim s Inns were prevalent All items paid for separately (sample bill included bread, beer, wine, meat, soup, candles, fuel, fodder for animals)

17 Village and Town Life Buildings included a church, blacksmith shop, cobbler, inn, other trades Many cottage industries (barter system) Homes made of mud and thatch Other buildings of wood Churches made of stone Not unusual for farm animals to be brought into the house at night Poor sanitation, often with exposed sewage

18 Seven: A Holy Number Seven Sacraments: Mass, matrimony, confirmation, penance, holy orders, baptism, and extreme unction (last rites) Seven Deadly Sins: pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, sloth

19 Medieval Medicine Primitive Practices Four Humors: Melancholy (black) depressed, delusional Choler (yellow) choleric, wrathful, unkind Phlegm (clear) phlegmatic, slothful, dull, fat, cold Blood (red) sanguine, hot, youthful, passionate, intemperate

20 Pseudo Science Alchemy goal was to change iron into gold or To attain immortality on earth and other spiritual powers

21 The Bubonic Plague a.k.a. Black Death or Great Pestilence Cause: black rat or the fleas it carried, infected with bacteria Wiped out around 1/3 of the population 1348, 1361, 1368 Mass graves, stench of rotting flesh, dead stacked outside doorways

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