Welcome to History 06 History of the Americas II Prof. Valadez

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1 Welcome to History 06 History of the Americas II Prof. Valadez

2 Colonial Legacies European Settlements in the Americas African-Indian-European Relations What are the characteristics of the Spanish, Portuguese, English, French, and Dutch colonies in the Americas. How are they different? How are they similar? 2

3 Spanish Colonies Spanish Model: search for gold and slaves Colonial Government Absolutism: monarch tight control of colony» Power flowed from king to Council of Indies to viceroys to local officials Few European women, multiracial population Indian inhabitants always outnumbered European colonists and their descendants in Spanish America. Gold and silver mining was the primary economy in Spanish America. Encomienda: Spanish institution, which forced natives to work for the Spanish in mines or on plantations» Indians have a place in society The Catholic Church played a significant role: Mission» The conquest of the Incas 25

4 Portuguese Global Empire 30

5 Portuguese Colony African & Asian colonies are more important than Brazil.» Feitorio = Trading posts Similar to Spanish Model: search for gold and slaves» Donatarios = feudal land grants, King owns land, captains administer» Enfiteuse Colonial government» Absolutism: monarch tight control of colony» Portugal & Brazil under Spanish rule » Power flowed from king to Council of Indies to viceroys to local officials» Few European women, multiracial population» Less urban than the Spanish» Encomienda unsuccessful Tupis» Sugar production & slaves main sectors of the economy» Fazenda: plantations» Indians & Africans have a place in society» The Catholic Church played a significant role: Jesuits Missions 32

6 Donatarios 33

7 36

8 French Colonization: New France Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in French settlements smaller than Spanish: population in 1700 was only 19,000.»Métis Govt. : The Company of 100 Associates, Absolutism: colony under control of the King, who appoints governor The French prided themselves on adopting a more humane policy toward the Indians than Spain. French carry on lucrative fur trading with Indians understand the native custom of reciprocity Many French went native 37

9 English Exploration English government no interest in financing colonies: Joint-Stock Company 1587, Sir Walter Raleigh sponsors colony on Roanoke Island Ireland Roanoke Colony: John White 1588, defeat of Spanish Armada establishes England as major Atlantic power Roanoke Colony failed Croatan 41

10 English Settlements In 1607 Virginia Company of London receives charter from King James I and establish Jamestown 42

11 Jamestown 1607 In 1607 Virginia Company of London establish Jamestown John Smith leader of colony Popularizes the term New England Pocahontas marries John Rolfe Tobacco cultivation» Indentured servants African slaves arrive in Jamestown House of Burgesses: local assembly 1622 Massacre Jamestown policy of extermination 43

12 Protestant Reformation In 1517 Martin Luther denounces indulgences and initiates Protestant Reformation, 95 Theses John Calvin and his followers emphasize doctrine of predestination European countries divide into rival Protestant and Catholic camps 44

13 Protestant Reformation King Henry VIII proclaims himself head of separate Church of England (Anglican Church) English Calvinists (Puritans) 46

14 New England Puritans: dissenters from the Church of England. They wanted to purify the church. Calvin s Predestination: salvation by the grace of God Queen Elizabeth threatened by Puritans Puritans divided into 2 groups Non-Separatists Separatists Pilgrims 49

15 New Amsterdam The Dutch West India Company settled colonists on Manhattan Island (1624). religious toleration were unique to the Dutch. trade with Native Americans for furs The Dutch came to trade, not to conquer, and were determined to treat the Indians more humanely. Women had property rights 53

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