1 Christian Bioethics: Where is Jesus in all this? Wayne Wheatley Bethlehem College, Ashfield 2012 Wayne Wheatley for Catholic Education Office, Sydney. Licensed by NEALS. VISIT:
2 Christian Bioethics Item 1 Ethics: How did we get here? Item 2 Is there a distinctive Christian approach to ethics? Item 3 What are some of the bioethical issues with which we are dealing? Item 4 How do different Christian denominations approach these issues? Item 5 What about the HSC? How do we answer a question on these issues in an exam?
3 How did we get to this point in our human history? There are three main philosophical ideas that underpin our approach to dealing with ethical issues Aristotelianism Kantianism Utilitarianism
4 Aristotelianism Human moral action should be oriented toward that which allows human beings to flourish, to fulfill their purpose. For Aristotle ( BC), human beings achieve happiness when they live by certain virtues, habitual ways of acting which together make up a way of life conducive to happiness. Aristotelianism
5 Aristotelianism Aristotle identified 4 Cardinal virtues (Cardo/hinge): Prudence Justice Courage Temperance (moderation) For Aristotelian ethics, morality is about achieving human fulfillment by living a virtuous way of life. It emphasized human fulfillment rather than rules or laws. Aristotelianism
6 Aristotelianism During the medieval period, St Thomas Aquinas (c ), the great theologian and philosopher, adapted Aristotle s ethical system. He developed an understanding that Christian life should be life lived by virtues. He then gave us Christian Theological virtues: Faith Hope Charity For St Thomas Aquinas, human life was lived in the context of a divinely created order; all aspects of nature were part of the order of creation, and the moral life consisted of living out this order for the glory of God and the fulfillment of the person. The point of morality was to fulfill the purpose of human life created by God.
7 Kantianism During the Enlightenment these beliefs came under scrutiny. Some philosophers came to the conclusion that morality was essentially a matter of convention, a way of maintaining social stability. (Social Cohesion) Kantianism
8 Kantianism The German philosopher Emmanuel Kant ( ) attempted to develop a new framework for ethics in the wake of these fundamental challenges. He agreed that we could not base morality on a prior belief that there is a moral order in nature (Natural Law), since the sciences could not prove such an order and he agreed that morality could not be based on the existence of God, since he believed that philosophy could not prove the existence of God. Kantianism
9 Kantianism Kant believed that morality was a great deal more that mere convention or simply a matter of fulfilling desires. His concern was to find values that could provide a universal foundation for ethics in an age where traditional philosophical and religious views of life were no longer universally accepted. Kantianism
10 Kantianism These values were freedom and reason. Freedom and reason were the two characteristics of human beings that gave them a noble status of moral beings (Characteristics shared by God, if He existed, in which Kant believed). Our premise is that we are free. We sense our freedom through our experience of moral obligation; I experience a call on me to act rightly, a call that I can resist and refuse. If this is so, then I am free in the most fundamental moral sense of the word. Kantianism
11 Kantianism We are free to act as we wish, but reason tells us that if anyone else acts in the same way, he or she is free also. What if the actions of free people are incompatible? What if my free wish is to rob someone else s house and his wish is to rob mine? We can see that this results in a contradiction. Kant developed a dictum: In all your actions, whether in relation to others or yourself, treat every person as an end and never purely a means to an end. (Does this sound familiar?) For Kant, the fundamental goal of ethics is not achieving happiness, but respecting the reason and freedom of people. This is human dignity.
12 Utilitarianism During the 18 th and 19 th Centuries a very different ethical theory was developed, primarily in England. Its focus was oriented toward the achievement of happiness as the prime purpose of ethics. The utilitarians agreed with Aristotle that the purpose of ethics was happiness, but the way in which this happiness could be achieved was understood very differently. The fundamental moral disposition is benevolence, wishing well to other human beings and other sentient beings (higher animals) and acting well on their behalf. Let us consider a hypothetical situation: Utilitarianism
14 We live in an ethical plural society What does this mean?
15 What are Christian Ethics? Origins and developments: We engage in ethics as a search for what will fulfill the person. This is what makes sense of the notion of Christian Ethics. Christian Ethics, like all ethics is a search for what fulfills the person. What qualifies it as Christian is that it enters on the search in light of the Christian faith, the Christian vision of life. Christianity carries with it a distinctive vision of the meaning and purpose of human existence.
16 What are Christian Ethics? The union of God and humanity in Jesus reveals to us not only the mystery of God but also the mystery of humanity. There is a harmony between creation and revelation. The will of God is expressed in the nature of things that he has made and also expressed in the religious traditions based on the revelation of God in Jesus.
17 Bioethical issues In vitro fertilisation (IVF) Preimplantation Genetics Screening/diagnosis/manipulation of embryos Embryonic Stem Cell Research Human Cloning Euthanasia, palliative care and the principle of double effect Abortion and the principle of double effect
18 Bioethical issues
19 Bioethical issues: In vitro fertilisation (IVF) Cast a critical eye over this clip: What is its purpose? For whom was it made? What does it tell us about our society?
21 Bioethical issues: In vitro fertilisation (IVF) Why is there a need for IVF?
22 In vitro fertilisation (IVF) PROS - IVF Government (partially) funds it Helps couples & individuals who may not be able to have children naturally It helps our national birth rate Australia has a high rate of success with IVF What other pros can you add? CONS - IVF It ignores the real reasons there is a reduction in fertility in our society There haven t been any longitudinal studies on IVF: Incidence of cancer Incidence of disability Propensity for Mental illness etc. The use of donor eggs, sperm and even embryos and its effect on the child, family and community What do we do with surplus embryos: freeze? Destroy? Experiment with? What other cons are there?
24 Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis PGD At present PGD involves testing fertilised eggs (Embryos) to ensure that the best eggs are selected for implantation. Best tends to mean those eggs without specific abnormalities. P.G.D. is already used to select a suitable sibling in order, for instance, to carry out a bone marrow transplant for a child with bone marrow cancer. Some parents are now choosing a child so that stems cells can be taken from the placenta and stored to treat a brother or sister with a severe disease and who needed tissue matched stem cells. Because of potential rejection problems, tissue match is important.
25 Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis PGD NIO54
26 Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis PGD What are the implications of PGD for society?
27 Embryonic Stem Cell Research fpkng
28 Christian Ethical Teaching Sources across denominations/variants: Scripture There is a belief in some sectors of society that religion should/must stay out of politics and science. Science is often presented as the panacea for all our troubles/problems. Science can ignore the social reasons for these problems. Religion can be seen as having no relevance to these issues. Religion has a purpose. Our Judo-Christian heritage tells us
29 Christian Ethical Teaching Sources across denominations/variants: Scripture Man uniquely is created in God s image (Genesis 1:26f). For Augustine the image is in man s reason and intellect. Alternatively, the creation of male and female (verse 27) suggests man is in the image of God, a loving triune family, when he lives as part of a loving family, sharing and returning God s love. Go forth and procreate/multiply (Verse 28) Decalogue Exodus 20:1-17, Deuteronomy 5:6-21.
30 Christian Ethical Teaching Sources across denominations/variants: Scripture Jesus in Mark 5: Healing. What is the difference between Curing and Healing? Eg HIV in Southern Africa. How does the compassion of Jesus emphasize each person s dignity in the sight of God? Catholic Teachings: Dignitas Personae, 2008, Catholic Teaching on Bioethics, from Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) Donum vitae 1987 (Previous instruction on Bioethics) The Encyclicals Veritatis splendor and Evangelium vitae of John Paul II
31 Section III HSC Religious Exam Tradition Questions Depth Study Question 1 Buddhism Answers could include: The teachings of the Dalai Lama, which emphasise compassion A judgement that Buddhism emphasises compassion with little or no reference to justice candidates could give examples of this Compassion can be seen as benevolence and respect for life this could then be a justice issue, as in respecting that life choices might have to be made Compassion is not only justice for the individual, but also for the wider community Question 2 Christianity Answers could include: Responses to Christian ethical teachings vary both within and between Christian denominations. Some variants rely strongly on the use of authority (eg the teaching Magisterium in the Catholic tradition; and the Bible, or Bible only (sola scriptura), in some Protestant denominations), others place a reliance on natural law, while others develop their ethical positions from both. Hence, a range of different ethical responses that focus more directly on either justice or compassion is a logical outcome of the varying theologies of the variants.
32 The Catholic tradition s strong links with Thomistic natural law (developed by Thomas Aquinas), together with its hierarchical teaching authority, provide a clear justice focused foundation for its teachings on sexual ethics, with much of historical Catholic teaching stemming from the linking of sexual morality with reproduction. The non-reproductive aspect of some sexual orientations (eg homosexuality, contraception) defines their ethical status. Some Christian traditions with a strong focus on autonomy and the practice of compassion may expound more liberal interpretations of sexual ethics in areas including premarital sex, homosexual relationships and contraception. Some sexual ethics issues can produce a range of responses that, arguably, can be seen as both compassionate and just, regardless of one s view of their acceptability. Christian responses to bioethics can be particularly diverse. Some Christian groups support both euthanasia and stem cell research, while others will vigorously oppose one or both of these and engage in political lobbying to promote their position. Whether these positions reflect a justice or compassion orientation is quite varied. Questions on both bioethics and environmental ethics have produced strong divergent responses within the denominations themselves; for example, the carbon tax debate. More broadly, the very strong involvement of Christian churches in aged care, care for the mentally ill, hospitals, refugees, the homeless, street youth etc, underlines their foundational commitment to compassion. In particular, the Salvation Army as a denomination places its focus on charitable work, while the Catholic Church, with its strong foundations on teaching authority and justice, also has a very extensive social outreach approach. Significant people/ideas: The contribution of significant people/ideas to Christianity is particularly diverse, with some being motivated by issues of justice (eg St Augustine, Pope Pius XII and Oscar Romero), while others were moved strongly by compassion (eg William Booth and Pope John XXIII). Significant practices: Marriage practices strongly exemplify the diversity of expressions in Christianity. Some traditions adopt positions that are sacramental, while others have a contractual focus or endorse same-sex marriage. Traditions that put an emphasis on the vows that are made in the marriage ceremony could be seen to focus on the importance of justice in the partnership. Other traditions that put an emphasis on love and support in a marriage could be seen to focus on the issue of compassion.
33 traditions with a strong focus on autonomy and the practice of compassion may expound more liberal interpretations of sexual ethics in areas including premarital sex, homosexual relationships and contraception. Some sexual ethics issues can produce a range of responses that, arguably, can be seen as both compassionate and just, regardless of one s view of their acceptability. Christian responses to bioethics can be particularly diverse. Some Christian groups support both euthanasia and stem cell research, while others will vigorously oppose one or both of these and engage in political lobbying to promote their position. Whether these positions reflect a justice or compassion orientation is quite varied. Questions on both bioethics and environmental ethics have produced strong divergent responses within the denominations themselves; for example, the carbon tax debate. More broadly, the very strong involvement of Christian churches in aged care, care for the mentally Question ill, hospitals, 2: Christianity refugees, (Marking the homeless, Feedback) street youth etc, underlines their foundational commitment to compassion. In particular, the Salvation Army as a denomination places its focus In better on charitable responses, work, candidates while the Catholic incorporated Church, with significant its strong people foundations and on teaching authority ideas, ethics and justice, and also significant has a very practices extensive in social the life outreach of adherents approach. into their Significant answer. Their people/ideas: judgement The contribution was clearly of stated significant and people/ideas then supported to Christianity by is particularly examples diverse, of how with Christian some being diversity motivated reflected by issues either of justice justice (eg or St compassion Augustine, Pope Pius or both. XII and The Oscar information Romero), while was presented others were in moved an accurate, strongly by relevant compassion and (eg William Booth cohesive and Pope manner. John XXIII). These candidates recognised justice and compassion as central elements of Christian teaching as set out in the Gospel Significant accounts practices: and the Marriage writings practices of Paul. strongly They provided exemplify evidence the diversity from of expressions these in Christianity. sources as Some citations traditions in support adopt positions of their that answers. are sacramental, while others have a contractual focus or endorse same-sex marriage. Traditions that put an emphasis on the vows
34 HSC Exam Questions 2010
36 Question 2: Christianity (Marking Feedback) General comments In higher range responses, candidates demonstrated a clear understanding of Christianity as a living religious tradition that connected directly with the life of adherents. These responses were well thought out and clearly articulated. They made clear links to the key elements of Christianity. Reference to the quote was well integrated throughout the response. They were supported by relevant examples, made strong links back to the quote using excellent detail and explicit reference to sacred texts, beliefs and the ethical teachings of Christianity. Well-informed judgements were made about the importance of Christianity and its influence on the life of adherents.
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