2 Question Why Join the Church? I believe in Jesus Christ and desire to surrender and follow the Teachings of His Church Why Orthodox Church? I desire to know the full truth and follow what the Apostles taught without modification.
3 Orthodox Church Maintains Fullness of Apostolic Faith 1. Unbroken historical continuity. 2. Maintained the Faith as Taught by the Apostles. 3. Maintained the Tradition initiated by the Apostles with worship directed toward Trinitarian God. 4. Acceptance of fullness of Human Nature. See Timeline
4 Fullness of Apostolic Faith History begins with beginning of Time - Christ before time Creation of cosmos Fall of Man Prophets Incarnation of God - Birth of Jesus Christ Crucifixion & Resurrection - Victory over Death Establishment of Earthly Church for healing
5 Historical Jesus Existence historical fact! Roman historian Tactius 100AD and Jewish historian Josephus born in AD 37 describes Him as follows: Now there was about this time, Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to Him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles. He is Christ;
6 Historical Jesus When Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians so named after him, are not extinct to this day.
7 Historical Jesus Bible contains most of what we know about Jesus. Contains eye witness accounts Where did the Bible come from? The Church in 4th century produced canon of NT and still uses it in the original Greek.
8 Historical Jesus What do we Know about Him from the Bible: From seed of Holy Spirit born from a virgin, Mary. Was Christ, the Son of God, fully divine and human. Fulfilled over 300 O T prophecies. Showed his mercy - performed many miracles. Came for our healing of our created nature. Transformed human nature and showed how to live in union with God - to love God and our neighbor. Suffered and was crucified and then Resurrected - victorious over death. Thomas verifies. Ascended into Heaven opening the gates of Paradise. Sent the Holy Spirit, transforming His Apostles who began converting thousands establishing the Orthodox Church.
9 Historical Jesus What did Jesus bring and leave with us? He didn t write anything, so he did not come to leave us a book. Path to Salvation - return to Paradise - union with God - Theosis. What did he establish? Church where we heal our brokenness and work out our salvation. Orthodox Christianity is not based solely on a Book but primarily on Jesus Christ and His Church.
10 The Beginnings What happened at Pentecost and Why is it seen as the Beginning of the Church? Christ sent the Holy Spirit and commissioned the Apostles. (Acts 2)
11 Early Church (Acts) Many Baptized Devoted themselves to the apostles teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread, and to the prayers. (Acts 2:42) Daily worship Shared all with each other Praised God and were held in esteem by all the people. Members were added each day.
12 The Beginnings The Early Church - Foundation Where was first Church? They healed in the name of Jesus - led to their persecution. They were filled with the Holy Sprit and proclaimed the word of God with boldness (Acts 4:31) Persecutions led to spread of Faith - Saint Stephen the 1st of many martyrs. Jews and Gentiles became Christians Persecutor Saul converted - Paul Paul & Apostles head missions in far lands & face Martyrdom.
14 The Ecclesia Ec cle si a means to Gather Images of Church from New Testament Vineyard (John 15:1-8) Shepherd and the flock (John 10:1-16) Head and the Body of Christ (Eph 1:22-23) A building under construction (Eph 2:19-22) A house or family (1Tim 3:15) Church is not a human-made institution. Not a building. Not a set of rules. A living relationship in union with Christ.
15 Church Hierarchy Established by Christ Through His Apostles All are equal before the judgment of God. This hierarchy was established by Jesus Christ. He gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the Body of Christ: till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ (Eph 4:11-13)
16 Apostolic Succession No one can take upon himself the hierarchal ministry Only one who is called and lawfully placed through the Mystery of Ordination. No man taketh this honor unto himself, but that is called of God, as was Aaron. (Heb 5:4) Apostolic succession
17 Hierarchy Ecumenical Council Bishop Deacons Presbyters
18 Hierarchy The Apostles placed Bishops as their immediate successors Presbyters (elders - priests) from Apostolic times the second degree of the hierarchy - helpers of the bishops. Apostle James tells us that presbyters perform the Church s sacred rites, and that in the early church there could by several presbyters in each community. Is any sick among you? Let him call for the presbyters of the Church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. (James 5:14) Metropolitan Alexios Metropolis of Atlanta Father Tom Pistolis Presbyter
19 Hierarchy Third hierarchal degree is the deacon. Seven in number where chosen by the community in Jerusalem and ordained by the Apostles. To help the Apostles in practical, secondary activity: entrusted to serve tables to give out food, and be concerned for the widows. Appointed by bishops (1 Tim 3:8-13) Justin Martyr (150A.D.) writes: Those called deacons among us give to each of those present communion of the Bread upon which has been performed the Thanksgiving (Eucharist) and of the Wine and the Water, and they carry them out to those who are absent. Saint Stephen
20 Councils of the Church How did Apostles resolve their disputes? To resolve dispute about circumcision of Gentiles, Apostles gathered in Council in Jerusalem (Acts 15) In Council the Holy Spirit gave them direction. The decrees of this Council were acknowledged as obligatory for the whole church. And as they went through the cities, they delivered them the decrees for to keep, that were ordained of the apostles and elders which were at Jerusalem. And so were the churches established in the faith, and increased in number daily (Acts 16:4-5). They established example of conciliar resolution of important questions in the Church for all times.
21 Liberation from Persecution A Time Line of Church History Apostalic Age LIBERATIO ONE HOLY N CATHOLIC AND APOSTOLIC CHURCH & CREED 1095 Byzantine Empire CRUSADES 1291 Luther s 95 Theses. Reformation begins 1517 Church of England 1529 The Roman Catholic Church The Eastern Orthodox Church Dogma of Dogma of Immaculate Papal Infalibility conception 33 Pentecost 69 Bishop Ignatius consecrated in Antioch 150 Justin Martyr describes liturgy 325 1st Ecumenical Council and the Nicene Creed Synod of Council of Carthage Chalcedon ratifies Biblical Canon 4th Century 589 Filioque added to Nicene creed by Synod in Spain and later adopted by Roman Church 787 Icons approved at seventh Ecumenical council 880 The Photian Schism 988 Conversion of Russia begins 1054 Great Schism 1204 Sack of Constantinople by Crusaders 1333 Gregory Palamas defends Orthodox spirituality 1453 Turks overrun Constantinople 1768 Arrival of the first Greeks in US Rusian Missionaries arrive at Kodiak Island Alaska 1832 Greece recognized a Free Country - Treaty of Constantinople st Greek Orthodox church established in New Orleans Greek Construction Orthodox archdiocese begins on established Cathedral in US. in Greenville. Ecumenical Councils Byzantine period
22 Constantine's Great Accomplishments Liberated Christians from Persecutions Edict of Milan (313) Constantine and Licinius Toleration of Faith Establishment of Constantinople as 2nd capital Inauguration of city No pagan rites - Center of Orthodoxy Calling the 1st Ecumenical Council of the Church
23 The Church of Seven Councils Centers of Church at Time of Constantine
24 Principle of Conciliarity Early Church - Decisions 1st Council - Acts AD Now the apostles and elders came together to consider this matter. (Acts 15:6) The Councils - Conciliar Neither Dictatorship nor Individualism
25 Significance of Ecumenical Councils Defend and clarify the Teachings of Apostles: Purpose: aid spiritual healing and protect from heresy. Affirm the Basic Faith of Christianity - To restore proper relationship between man and God, broken by sin. God sends His Son who redeems man from sin and death for the purpose of deification - theosis. Each Council protected the doctrine of Incarnation - Christ as fully God and fully Human.
26 Church of Seven Councils 1st Ecumenical Council Nicea Arius condemned - taught that Son of God was not true God but a created being. Affirmed Christ is one in essence with the Father. Fully human and fully God. Canons - Established the Patriarchates.
27 Church of Seven Councils 2nd Ecumenical Council Constantinople Doctrine of the Trinity affirmed - Holy Spirit proceeds from Father. Athanasius & Cappadocians - Gregory Nazianzus, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa supported the Orthodox Doctrine. 3rd Canon - Constantinople 2nd in honor after Old Rome.
28 Nicene Creed Outcome of the first two Ecumenical Councils Review Creed
29 Church of Seven Councils 3rd Ecumenical Council Ephesus Mary confirmed as The Mother of God - Theotokos Church of Mary in Ephesus Theotokos is a compound of Greek Θεός (God) and τόκος (childbirth). Patriarch Nestorius argued Mary should be called Christotokos, meaning "Birth-giver of Christ"
30 Church of Seven Councils 4th Ecumenical Council Calcedon Tome of Leo the Great - affirming the divine and human nature of Christ. Confirmed Constantinople 2nd in honor. Pentarchy of Patriarchates - division of Christianity into spheres of jurisdiction. All bishops equal Bishop of Rome - primacy of honor, not supremacy in external power and jurisdiction St. Leo I, was Bishop of Rome from the years 440 to 461 A.D.
31 Church of Seven Councils 5th Ecumenical Council Constantinople Reaffirmation of Chalcedon
32 Church of Seven Councils 6th Ecumenical Council Constantinople Condemned Monotheleticism - Christ, having two natures, but being one person has only one will, the divine. Since Christ has two natures He has two wills. This, so that full humanity and full divinity is not impaired. Why would this be important?
33 Church of Seven Councils Iconoclastic Controversy Iconoclasts (icon-breakers) sought destruction of icons as latent idolatry - strong in Asia Minor. Iconodules (icon-servers) saw icons dogmatic as well as liturgical issues. Began by Emperor Leo III th Ecumenical Council - Nicea 787, taught honor and reverence for icons.
34 Church of Seven Councils Councils keep Christians on track Defended the original teachings of the Apostles. Not defining God but clarifying who God was not. Constantly defending the incarnate God as both fully man and fully God. Important for the salvific nature of Christ.
35 Great Schism A Time Line of Church History Apostalic Age CRUSADES 1095 Byzantine Empire GREAT SCHISM ONE HOLY LIBERATION CATHOLIC AND APOSTOLIC CHURCH 1291 Luther s 95 Theses. Reformation begins 1517 Church of England 1529 The Roman Catholic Church The Eastern Orthodox Church Dogma of Dogma of Immaculate Papal Infalibility conception 33 Pentecost 69 Bishop Ignatius consecrated in Antioch 150 Justin Martyr describes liturgy 325 1st Ecumenical Council and the Nicene Creed Synod of Council of Carthage Chalcedon ratifies Biblical Canon 589 Filioque added to Nicene creed by Synod in Spain and later adopted by Roman Church 787 Icons approved at seventh Ecumenical council 880 The Photian Schism 988 Conversion of Russia begins 1054 Great Schism 1204 Sack of Constantinople by Crusaders 1333 Gregory Palamas defends Orthodox spirituality 1453 Turks overrun Constantinople 1768 Arrival of the first Greeks in US Rusian Missionaries arrive at Kodiak Island Alaska 1832 Greece recognized a Free Country - Treaty of Constantinople st Greek Orthodox church established in New Orleans Greek Construction Orthodox archdiocese begins on established Cathedral in US. in Greenville. 1054
36 Schism of 1054 What caused the split of the Church between east and West? Many causes but doctrinal was primary A long period of estrangement preceded
37 Schism of 1054 Christianity first spread in the Roman Empire of East and West Many groups but one Empire Broad Greco-Roman civilization Greek common language.
38 Schism of 1054 Cultural unity was slowly lost. Political unity first lost - Old versus New Rome Barbarian invasions beginning in 5th century Rise of Islam - Mediterranean was largely under their control. Greek forgotten in West & Scholars used different sources. Holy Roman Empire re-established in the West 800AD under Charlemagne. Western Roman Empire anti-greek - led to development of separate Christian culture, with little in common.
39 Schism of 1054 Non Theological causes of division Charlemagne accused East of heresy - not using the filioque and rejected the 7th Ecumenical Council making East enemy. Church government ideas differed reflecting civil status. East held equality of Bishops, many Apostolic sees, conciliar character West - Rome Church seen in feudal terms with Pope supreme and other Bishops subordinate. Rise of Political authority of Popes as consequence of dissolution of political authority in West as result of barbarian invasions. West - only clergy educated: Class divisions between clergy and laity. East - Education widespread, clergy and laity; no sharp division. Theological misunderstanding because of a lack of common tongue.
40 Schism of 1054 Theological Tensions Latin approach to doctrine - practical, legal concepts, unity in Trinity, Christ as victim, man s brokenness deserving punishment, redemption rational. Greek approach to doctrine - emphasis on liturgy, threeness of the Trinity, Christ as Victor over death, man s goodness and deification, mystical.
41 Schism 0f 1054 Direct Theological Conflict - Papal Claims Papal claims in West did not concern the East. As soon as Popes sought to extend them to the East, conflict arose. For the East, Pope had primacy of honor, not a universal supremacy; authority not in one See, but in the Church as a whole Council - Conciliarlity.
42 Schism of 1054 Direct Theological Conflict - Filioque Filioque ( and the Son ) added to the creed regarding the procession of the Holy Spirit began in Spain officially at Council of Toledo Leo III had Creed without Filioque inscribed at Saint Peter s Cathedral. Support for use grew in West. Charlemagne made it political. Orthodox Objections: Innovative arbitrary change breaking Church unity - no one party has right to change Creed. Filioque is technically unsound - heretical - Destroys correct relationship of the Trinity Leads to false understanding of Spirit and Church.
43 Schism of 1054 Other issues of conflict Celibacy of clergy in west - married Priests in East Different rules and understanding of Fasting Unleavened bread in communion in West; leavened bread in East.
44 Schism of Pope Leo IX sent delegation to Constantinople to work out differences. Negotiations break down Delegation places bull of excommunication on altar at Saint Sofia based on omission of filioque. Friendly relations remained. Average Christian was not aware of the separation.
45 Estrangement to Schism Crusades - Frank Invasions First Crusade bloody success militarily. Antioch 1098: Jerusalem 1099 Latin Patriarchs set up. This left two Patriarchs in Jerusalem and Antioch. Fourth Crusade Crusaders originally bound for Egypt turned aside, sacked Constantinople; Systematic acts of sacrilege.
46 Reformation A Time Line of Church History CRUSADES 1095 Apostalic Age Byzantine Empire ONE HOLY LIBERATION CATHOLIC AND APOSTOLIC CHURCH GREAT SCHISM 1291 Luther s 95 Theses. Reformation begins 1517 Church of England 1529 REFORMATION The Roman Catholic Church The Eastern Orthodox Church Dogma of Dogma of Immaculate Papal Infalibility conception 33 Pentecost 69 Bishop Ignatius consecrated in Antioch 150 Justin Martyr describes liturgy 325 1st Ecumenical Council and the Nicene Creed Synod of Council of Carthage Chalcedon ratifies Biblical Canon 589 Filioque added to Nicene creed by Synod in Spain and later adopted by Roman Church 787 Icons approved at seventh Ecumenical council 880 The Photian Schism 988 Conversion of Russia begins 1054 Great Schism 1204 Sack of Constantinople by Crusaders 1333 Gregory Palamas defends Orthodox spirituality 1453 Turks overrun Constantinople 1768 Arrival of the first Greeks in US Rusian Missionaries arrive at Kodiak Island Alaska 1832 Greece recognized a Free Country - Treaty of Constantinople st Greek Orthodox church established in New Orleans Greek Construction Orthodox archdiocese begins on established Cathedral in US. in Greenville.
47 Reformation - 16th Century Orthodox Church NOT involved in the issues surrounding the Reformation. Initiated due to indulgences as penance & and appointment of individuals to positions in Church based on financial contributions. Led to rejection of Tradition and reliance only on Scripture Sola Scriptura (1500 years of Tradition rejected). Innovative doctrines introduced such as salvation by faith only. Led to thousands of branches due to different individual interpretations of Scripture. Tradition no longer used.
48 Fullness of Apostolic Faith Church faithfully maintained the Apostolic Faith Apostolic succession - Saint Andrew Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew - 270th Church of the Seven Councils Roman Church introduced numerous innovations Filioque Clause Immaculate conception of Mary Infallibility of Pope Protestant churches regularly change teachings Now over 38,000 Christian denominations
49 Fullness of Apostolic Faith Faithfully maintains the Tradition with worship directed toward Trinitarian God Early Church adopted Jewish Liturgical Day with set times of prayer and a yearly calendar of fasts and feasts. Worship is a sacrifice directed towards God. Not congregation centered where clergy minister to the people rather lead them to God. Liturgical form can be traced back to 2nd century. All Sacraments maintained
50 Fullness of Apostolic Faith Maintained mystical nature of faith and worship. Rejected scholasticism Maintain understanding that man can know God directly through soul, the heart. Accept a spiritual way of knowing that is greater than reason.
51 Fullness of Apostolic Faith Christ historical figure fulfilling OT prophecies. Orthodox Church has historical Apostolic continuity. Sound unchanging doctrine - Church of 7 Councils. Withstood Islamic occupation and Communist oppression - Cannot be suppressed. Church is Body of Christ & as members we become part of Him. Church and its Sacraments and ascetic teachings are for our healing. Church honored and trusted as a most precious gift.
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3 Chapter CHURCH VICTORIOUS t h e a g e o f t h e f a t h e r s a.d. 300 500 Chapter Overview Chapter Goals In this chapter, you will help the students: learn that under Emperor Constantine * Christianity
God s love is communicated to infants and young children primarily through parents. Parents have shared the gift of human life with their children, and through Baptism have enriched them with a share in
Letters to young Churches The New Testament Epistles The Pauline Letters (Most probably written by Paul): Letter: Written: From: Deals with: 1 Thessalonians 51AD Corinth Thanksgiving, warnings about the
HOW WELL DO YOU KNOW THE HISTORY OF THE N.T. CHURCH - Lesson Three - The Years Following AD 96 - The Falling Away and Apostasy Intro: A. We Have Noted In Lesson One: 1. What we mean by the term church.