A Pilgrim People The Story of Our Church Presented by:

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1 A Pilgrim People The Story of Our Church Presented by:

2 Early Church Growth & Threats ( AD) Controversies and Councils Rise of Christendom High Medieval Church Renaissance to Reformation Worldwide Growth Revolution to Renewal ( AD) ( AD) ( AD) ( AD) (< AD) ( AD)

3 Part 7 Revolution to Renewal Opening Prayer

4 State of Siege Mentality 17th - 19th Centuries 1) The Scientific Revolution Copernicus Galileo Darwin

5 Church and Science After the Renaissance, people continued to question long-standing beliefs & traditions 17 th 19 th centuries were full of scientific discoveries and new theories Some of these theories were initially seen as opposing Christian beliefs, especially concerning creation Thus the Church and science were on a collision course

6 Video Clip CH7-1

7 Biblical Truth Before Copernicus's heliocentric (sun-centered) theory, believed sun revolved around earth Joshua 10:12-13 Reflected idea that Bible literally true in all details Heliocentric theory caused great anxiety for Church leaders (is Bible not true?) Today, Catholics believe that Bible is theologically true, not necessarily literally true

8 Church and Science In Arabic, Babylonian, Chinese, Egyptian, Greek, Hindu, and Mayan cultures science suffered a stillbirth Why did science thrive and grow in a Christian civilization?

9 Church and Science Animism characterized ancient cultures Belief that natural things had minds and wills of their own (sacred spirits) Prevented thinking of nature as behaving according to regular, fixed patterns Christian belief in a transcendent God Nature is autonomous and operates according to consistent physical laws discernible by reason Depersonalization of nature

10 Church and Science The idea of a rational and orderly universe is indispensable for scientific progress This was taken for granted in medieval Catholic thought Throughout the Bible, regularity of natural phenomena is described as a reflection of God s goodness, beauty, and order So, the Catholic Church was essential to the establishment of science

11 Catholic Education Plus, Catholic Church essential in formation of the university system during High Middle Ages New, nothing like it in ancient Greece or Rome Originally established by bishops or grew out of cathedral schools Paris, Cambridge, Oxford, Bologna, etc. Began as centers of the liberal arts, as well as theological, philosophical, medical and legal learning and thinking Free inquiry: Scholars debate propositions

12 Catholic Education Before 17 th century, higher education entrusted to the Church Usually priests and bishops were the most educated Educational theory was influenced by Catholic theology 17 th century present Education, especially scientific discovery, not influenced by Catholic theology

13 State of Siege Mentality 17th - 19th Centuries 1) The Scientific Revolution Copernicus Galileo Darwin 2) Enlightenment (Age of Reason) Supremacy of human reason over faith

14 The Enlightenment Movement in Europe which held reason and science as privileged sources of truth Enlightenment thinkers Rene Descartes French philosopher argued that nothing should be accepted unquestioningly I think; therefore, I am Reason as the source of human truth Immanuel Kant Courage to use your mind without the guidance of another. Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own understanding!

15 The Enlightenment Focus on natural world By experience & reason this world is known Supernatural world is solely in God s hands Rationalism Nothing is true unless founded on scientific proofs based solely on reason and experience Obviously posed challenge to Christianity Deism Belief that God created the world and then left it to run according to natural laws

16 Video Clip CH7-2

17 The Enlightenment Which statement do you think is correct and why? 1) Enlightenment thinkers shook off the suffocating dogma of Christianity and began to examine the material world as it really exists. 2) Christianity equipped its followers with a mindset uniquely disposed to pursue rather than retreat from scientific inquiry. Inquiry into the natural world, Christians believed, would help them gain a clearer picture of their Creator.

18 State of Siege Mentality 18th Century 3) French Revolution Church property confiscated or destroyed Clergy killed

19 Video Clip CH7-3

20 Discussion Question 18th 19th Centuries After the French Revolution, why did the Catholic Church become more reactionary and against modern political democracy?

21 Vatican Council I Reflected Siege Mentality Needed a strong papacy in age of godless, secular, anti- Christian and anti-clerical threats Defined Papal Infallibility Pope incapable of error in defining doctrines involving faith or morals when speaking ex cathedra Cut short due to war

22 Video Clip CH7-4

23 Discussion Questions What factors caused the Catholic Church to have a State of Siege Mentality? It s been said, The solution for one age becomes the burden for the next. How does this apply to the Church s 400 years of defensiveness?

24 Video Clip CH7-5

25 Our Memories What do you remember about the Catholic Church on the eve of the Second Vatican Council (before 1962)? Or, if younger, what have you heard older folks say about Catholic life before the Council?

26 WHY the Council? 50s the Golden Years of Catholicism Lots of Priests and Religious (Nuns) Catholic Schools Full No Real Dissent With Pope Most Attended Mass Regularly

27 WHY the Council? Pope John XXIII s Opening Speech By bringing herself up-to-date where required, the Church will better help people turn their minds toward heavenly things Council s greatest concern is how the sacred and central truths of our Christian faith should be guarded and taught more effectively Substance of ancient doctrine is one thing, the way it is expressed is another

28 WHO was at the Council? Average Daily Attendance 2,400 Bishops and Other Prelates From Around the World Europe: 1089 South America: 489 North America: 404 Asia: 374 Africa: 296 Central America: 84 Oceania: 75 Non-Catholic Observers Theologians, Laity, etc.

29 WHEN was the Council? Preparations Begun June st Session Oct. - Dec Pope John XXIII 2nd Session Sept. - Dec Pope Paul VI 3rd Session Sept. - Nov Final Session Sept. - Dec. 1965

30 Video Clip CH7-6

31 WHAT Documents Issued? Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy Approved Dec. 4, 1963, 2147 yes, 4 no Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Approved Nov. 21, 1964, 2151 yes, 5 no Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation Approved Nov. 18, 1965, 2344 yes, 6 no Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Approved Dec. 7, 1965, 2309 yes, 75 no

32 WHAT Documents Issued? Decrees (some): Apostolate of the Laity Ecumenism Eastern Catholic Churches The Church s Missionary Activity

33 WHAT Documents Issued? Declarations: Christian Education Relationship of the Church to Non-Christians Religious Freedom

34 Video Clip CH7-7

35 Catholic Social Teaching Examines human society in light of the Gospel and Tradition Guide Christians in carrying out Christ s mission Documents issued by Popes and bishops Started with papal encyclical Rerum Novarum By Pope Leo XIII in 1891

36 Rerum Novarum Opposed capitalism s harsh treatment of poor as mere pawns Opposed Socialism s abolition of private property Proposed a system based on Natural Law God-given need for creation to follow what God intended it to be

37 Rerum Novarum Cooperation Between Classes Class warfare not inevitable Dignity of Work Primary purpose to provide a decent life for families; not to be harsh or oppressive Just Wage Amount sufficient to provide a decent life

38 Rerum Novarum Role of the State Balance between capitalist and socialist philosophies Private Ownership of Property All have a right to own property; fair distribution Defense of the Poor Goal should be lifting up, not casting down the poor

39 Effects of Rerum Novarum Flourishing of Catholic labor unions Minimum-wage laws Established precedent for Church to speak out on social matters Set the stage for next 100+ years of social action

40 Catholic Social Teaching 1891 Rerum Novarum Leo XIII 1931 Quadragesimo Anno Pius XI 1961 Mother and Teacher John XXIII 1963 Peace on Earth John XXIII 1965 Church in the Modern World Vatican II 1967 The Development of Peoples Paul VI 1971 A Call to Action Paul VI 1971 Justice in the World Synod of Bishops 1979 Redeemer of Humanity John Paul II 1981 On Human Work John Paul II 1988 On Social Concern John Paul II 1991 The One Hundredth Year John Paul II 1995 The Gospel of Life John Paul II

41 Catholic Social Teaching Major Themes from Catholic Social Teaching: Dignity of each and every human person Participation: Call to family & community Rights and responsibilities Preferential option for the poor Dignity of work and the rights of workers Solidarity Care of creation

42 Catholic Social Teaching The central message is simple: our faith is profoundly social. We cannot be called truly Catholic unless we hear and heed the Church's call to serve those in need and work for justice and peace. Communities of Salt and Light, U.S. Bishops, 1993

43 Discussion Question 21st Century What role do you think Catholic Social Teaching has to play today?

44 Video Clip CH7-8

45 Discussion Question What did you learn today that you found most relevant and interesting? Let s conclude our look at the long story of our church with some closing thoughts and a prayer

46 Closing Video Clip

47 Closing Prayer

48 An Overview of the 2,000 Year History of the Roman Catholic Church

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