A. Remember (Things we have already learned)

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3 A. Remember (Things we have already learned) 1. Rome began as a small city-state in 509 BCE as a Republic 2. Rome became an imperialistic empire and conquered lands around the Mediterranean 3. bread and circuses hide the huge problem created by Latifundias and wealthy landowners (slave labor) 4. more social, economic, political, and military problems develop

4 A. Remember (Things we have already learned) 5. Diocletian divides the Roman Empire into an eastern and western half a. keeps wealthier, healthier eastern half for himself b. left western, poorer half to collapse

5 A. Remember (Things we have already learned) 6. Constantine a. legalized Christianity in 313 CE with Edict of Milan b. moves Roman capital from Rome to Constantinople in the east

6 A. Remember (Things we have already learned) 7. western Rome falls to invasions by the Germanic tribes and Huns 8. Eastern Roman empire remains (now called the Byzantine Empire) a. Greek (instead of Latin)-speaking Romans with Constantinople as their capital b. lasts from 289 CE to 1453 CE; until Turkish (Muslim) conquest

7 B. Religious Diversity in the Roman Empire 1. traditional polytheistic Roman religion (similar to Greeks) 2. Cult of Isis (mostly for women) a. stressed equality of men and women 3. Mithriasim from Persia (mostly for soldiers) a. offered a life after death if good b. punished those who were bad 4. Roman religious toleration a. generally tolerant of others religions if: i. honored Roman gods and emperors too

8 C. Divisions in Judea 1. in 63 BCE, Rome conquered Judea (the homeland of Jews) 2. Jews believe in one god (monotheistic)

9 C. Divisions in Judea 3. Rome excuses Jews from worshipping Roman gods and emperor 4. many Jews worried that their religion was embracing too many new ideas (Greek and other) a. Jewish communities call for strict obedience to Torah and local religious leaders b. Zealots called for a forceful removal of non-jews (Romans) c. many Jews began to wait and hope for the prophesized messiah, an anointed king sent by god

10 D. The Jewish Revolt 1. in 66 CE, Romans destroy Solomon s Temple 2. within 100 years, Jerusalem is destroyed a. 1,000s sold as slaves b. Jewish diaspora; scattering of Jews from their homeland

11 E. Make a Prediction: What do you think it would be like to grow up in Jerusalem during the time period (c. 100 CE) mentioned above?

12 A. Christianity was a new religion that began in this time of chaos 1. Jesus is considered the founder of Christianity 2. what is known about Jesus comes from the Gospels, the good news a. Mathew, Mark, Luke, and John are the first four books of the New Testament in the Bible b. written by people much later than the time of Jesus who didn t know him first hand

13 B. Life of Jesus 1. born around 4 BCE in Bethlehem (near Jerusalem) 2. supposedly a direct descendant of King David 3. Jesus was Jewish

14 B. Life of Jesus 4. not much is known from miracle birth to the age of 30 when he begins to preach 5. Jesus recruited 12 Apostles (a person sent forth in Greek) which were close followers 6. the speeches of Jesus and his apostles attracted large numbers of followers a. taught with parables (short stories with a moral lesson) b. returned to Jerusalem after 3 years of preaching and traveling

15 C. Jesus Message 1. based on both Jewish and Greek teachings 2. 1 god / Ten Commandments 3. but many ideas were new and revolutionary a. offered to bring spiritual salvation and eternal life to anyone who would believe in him and his father/god b. love, not hate c. sharing, not greed d. stressed the importance of forgiveness

16 D. Jesus Death 1. many loved and followed Jesus, but many more did not 2. seen as a trouble maker a. Jewish leaders thought Jesus would take away their influence and power b. Rome saw potential revolution and was cautious 3. Jesus was turned in to the Jewish/Roman authorities for temple incident

17 D. Jesus Death 4. he was crucified (nailed or hung on a wooden cross) 5. Jesus followers believed he came back from the dead before going to heaven

18 A. Jews became the first Christians 1. to them, Jesus was the Christ; the anointed one

19 B. Apostles spread Jesus teachings 1. Peter (the Rock) went all the way to Rome itself; then crucified in Rome 2. Paul a. born as Saul in Asia Minor; killed early Christians b. has a dream and converts to Christianity; takes the name Paul c. spreads word to non-jews called Gentiles d. helped to make Christianity a world religion from Mesopotamia to Rome i. wrote texts, explained and debated discrepancies, and expanded teachings

20 C. Roman Resistance and Persecution of early Christians 1. Why? a. seen as different and anti-roman b. wouldn t make sacrifices to Roman gods and emperor c. met in secret; seemed suspicious 2. many early Christians became martyrs, someone who suffers and/or dies for their beliefs a. both Peter and Paul die as martyrs during Nero s reign

21 D. Reasons for Christianity s Appeals 1. Jesus had welcomed all (poor, oppressed, and unwanted) 2. message of love and peace in a world with little of both 3. stressed equality, dignity, and life after death 4. similar to Greek teachings of Plato and Aristotle; so people were familiar 5. missionaries traveled on Roman roads, speeding up conversions 6. early Christians spoke/wrote in Greek and Latin; languages everyone knew 7. martyrs faith converted others The blood of the martyr is the seeds of the Christian Church Roman observer 8. Constantine s Edict of Milan in 313 CE legalizes ALL religions within Roman Empire a. 80 years later, emperor Theodosius makes Christianity the official religion of Rome

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23 A. early Christian communities were very different from one another; some similarities: 1. baptism marks entrance into faith 2. Eucharist (ritual bread and wine) B. women were very important as early Christian leaders 1. lose power as Christian Church expands

24 C. Structure of the Church

25 D. Divisions in the Early Christian Church 1. rivalry begins between patriarchs of Rome and the east 2. Latin-speaking Popes claim papal supremacy rule over all Christians a. the other five Greek-speaking patriarchs shared power in the east 3. Heresies and Heretics a. teachings (and the teachers who teach them) contrary to the accepted Christian teachings i. as determined at the Council of Nicaea among other formal meetings 4. Theology a. many later Christians begin to add and offer different interpretations of the original message of Jesus

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