Essential Question. What points of peace exist between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?

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1 Essential Question What points of peace exist between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?

2 Monotheistic Religions Category Judaism Christianity Islam Point for Peace? # of gods ONE! ONE! Followers Jews Christians Number of followers 14 million 2.1 billion Date founded 2000 BCE 33 CE Holy city Jerusalem Jerusalem Important prophets Noah Abraham Noah, Abraham, Moses, & Jesus Moses Sacred text Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) The Bible (Old Test. + N.T.) Clergy Rabbi Priest Place of worship Synagogue Church Major holidays Passover Easter Rosh Hashanah Christmas Yom Kippur Chanakkuh

3 Essential Question What points of peace exist between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?

4 Is it true that Jesus Christ was Jewish? Yes, this is 100% true. Mary and Joseph, the parents of Jesus, were Jewish.

5 If Jesus Christ was Jewish, then why are there Christians? JEWS The Jews who did not follow Jesus remained Jews. CHRISTIANS The Jews who followed Jesus became Christians.

6 The Last Supper

7 Why did some Jews follow Jesus while some Jews did not? The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) contains prophecies about the coming of a Messiah Prophecy = a prediction about something that will happen in the future Messiah = a hero to save the Jews from persecution prophecy = premonition

8 Why did some Jews follow Jesus while some Jews did not? Some Jews believed that Jesus did not fulfill the Messianic prophecies Today, these people are still called Jews Some Jews believed that Jesus did fulfill the Messianic prophecies Today, these people are called Christians

9 Objective SWBAT compare how Jews and Christians view Jesus Christ.

10 Why do Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah? Christians point to the Bible to support this belief The Bible is divided into two parts OLD TESTAMENT Tells us about Messianic prophecies NEW TESTAMENT Tells us about how Jesus fulfilled the Messianic prophecies Both Jews and Christians believe in this part Only Christians believe in this part

11 Fulfillment of Prophecy: Jesus was born to a virgin Old Testament (Prophecy) New Testament (Fulfillment) "Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall call His name Immanuel. Isaiah 7:14

12 Fulfillment of Prophecy: Jesus was born in Bethlehem Old Testament (Prophecy) But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, are only a small village in Judah. Yet a ruler of Israel will come from you, one whose origins are from the distant past. Micah 5:2 New Testament (Fulfillment) Jesus was born in the town of Bethlehem in Judea, during the reign of King Herod. Matthew 2:1

13 Fulfillment of Prophecy: Jesus was almost killed by King Herod Old Testament (Prophecy) This is what the Lord says: A cry of anguish is heard in Ramah mourning and weeping unrestrained. Rachel weeps for her children, refusing to be comforted for her children are dead. New Testament (Fulfillment) King Herod sent soldiers to kill all the boys in and around Bethlehem who were two years old and under. Herod s brutal action fulfilled the prophecy of Jeremiah. Matthew 2:16-17 Jeremiah 31:15

14 Fulfillment of Prophecy: Jesus escaped to Egypt Old Testament (Prophecy) When Israel was a child, I loved him as a son, and I called my son out of Egypt. Hosea 11:1 New Testament (Fulfillment) That night Joseph left for Egypt with the child and Mary, his mother, and they stayed there until Herod s death. This fulfilled what the Lord had spoken through the prophet: I called my Son out of Egypt. Matthew 2:14-15

15 Fulfillment of Prophecy: Jesus performed miracles Old Testament (Prophecy) Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. Then shall the lame man leap as an deer, and the tongue of the mute sing: for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert. New Testament (Fulfillment) The blind receive sight, the lame walk, those who have leprosy are cured, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the good news is preached to the poor. Matthew 11:5 Isaiah 35:5-6

16 Fulfillment of Prophecy: Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a donkey Old Testament (Prophecy) New Testament (Fulfillment) Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion! Shout, Daughter of Jerusalem! See, your king comes to you, righteous and having salvation, gentle and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey. Zechariah 9:9

17 Fulfillment of Prophecy: Jesus did not defend himself against accusers Old Testament (Prophecy) He was oppressed and He was afflicted, yet He opened not His mouth. Isaiah 53:7 New Testament (Fulfillment) And while He was being accused by the chief priests and elders, He answered nothing. Matthew 27:12

18 Fulfillment of Prophecy: Jesus was crucified Old Testament (Prophecy) New Testament (Fulfillment) My enemies surround me like a pack of dogs; an evil gang closes in on me. They pierced My hands and My feet. Psalm 22:16

19 Did Jesus fulfill every prophecy from the Old Testament? NO! That s why Jews don t believe that Jesus was the Messiah!

20 Which prophecies from the Old Testament remain unfulfilled? Jews believe that the Messiah must: Rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem Gather all Jews back to Israel Bring in a time of world peace, and end all hatred, suffering and disease Spread knowledge of the God of Israel, which will unite humanity as one Jews believe that Jesus did not fulfill any of these prophecies Christians believe that Jesus will fulfill these prophecies in the Second Coming

21 The Destruction of Solomon s Temple

22 The Destruction of the Second Temple

23 The Wailing Wall: What Remains of the Second Temple Why do Jews stuff prayers into the Wailing Wall? Jews pray for the Messiah to come and rebuild the Temple

24

25 Life of Jesus Hmm Jesus has risen! He truly is the Messiah and the Son of God! I hope I, too, will have a better life after death in heaven! I am now a CHRISTIAN!

26 Saul Converts to Christianity / St. Paul Becomes a Missionary

27 Jesus Christ really is the Messiah and the Son of God! Jewish Persecution of Christians Paul s Road to Damascus Blasphemy! You shall be stoned for insulting God! A crowd of Jews, including a man named Saul, participated in the stoning of a Christian named Stephen (the first martyr of Christianity) Later, Saul went on a trip to Damascus to arrest Christians

28 The Conversion of Saul As he neared Damascus on his journey, suddenly a light from heaven flashed around him. He fell to the ground and heard a voice say to him, Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?" "Who are you, Lord? Saul asked. "I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting," he replied. "Now get up and go into the city, and you will be told what you must do." The men traveling with Saul stood there speechless; they heard the sound but did not see anyone. Saul got up from the ground, but when he opened his eyes he could see nothing. So they led him by the hand into Damascus. For three days he was blind, and did not eat or drink anything.

29 The Conversion of Saul a fresco by Michelangelo ( )

30 St. Paul Becomes a Missionary Missionary: somebody sent to another country by a church to spread its faith

31 Romans Execute St. Paul

32 Saul Converts to Christianity / St. Paul Becomes a Missionary

33 Saul Converts to Christianity / St. Paul Becomes a Missionary Romans Persecute Christians

34 Roman Persecution of Christians At first, many Romans persecuted Christians Remember Romans were theistic! poly Christians are theistic! mono Oh, Jupiter! Oh, Neptune! Oh, Venus! I pray to you

35 Roman Persecution of Christians After Rome burned to the ground in 64 CE, Emperor Nero needed a scapegoat Scapegoat = someone to blame Nero chose the Christians

36 Roman Persecution of Christians

37 Roman Persecution of Christians

38 Saul Converts to Christianity / St. Paul Becomes a Missionary Romans Persecute Christians

39 Romans Persecute Christians Saul Converts to Christianity / St. Paul Becomes a Missionary Emperor Constantine Converts to Christianity

40 The Conversion of Emperor Constantine

41 Shields & Flags (Labarum)

42

43 What s happening on this coin? On this coin, Constantine s labarum is spearing a serpent that likely represents Maxentius. Notice the chi-rho symbol at the top of the labarum.

44 Why did Emperor Constantine build the Arch of Constantine?

45 The Conversion of Emperor Constantine What is ironic about how Emperor Constantine became a Christian?

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