CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES

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1 CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES PROGRESS MAP PUBLISHED BY THE ANGLICAN SCHOOLS COMMISSION (INC) WESTERN AUSTRALIA

2 CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES PROGRESS MAP Published by the Anglican Schools Commission (Inc) Western Australia Wollaston Education Centre Wollaston Road Mt Claremont WA Postal: PO Box 2520 Mt Claremont WA 6010 Phone: +61 (08) Fax: +61 (08) First published in 2004 Revised in 2008 Anglican Schools Commission (Inc) Western Australia 2004 ISBN ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This document has been a collaborative effort between staff of the Anglican Schools Commission and teaching staff in Anglican schools. We thank and commend all who have assisted in its development. Sections of the Christian / Religious Studies Learning Area Statement, published by the Anglican Schools Commission (Inc) WA (1999), have been incorporated into this document. The Curriculum Council of Western Australia gave permission for reference to be made to elements of the Learning Area Statements in the Curriculum Framework and the Curriculum Framework Progress Maps Working Version. Cover photograph - Chapel of St Mark and St Luke, St Mark s Anglican Community School, Hillarys, Western Australia.

3 FOREWORD by The Most Reverend Roger Herft, Archbishop of Perth Anglican schools in Western Australia are active participants in the mission of the Church, encouraging school communities to be learning environments responding to the Christian faith within a distinctly Anglican context. Our schools develop religious education, worship and community service programs to guide students in their search for spiritual meaning and truth. It is our hope that during a student s life at the school they will receive an understanding of the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Church and other denominations and religious traditions. The Christian Religious Studies Progress Map has been revised by the Anglican Schools Commission to provide continuing support to schools in preparing their religious education programs for students from Kindergarten to Year 12. The comprehensive and sequential Christian Religious Studies framework provides students with engaging and enriching opportunities to think, question, challenge, investigate, and reflect in six areas: The Bible; The Story of the Church; Philosophy and Beliefs, World Religions; Meditation, Prayer and Worship; and Ethical Decision-Making and Living. My hope is that when our young people leave their Anglican school communities they have a desire to follow Christ and be prepared to express their faith and apply Christian truths, demonstrating commitment to a renewable world where grace, justice and peace prevail. I pray that all of us tasked with involvement in religious education programmes may have a life-long commitment to learn faith, and move from sharing information to being inspired by the Christ in whom all things cohere. + Roger Perth The Most Reverend Roger Herft Archbishop of Perth October 2008 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD 1 1

4 INTRODUCTION & OUTLINE 4 DOCUMENT OVERVIEW 5 Sample Page Outcome Outcome level description Elaboration Pointers Teaching and Learning Strategies TEACHING, LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT 6 Role of the teacher Teaching and Learning Links across the Curriculum Assessment OUTCOMES 14 The Bible The Story of the Church Philosophy and Beliefs World Religions Meditation, Prayer and Worship Ethical Decision-Making and Living OUTCOMES OVERVIEW at a glance with Level Descriptions and Pointers The Bible 18 The Story of the Church 19 Philosophy and Beliefs 20 World Religions 21 Meditation, Prayer and Worship 22 Ethical Decision-Making and Living 23 THE BIBLE Early Childhood 24 Middle Childhood 25 Early Adolescence 26 Late Adolescence 27 Sample Topics 28 Elaborations 29 Opportunities and Experiences 30 STORY OF THE CHURCH Early Childhood 31 Middle Childhood 32 Early Adolescence 33 Late Adolescence 34 Sample Topics 35 Elaborations 36 Opportunities and Experiences PHILOSOPHY AND BELIEFS Early Childhood 37 Middle Childhood 38 Early Adolescence 39 Late Adolescence 40 Sample Topics 41 Elaborations Opportunities and Experiences 42 2

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS cont. WORLD RELIGIONS Early Childhood 43 Middle Childhood 44 Early Adolescence 45 Late Adolescence 46 Sample Topics 47 Elaborations Opportunities and Experiences 48 MEDITATION, PRAYER AND WORSHIP Early Childhood 49 Middle Childhood 50 Early Adolescence 51 Late Adolescence 52 Sample Topics 53 Elaborations Opportunities and Experiences 54 ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING AND LIVING Early Childhood 55 Middle Childhood 56 Early Adolescence 57 Late Adolescence 58 Sample Topics 59 Elaborations 60 Opportunities and Experiences 61 INDEX 62 Journals 63 Organisations Websites 64 RESOURCES A. General 68 B. Worship and Music C. Resources listed by Learning Areas The Bible 2. Story of the Church 3. Philosophy and Beliefs 4. World Religions 5. Meditation, Prayer and Worship 6. Ethical Decision-Making and Living APPENDIX A. Glossary of Teaching and Learning Strategies 73 B. Faith Development 74 C. The Bible 77 D. Meditation, Prayer and Worship 79 3

6 CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES PROGRESS MAP NOTE: Christian Religious Studies includes aspects which are private and personal. Though we may be trying to create a faith community in the school, and we may require students to be present at times of prayer and worship, we cannot require students to believe, to pray or to worship. By their very nature, these are voluntary activities. Therefore, there are some aims which are not, strictly speaking, measurable. They are phrased and to be perceived as Experiences and Opportunities for students during their educational journey, in order that they may choose to engage and be active learners. GENERAL INTRODUCTION Christian Religious Studies is an academic subject. It is incumbent on educators to provide an engaging and intellectually rigorous program that nourishes students. They should feel safe and confident to think, question, challenge, investigate and reflect as they undertake their personal journeys searching for spiritual meaning and truth. This document is a detailed expansion of the general Outcome Statements as located in the Christian / Religious Studies Learning Area Statement booklet published by the Anglican Schools Commission (Inc) Sections of the Learning Area Statement have been included in this Progress Map. The Progress Map is an outcomes based document. It will assist schools in designing a meaningful and engaging curriculum and support teachers in recognising achievement during the learning journey of students. OUTLINE The six student outcomes have emanated from the Christian / Religious Studies Learning Area Statement (1999) and describe what we expect students to achieve. These relate to The Bible, Story of the Church, Philosophy and Beliefs, World Religions, Meditation Prayer and Worship, Ethical Living and Decision-Making (see p 15) Each of the six outcomes has been structured with four learning phases of development: Early Childhood EC typically Years Kindergarten Year 3 Middle Childhood MC typically Years 3-7 Early Adolescence EA typically Years 7-10 Late Adolescence LA typically Years Aspects of these phases of development could overlap as it is recognised that students learn and develop in different ways, at different stages and at different rates. (Curriculum Council Progress Maps) For each of the six outcomes, teachers can locate: Outcome level descriptions Elaborations Pointers Sample teaching and learning strategies Miscellaneous strategies Sample topics, which can be used for content purposes, and Opportunities and Experiences can be located at the end of each outcome. 4

7 OVERVIEW Outcome title Outcome Outcome level description Elaboration reference Pointers ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING AND LIVING Students explore Christian values and ethical decision-making in relation to relevant personal and social concerns and develop a growing capacity to love tenderly and act justly. EARLY CHILDHOOD Students understand how their decisions and actions can affect themselves and others. They are able to investigate values and associated actions in contexts that are familiar to them including their family, home, school and local environment. Elaborations describe changes in student learning and achievement as they progress through the different phases of development see p 62 for further details relevant to this level Early Childhood (EC) This will be evident when the students, for example: 1. investigate various issues and values relevant to their stage of development (eg sharing, manners, honesty, respect, etc) 2. identify the connection between choices, actions and consequences 3. identify Jesus as a model of love and caring 4. explain the difference between right and wrong in familiar scenarios 5. reflect on their behaviour and describe how it can affect the wellbeing of others Sample teaching and learning strategies SAMPLE TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES Ethics EC1 Students brainstorm some of the things that are shared in their classroom list. Students discuss whether there are things that should not be shared at school (eg lunch, water bottles, sunhats, handkerchiefs, etc) and list. Students represent findings on poster size T chart. Ethics EC3 Students examine Jesus commandment, Love one another as I have loved you, and complete a Y chart (looks like, feels like, sounds like) representing the commandment in their classroom, playground and school. Strategies - see appendix Miscellaneous at a glance: Modelled writing, Cut and paste, Matching text and pictures, Drawing, Story writing, Story map, Read and retell, PMI, Y chart, Brainstorm, What if, Character map, Newspaper article, Collage, Murals, Role plays, Puppets, etc. Outcomes describe what we expect students to achieve. Outcome level descriptions demonstrate what students know, understand, value and are able to do as a result of their learning at each phase of development. Elaborations enable teachers to identify changes in student learning and achievement as they progress through the different phases of development. Pointers are intended to be neither prescriptive nor exhaustive and can assist teachers to identify the attainment of student outcomes. Their numbering is intended to assist teachers when cross referencing with sample teaching and learning strategies. Sample teaching and learning strategies can act as a guide for teachers to possible lessons. These have been cross referenced to the appropriate stage of development and pointer. Eg Bible EC4: This refers to the Bible outcome, Early Childhood (EC) level fourth pointer. 5

8 TEACHING, LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT ROLE OF THE TEACHER Educators have the responsibility to create a caring and stimulating culture that sets challenging yet attainable standards for students. Such stimulating and safe learning environments should also imbue students with a curiosity to inquire and an intrinsic desire to learn. It is essential that students experience a sense of ownership and take responsibility for their learning. They need the opportunity to pause and reflect on what they have learned and to celebrate their achievements. The language used by teachers is important. Phrases such as Many Christians believe and As a Christian I believe are important as they reinforce to students the respectful and academic nature of the program and that the teacher is not making the assumption that the students necessarily believe what he or she may believe. In an increasingly materialistic world, growing up today can be challenging and at times confusing. Many young people can experience a sense of emptiness as they search for meaning, truth and purpose in their lives, and there could well be times of complexity and doubt where they question aspects of their faith. During such times, it is particularly important that students opinions, judgements and decisions emanate from a position of understanding, not ignorance. It is important they acknowledge such times as part of their personal journeys and recognise that this search for meaning and truth, while at times challenging, is something to be embraced and not feared; it is indeed an integral part of what it means to be fully human. TEACHING AND LEARNING This section outlines those principles of teaching and learning which have particular relevance to the Christian Religious Studies learning area. Good principles of teaching, learning and assessment will of course be relevant for all learning areas and these are set out on pages 33 to 39 of the Overarching Statement of the Curriculum Framework for Kindergarten to Year 12 Education in Western Australia. ( In Christian Religious Studies good teaching and learning practices seek to engage students as whole persons. That is, students need to be thoughtful and reflective; they need to be engaged at the level of their feelings and in their relationships with others; they need to participate in decision-making and to be involved in practical and creative ways in giving expression to Christian beliefs and values. Good pedagogy in Christian Religious Studies arises from an understanding of Christian knowledge/wisdom which has dimensions of cognition, affect and volition. On the one hand there is a need for 'doing', that is, activity in thinking, relating and acting. On the other hand there is a need for 'being', that is, for stillness, reflection and for absorbing the beauty and peace of the natural environment. Attention needs to be paid to the 'internal' life as well as the 'external' life. Participation and Responsibility Learning experiences should enable students to be active participants and should encourage them to take responsibility for their own learning in a way which is developmentally appropriate. Christian Religious Studies is of little value unless the students themselves make it part of their lives and experience. While there will be occasions when the teacher will need to provide information in an interesting and relevant way, as for example in storytelling, there will be many occasions when the students can be guided to discover the information for themselves. This will necessitate access to helpful resources such as print material, audio and video material, CD ROM and the Internet. Students should be encouraged to ask questions, to wonder about perplexing issues, to think creatively and critically and to work for understanding. They should be provided with opportunities for emotional experience through music, meditation, worship, enjoyment of the natural environment, enhancement of self esteem and enjoyable and productive relationships with others in learning. Participation through the creative arts [dance, drama, music, the visual arts and the media] provides a particularly rich form of learning. 6

9 Students need to be provided with opportunities to care for others and to participate in projects which enhance their respect for those from different backgrounds and with different experiences, and which in turn heighten their concern for social justice. Collaboration and Community Learning experiences should facilitate collaborative work among students and the development of a community of learners. There is no doubt that learning is facilitated when it occurs in a supportive social environment. Especially is this the case when students can benefit from the ideas and experiences of other members of the learning community. In a Christian sense it is important to recognise that human persons develop a sense of identity and significance as members of a community, not as isolated individuals. Thus, learning strategies should encourage students to work together, to share ideas and to value the contributions of others. Attention will need to be paid to the development of those norms of community life which facilitate learning, including the importance of listening to others, handling differences creatively, and having a genuine concern for others. It will be important to structure group learning tasks as well as individual learning tasks. Meaning and Relevance Learning experiences should promote growth in understanding and connect with issues and questions which are relevant to their lives. In all learning areas there are particular concepts and words which are peculiar to those learning areas. This is certainly the case in Christian Religious Studies. Students need to be introduced to concepts such as God, forgiveness, judgement, faith etc in ways which are developmentally appropriate and which stress understanding. Exploration of meaning is of fundamental importance in this learning area. "What do we mean by...?" needs to be a recurring question. Many of the concepts have to do with issues which are of enduring concern for all people and can be linked with common human experiences. Students need to grow in their appreciation of the relevance of this learning area for the questions and issues which are of concern to them. Thus, learning strategies such as discussion, role playing, exploration of case studies, and inductive approaches will be helpful. Action and Reflection Learning experiences should enable students to reflect on their experience and the implications of what they are learning for their daily living and decision-making. Reflection on experience is an important learning strategy in Christian Religious Studies. That experience will include the common learning experiences in which students participate, their own experiences outside the classroom and common forms of action and activity in which they are involved. Adequate time needs to be allowed for reflection by students individually and in small groups. In addition, some assistance will need to be provided to students to help them with the reflective process. This assistance will enable students to frame those questions which will encourage them to consider the implications of what they are learning for their daily living and decision-making. This reflection will often be facilitated by an environment of natural beauty and quietness as would be provided through a Retreat in a natural setting off campus. Thinking and Reasoning Learning experiences should encourage students to be thoughtful, to ask questions, to probe issues, and to work for understanding. It is important to facilitate a spirit of lively enquiry in relation to Christian Religious Studies, and to foster a passion for understanding which probes below the surface. The teacher will pose questions and encourage them from students. While being prepared to share her/his own beliefs with students, teachers will encourage them to explore those beliefs, to interrogate them and to make them their own. An emphasis on intellectual rigour is as important in Christian Religious Studies as in any other discipline. It will also be important, however, to foster an attitude of humility and to be aware of the limits of reasoning, recognising that on some matters an element of mystery and uncertainty will remain. 7

10 8

11 LINKS ACROSS THE CURRICULUM LINKS TO THE OUTCOMES IN THE OVERARCHING STATEMENT In this section, the Overarching outcomes are listed in order. Alongside each outcome there is a paragraph which illustrates how the achievement of Christian Religious Studies outcomes contributes to the achievement of that particular Overarching outcome. The relevant Christian Religious Studies outcomes are indicated in the brackets at the end of the paragraph. Students use language to understand, develop and communicate ideas and information and interact with others. All the outcomes in Christian Religious Studies extend the ability of students to use language to understand ideas especially in the areas of religion, philosophy, spirituality and ethics, and thus make a significant contribution to the achievement of this outcome. In addition the learning processes which are essential to Christian Religious Studies contribute directly to the ability of students to communicate ideas and information and interact with others (Outcomes: direct 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) Students select, integrate and apply numerical and spatial concepts and techniques. The contribution to this outcome is minimal although some numerical ability is required indirectly as students place historical events in a time frame and locate relevant information in the Bible. (Outcomes: indirect 1, 2 and 4) Students recognise when and what information is needed, locate and obtain it from a variety of sources, and evaluate, use and share it with others. In Christian Religious Studies there is a significant emphasis on the need for students to participate in the learning processes and to accept responsibility for their own learning, as developmentally appropriate. Thus the gathering and evaluation of information is an important focus in learning and it can be confidently expected that Christian Religious Studies will make a helpful contribution to achieving this outcome in the Overarching Statement. (Outcomes: direct 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6, indirect 5) Students select, use and adapt technologies. The use of information technologies including CD Rom and the Internet play an important role in learning in Christian Religious Studies and thus it will make some contribution to this major outcome. (Outcomes: direct 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6). Students describe and reason about patterns, structures and relationships in order to understand, interpret, justify and make predictions. Students in Christian Religious Studies, in seeking to achieve the major outcomes in this learning area, will describe and reason about problems, structures and relationships and in so doing will better understand and interpret the key ideas and issues which arise. The identification and exploration of patterns, structures and relationships is essential in the students' search for meaning. (Outcomes: all will make a direct contribution) Students visualise consequences, think laterally, recognise opportunity and potential and are prepared to test options. The learning processes which are essential to Christian Religious Studies encourage students to visualise consequences, think laterally, recognise opportunity and potential and test options. Thus a significant contribution will be made to this major outcome in the Overarching Statement. (Outcomes: all will make a direct contribution) Students understand and appreciate the physical, biological and technological world and have the knowledge and skills to make decisions in relation to it. While Christian Religious Studies does not have a major focus on the physical, biological and technological world, it does help students understand the nature of this world and it does help them to be discerning and thoughtful about making decisions as people who are part of that world. This is especially the case in relation to those outcomes which focus on philosophy and beliefs and on ethical decision-making and living. (Outcomes: direct 3 and 6 indirect 1, 2, 4 and 5) 9

12 Students understand their cultural, geographic and historical contexts and have the knowledge, skills and values necessary for an active participation in life in Australia. The study of the Bible, the Story of the Church and World Religions will make a helpful contribution to students' understanding of their cultural, geographic and historical contexts. In addition the focus on Ethical Decision-Making and Living will help prepare students for active participation in life in Australia. (Outcomes: direct 1, 2, 4 and 6 indirect 3 and 5) Students interact with people and cultures other than their own and are equipped to contribute to the global community. As part of the exploration of world religions students will interact with people and cultures other than their own and their study in Ethical Decision-Making and Living will help them make a discerning and thoughtful contribution to the wider community. Thus Christian Religious Studies will make a significant contribution in helping students achieve this outcome in the Overarching Statement. (Outcomes: direct 4 and 6 indirect 1, 2, 3 and 5). Students participate in creative activity of their own and understand and engage with the artistic, cultural and intellectual work of others. In Christian Religious Studies students participate in a range of creative activities both in the classroom and the school chapel. These activities encourage students to think creatively and to act creatively. Significant engagement with the artistic, cultural and intellectual work of others will take place in relation to all the major outcomes in Christian Religious Studies. (Outcomes: direct 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) Students value and implement practices that promote personal growth and well-being. Christian Religious Studies will make a major contribution to the achievement of this outcome. Philosophy and Beliefs will help students think clearly and appreciate the important connection between beliefs and values. Meditation, Prayer and Worship have a particular focus on spiritual and psychological health while Ethical Decision-Making and Living assists students to make those decisions which are for the good health of themselves and others. (Outcomes: direct 3, 5 and 6 indirect 1, 2 and 4). Students are self-motivated and confident in their approach to learning and are able to work individually and collaboratively. Christian Religious Studies will make a major contribution to this outcome as well, both through the learning processes which are at the heart of this learning area, and through the work that is done in Philosophy and Beliefs and Ethical Decision-Making and Living. The dignity and worth of the individual and the importance of collaboration are values which are promoted through Christian Religious Studies. (Outcomes: direct 3 and 6 indirect 1, 2, 4 and 5). Students recognise that everyone has the right to feel valued and be safe, and, in this regard, understand their rights and obligations and behave responsibly. The values identified in this major outcome in the overarching Statement are values which are significant in Christian Religious Studies and are modelled and promoted in all aspect of teaching and learning. Both "Philosophy and Beliefs" and Ethical Decision-Making and Living" explore the area of rights and obligations and the importance of behaving responsibly. (Outcomes: direct 3 and 6 indirect 1, 2, 4 and 5). 10

13 LINKS WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS The Christian Religious Studies learning area can both contribute to, and gain from the learning outcomes from the other eight learning areas. These linkages can be achieved most readily in the Primary School classroom and with planning, good will and co-operation at the Middle and Senior levels as well. All teachers need to be familiar with the Christian Religious Studies outcomes so that these linkages can be recognised and facilitated. The Arts There are significant links between the Arts and Christian Religious Studies. Christianity and other religions have been seminal influences in the visual arts, music, drama and dance. Much can be learned about the Bible and the Story of the Church, for example, through the appreciation of religious art and music. Arts skills and processes can assist students to contribute in a helpful way to the design and conduct of services of worship. Aesthetic appreciation can assist students with learning in the area of Meditation, Prayer and Worship. Christian Religious Studies will make a positive contribution to the Arts especially in giving students a better understanding of the religious dimensions to the various art forms and the role of the arts in society. Students will be assisted to "understand the role of the arts in society" through the work that is done in Philosophy and Beliefs and in Ethical Decision-Making and Living. It will be important for the School Chaplain and teachers of Christian Religious Studies to work closely with teachers of the Arts so that work done in both learning areas will be mutually supportive. English There are significant links between English and Christian Religious Studies. In fact, the English learning area helps students develop many of the communication skills which are so important for Christian Religious Studies - skills in listening, speaking, viewing, reading and writing. One of the English learning area outcomes has a focus on "attitudes, values and beliefs". In relation to this outcome students "identify the attitudes, values and beliefs in texts that they listen to, view and read and reflect on their own attitudes, values and beliefs that influence their interpretations and responses". Clearly this outcome will assist students in their study of the Bible and other religious texts and with their work in Ethical Decision-Making and Living. Teachers of Christian Religious Studies may draw upon the texts which are being studied in English literature, using for example poetry which raises religious issues or evokes a sense of wonder or awe, or a novel which raises ethical and personal issues for discussion. Health and Physical Education The Health and PE learning area focuses on a holistic concept of health. It recognises the physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual dimensions of the health of the individual. Thus there is the capacity for significant links to be made between Health and PE and Christian Religious Studies. This relationship will have a particular focus on the Attitudes and Values outcome and on the set of "coreshared values". There is a good deal of scope for issues which are raised in Health and PE to be picked up in relation to the "Ethical Decision-Making and Living" outcome in Christian Religious Studies. Importantly, the work that is done in relation to Meditation Prayer and Worship will make a very significant contribution to the spiritual dimension of the health of the individual. Languages Other Than English There are important linkages between Christian Religious Studies and LOTE. In the definition and rationale section of this learning area statement the point is made that the "study of LOTE provides a unique window for gaining insights into other cultures". Thus the study of LOTE will contribute to the study of world religions and vice versa. The communication skills developed in LOTE will have a positive carry over to Christian Religious Studies and an interest in languages other than English may stimulate an interest in the study of the biblical languages of Hebrew and Greek. Mathematics Mathematics is concerned with "the science of patterns" and helps to develop a way of thinking which encourages creativity, initiative, flexibility and persistence. This way of working should have a positive carry over to Christian Religious Studies. There are important connections between major outcome 2 in Mathematics and Christian Religious Studies. It is stated, for example, that "students appreciate that Mathematics is developed by people of all cultures in response to practical, aesthetic and spiritual needs, and that it is influenced by, and influences our world views". 11

14 Further, there is reference to the use of statistics "to legitimise authority structures, and analyse the ethical implications of such uses in respect of human rights and social justice". It is also pointed out that students need to be able to identify, not only "situations where Mathematics can enhance their own and others lives, but also where it is misused or used to mislead or intimidate". There is also a strong link with Outcome 3 since it emphasises the importance of working collaboratively and recognises "the value of working with others, co-operating to pool ideas and welcoming, and dealing constructively with conflicting perspectives and views". Major outcome 4 highlights the social and ethical constraints in a situation and major outcome 13 considers "ethical issues in the collection, organisation and representation of data" and the need to "act responsibly in this regard". Science For too long there has been a view that the processes and findings of science are antithetical to Christian faith. It will be important to dispel this view especially in relation to scientific theories of evolution and an understanding of the biblical accounts of creation. Students will need to appreciate the differences between scientific and theological discourse and the contribution which both make to human understanding. In the Science Learning area there is a healthy recognition that it is a human activity and that scientific knowledge is affected by the cultural and personal perspectives of researchers. The study of Science should engender an appropriate recognition of its limitations and the need for openness and humility. An important outcome in Science has to do with "ethical consideration of the impact of the process and likely products of science on people and the environment". There is a clear linkage here with the major outcome in Christian Religious Studies which deals with Ethical Decision-Making and Living. Society and Environment There are strong linkages between Christian Religious Studies and Society and Environment. This is especially the case in relation to the Culture outcome and the Active Citizenship outcome. In Society and Environment students "recognise that peoples' ways of life are shaped by their values and beliefs and are represented in peoples' ethics, codes and rituals..." Students come to understand "the cultural diversity different religions and spiritual activities; and shared values related to life in a democratic society". The study of Aboriginal beliefs and spirituality is an important element in this part of the learning area. Society and Environment will be concerned with the study of religion as a cultural and social phenomenon and thus it will have significant links with the World Religions outcome of Christian Religious Studies. The Active Citizenship outcome in Society and Environment focuses on three clusters of values, that is, those which relate to democratic process, social justice and ecological sustainability. There is a clear link with the Core Shared Values and with the Ethical Decision-Making and Living outcome in Christian Religious Studies. The ethical issues which arise in Society and Environment will also arise in Christian Religious Studies and thus there is the opportunity for helpful and supportive linkages to be made between the two learning areas. This collaboration may occur not only in what is explored in the classroom but also in projects such as those which provide an opportunity for active care of the natural environment. Technology and Enterprise There is a particular opportunity for a linkage between Christian Religious Studies and Technology and Enterprise through the Technology in Society learning outcome. It states, "students understand how cultural beliefs, values, abilities and ethical positions are interconnected in the development and use of technology and enterprise". Among other criteria students "evaluate the appropriateness of technologies on ethical and moral grounds". Clearly, there is potential for a strong link with the Ethical Decision-Making and Living outcome in Christian Religious Studies. 12

15 ASSESSMENT The main purpose of assessment is to motivate students, to enable realistic goal setting and to provide feedback that will improve the effectiveness of instruction and learning. It is important for teachers to bear in mind that assessment should be: Valid provide valid information on the actual ideas, processes, products and values Educative make a positive contribution to student learning Explicit make the bases for judgement clear and public to all Fair not discriminating on grounds that are irrelevant to the achievement of the outcome Comprehensive should be based on multiple kinds and sources of information (Curriculum Framework pp 37-39) In relation to the matter of assessment in Christian Religious Studies, Prof Brian Hill draws a helpful distinction between those outcomes which may legitimately be assessed and those which are in the category of "desired dispositions and commitments", which it is not appropriate to assess. In the former category are appropriate expressions of the capacities of thinking, feeling, deciding, initiating and acting. In the latter category for example would be those aspects of character which are personality related or those actions which indicate a particular form of religious commitment. It is appropriate to assess what students have learned cognitively. Such assessment may focus on the ability to recall relevant information, to solve problems, to critique ideas, to gather and assemble information, to justify certain views and so on. It is appropriate to assess the acquisition of skills or performances such as the ability to locate relevant information in the Bible, to listen to others' points of view, to contribute to the planning of a service of worship or to provide practical assistance to a person with a disability. It is appropriate to assess capacities of deciding and initiating such as the ability to work creatively, to collaborate with others on projects, to share insights into the meaning or relevance of a Bible event or passage. It is also possible to assess certain affective-capacities such as the ability to empathise with the needs of others, to share with them in feelings of joy or sorrow, to share feelings arising from experiences of meditation or worship. Although the assessment of affective capacities cannot be as precise as the assessment of cognitive capacities or skills capacities, teachers may still be able to make helpful observations about them. Each school will need to make its own decision in relation to what will be assessed in Christian Religious Studies and what will appear on school reports. A variety of assessment strategies can be used to gather information. These could include: Student Portfolios can be used to represent student work and reflections of the unit and learning processes Teacher Observation can be used in conjunction with anecdotal records or checklists to collect specific individual information Essays and multiple choice tests Pre and post unit understandings completed by students, these can be contrasted and used for summative assessment 13

16 Work samples can be used to evaluate processes and student work or product Checklists can be used for explicit criteria based assessment Anecdotal records can be used to focus on targeted criteria Peer and self assessment could include rubrics that focus on personal and peer work samples, organisational skills, decision-making process and work ethic 14

17 LEARNING OUTCOMES SIX MAJOR LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES THE BIBLE 1. Students acquire an understanding and appreciation of the content, history, structure and principles of interpretation of the Bible and the skills needed to locate relevant information. STORY OF THE CHURCH 2. Students acquire an understanding and appreciation of the story of the Church and of Anglicanism in particular, its significant festivals, rites and ceremonies. PHILOSOPHY AND BELIEFS 3. Students acquire an understanding of key issues in the philosophy of religion and of Christian beliefs about God revealed as Father, Son and Holy Spirit. They learn to identify and understand those beliefs which make up a Christian world view. WORLD RELIGIONS 4. Students acquire an understanding and appreciation of the beliefs, values, rites and ceremonies of other major world religions. MEDITATION PRAYER AND WORSHIP 5. Students develop a capacity for spiritual sensitivity and growth. They acquire an understanding and appreciation of the value of silence, meditation, worship and prayer. ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING AND LIVING 6. Students explore Christian values and ethical decision-making in relation to relevant personal and social concerns and develop a growing capacity to "love tenderly and act justly". CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES 15

18 THE BIBLE Students acquire an understanding and appreciation of the content, history, structure and principles of interpretation of the Bible. Students develop the skills needed to locate relevant information. Students become familiar with the significant narratives in the Jewish and Christian Scriptures and understand their significance in the unfolding history of God's dealings with humankind. They learn to identify the various forms of literature in the Bible and develop some understanding and appreciation of them. Students learn about the structure of the Bible, the various books which comprise it and are able to locate information relevant to the issue being studied. They are able to identify some major themes which run through the Bible and can trace their development. Students acquire some appreciation of the ways in which the culture of the day and the purposes of an author or authors have influenced the biblical writings. They develop some understanding of the factors to be considered in the interpretation of particular passages. Students acquire an understanding of the ways in which the present Jewish and Christian Scriptures came to be the way they are today. Students develop some appreciation of the ways in which the biblical material can be relevant to their lives, providing a source of illumination, encouragement and challenge. STORY OF THE CHURCH Students acquire an understanding and appreciation of the story of the Church and of Anglicanism in particular, its significant festivals, rites and ceremonies. Students become familiar with the beginnings of the Church as identified in the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles and the Letters in the New Testament and are able to demonstrate a broad understanding of the spread of the Church historically through the centuries. They learn to identify those things which Christian denominations have in common and those things which differentiate the Anglican Church from other denominations. They gain some understanding of the historical forces which have given rise to the various Christian denominations and Anglicanism in particular. Students develop an awareness and appreciation of the role of the Church in contemporary society and of the significant issues which confront the Church at the beginning of the twenty first century. Students develop an understanding and appreciation of Anglican forms of worship and the major festivals of the Church's year. They also develop an understanding and appreciation of the sacraments of Baptism and Holy Communion as well as other rites identified in A Prayer Book for Australia (APBA). Students participate in services of worship in ways which are meaningful and relevant for them and utilise the creative arts in their various forms. 16

19 PHILOSOPHY AND BELIEFS Students acquire an understanding of key issues in the philosophy of religion and of Christian beliefs about God revealed as Father, Son and Holy Spirit. They learn to identify and understand those beliefs which make up a Christian world view. Students develop a basic understanding of what Christians mean when they talk about God. They explore the arguments for and against the existence of God and what Christians understand about the nature of God. Students explore Christian belief statements such as those contained in the Apostles Creed and consider how they might be understood in our contemporary world. They explore issues relating to meaning in human life and death and consider the significance of the life, death and resurrection of Jesus and explore, for example, what it means to talk of eternal life. Students explore such concepts as faith, hope and love and the philosophical problems raised by the problem of evil and innocent suffering. They explore issues relating to science and Christian belief and appreciate the differences between the two forms of discourse. Students explore the various beliefs which go to make up the way Christians look at life and the world and compare this with other theistic and non-theistic ways of viewing life. WORLD RELIGIONS Students acquire an understanding and appreciation of the beliefs, values, rites and ceremonies of other major world religions. In developmentally appropriate ways students explore the stories, ways of life forms of worship and festivals, rites of passage and significant beliefs of other major world religions, especially Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Aboriginal spirituality. They develop an empathy for what it means to belong to these other religious and cultural groups. They learn to appreciate and value the contribution which other cultural groups have made to Australian life. 17

20 MEDITATION, PRAYER AND WORSHIP Students develop a capacity for spiritual sensitivity and growth. They acquire an understanding and appreciation of the value of silence, meditation, worship and prayer. Students develop a capacity for spiritual sensitivity and growth through developmentally appropriate experiences of silence, meditation, prayer and worship. Students experience ways of relaxation and meditation which draw upon the spirituality of significant religious people down through the ages, and utilise music, religious poetry and other literature. They learn to be reflective about their experience and express their thoughts and feelings in creative spiritual writing and journaling. Students learn to draw upon the rich tradition of prayer within Christianity and to express their own prayers in natural and creative ways. They learn to appreciate the value of sacred spaces such as the School Chapel and opportunities for silence and reflection in natural surroundings. They participate in services of worship which utilise resources in A Prayer Book for Australia (APBA) and other helpful resources which draw upon the creative arts. They contribute actively to the planning and conduct of worship services. ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING AND LIVING Students explore Christian values and ethical decision-making in relation to relevant personal and social concerns and develop a growing capacity to love tenderly and act justly. Students develop a growing understanding of the core shared values and of others such as love, justice, forgiveness, faith and hope, and the Christian interpretation of these. They explore what it might mean to live in accordance with these values in a range of relevant and concrete situations. They explore other values and develop a capacity to clarify their meanings, justify particular value stances and negotiate with others. They clarify the relationship between values and ethics. Students explore a range of theoretical frameworks for ethical decision-making including Natural Law, Situation Ethics and Proportionalism. In developmentally appropriate ways they examine specific issues such as racism, crime and punishment, abortion, euthanasia, sexuality, medical ethics, genetic engineering and environmental ethics. Students explore practical ways in which basic Christian values may be put into practice in their school community and the wider community. They plan and put into operation particular projects of service and social justice, reflect on these and learn from them. 18

21 OUTCOMES OVERVIEW at a glance THE BIBLE Students acquire an understanding and appreciation of the content, history, structure, and principles of interpretation of the Bible. Students develop the skills needed to locate relevant information. EARLY CHILDHOOD Students understand that the Bible is the Christian text that relates stories about people. They can identify Jesus as one of its main historical characters who features in the latter part of the book called the New Testament or Christian Scriptures. This will be evident when students, for example: 1. identify the Bible as a special book for Christians which tells the story of God s people 2. demonstrate an understanding of the story of creation and recognise that it can be found towards the start of the bible 3. recognise historical Bible characters as real human beings 4. relate their understanding of Jesus as a great religious figure who lived his life on earth a long time ago 5. demonstrate an understanding that Jesus was a real person 6. represent the main events in Jesus life 7. identify that stories relating to Jesus are found in the latter part of the Bible called the Christian Scriptures (New Testament). 8. recall some of the key characters and events from a range of bible stories 9. identify and classify selected bible stories according to Old Testament (Hebrew Scriptures or Stories Jesus would have heard ) and New Testament (Christian Scriptures or Stories about Jesus and stories as told by Jesus ). MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Students understand that the Bible is the story of God s people and can use its structure to locate specific events. They are able to investigate parables and draw meaning from them in the context of their personal lives. This will be evident when the students, for example: 1. demonstrate an understanding of the Bible as the story of God s people from creation onwards 2. respond to biblical stories and contrast with personal real life experiences 3. locate and explore the meaning of Jesus two commandments 4. contextualise life as it would have been during the time of Jesus and contrast it with their own lives (eg some of the key places, people, religious groups and events in the life of Jesus as well as researching cultural elements of the time including food, clothing, shelter and transport) 5. understand and explain why Jesus used parables as a means of teaching 6. distinguish between different levels of meaning in a parable, such as being seen as a simple story of the time or an instructional story for the reader with deeper meaning 7. describe God s love for people as demonstrated in the stories of the Bible 8. interpret and retell stories demonstrating God s relationship with his people in times of difficulty and hardship 9. identify and represent key biblical events on a timeline 10. use index, book title, chapter and verse numbers to locate events in the Bible. EARLY ADOLESCENCE Students understand that the Bible contains books of different genres and can apply this understanding when investigating and making meaning from the text. Students investigate and understand the historical contexts of the Bible and its main characters. This will be evident when the students, for example: 1. examine the nature of and relationship between the ten commandments and Jesus two Commandments and consider their influence on society and people s lives. 2. examine the life of Jesus as represented in the four gospels and demonstrate an understanding that the gospels were written by different people in different places at different times for different audiences 3. demonstrate an understanding that the Bible, although one book, is a collection of different books 4. accurately reference the Bible by using index, book title, chapter and verse numbers to locate events in the text 5. contrast links between one s own life and the lives of biblical characters 6. identify major themes which run through the Bible 7. research the origins and history of the Bible 8. examine the nature of metaphoric and symbolic language in Scripture 9. identify some of the major types of literary genre in the Bible and reflect how the genre contributes to interpretation and understanding 10. explain how context can impact on interpretation and understanding of text. LATE ADOLESCENCE Students understand that the Bible and its teachings can influence people s viewpoints and how they live their lives. They investigate its central themes and are able to articulate its influence on their perspectives and belief. This will be evident when the students, for example: 1. identify and integrate the main themes of human disobedience, salvation, fulfilment of God s promise and purpose to the stories in the Bible 2. demonstrate the ability to use skills of interpretation and consider their function when studying the Bible 3. explain the function of metaphoric and symbolic language in Scripture 4. compare the story of God s people in the Bible and God s people now 5. explore how Scripture can influence ethical decision-making 6. identify and explain the relationship between the Bible and social, political and legal viewpoints (including racism, human rights, relationships, land, war, prejudice, reconciliation, refugees, exclusion, etc) 7. identify a range of writers, eras and genres in the Bible and discuss the implications for interpretation and application. 19

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