Christianity. Origins of. Analyze the effect the Roman Emperor Constantine had on the. Describe the challenges faced by early Christians.

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1 Origins of Christianity What we need to know: Describe the origins of Christianity Analyze how Christianity spread. Describe the challenges faced by early Christians. Analyze the effect the Roman Emperor Constantine had on the spread of Christianity.

2 Judea: The Birthplace of Christianity In 63 BCE Rome controlled a territory along the Mediterranean Sea called Judea. o Was part of the Kingdom of Israel ruled by David and Solomon. o Jews believed that this land was their homeland promised to them by God. Parts of Judea are Modern day Israel.

3 The Jewish people and The Romans The Jewish people are monotheistic Romans and much of the ancient world were polytheistic This created conflict from time to time. Romans put Jewish rulers in charge of Judea who were friendly to Rome, but there was often conflict between Jews and Romans. In 37 BCE Rome appointed Herod to be king of Judea. o Practiced Judaism o Rebuilt the Temple of Jerusalem o Many Jews did not trust him.

4 Herod Dies 4 BCE Herod dies Kingdom was divided among his three sons. Unrest broke out. Rome replaced Herod s sons with a military governor. o The governor made sure Roman law was followed o Allowed local officials to run local affairs.

5 Messiah Even though there was relative peace in Judea, many Jews hated being ruled by the Romans. Jews believed that one day a Messiah (savior) would be sent by god. o The messiah would restore the Kingdom of David and the Jews would rule themselves.

6 The Gospels Most of what we know about the life of Jesus comes from the Gospels. These are accounts of Jesus s life written by his followers. Written after Jesus s death. Four of these Gospels are included in the New Testament of the Bible o Matthew o Mark. o Luke o John

7 Birth of Jesus In theory, the modern calendar (C.E) begins the year of Jesus s birth. Many historians now believe that Jesus was most likely born in the year 6 BCE, during Herod s reign in Judea. The Gospel of Luke gives the account of Jesus s birth. o An angel appears to Mary, lives in Nazareth, and tells her that she will have a child and should name him Jesus. o The Roman Emperor Augustus orders a census, count, of all the people of the Empire. o Mary and her husband Joseph travel to Bethlehem, Joseph s birth place, to be counted. o Mary gives birth to Jesus in Bethlehem.

8 Early life of Jesus Not much is written about the childhood of Jesus. Here is what we do know o Jesus s family returned to Nazareth (Jesus is sometimes referred to as Jesus of Nazareth) o He probably learned carpentry as a childe (Joseph was a carpenter.) o According to Luke at age 12 eh went to the Temple of Jerusalem and astonished the rabbis with his knowledge of Jewish law. o At age 30, John the Baptist identified Jesus as the Messiah. o Jesus spent forty days praying in the wilderness and returned to preach.

9 Teachings of Jesus Jesus begins teaching in Galilee (present day Israel) Gets to be very popular o Large crowds grow o Preaches in open areas street, hillsides, by the Sea of Galilee Major ideas in teachings of Jesus o Based on Traditional beliefs o Emphasized the values of Love and Mercy as the two most important Jewish laws. Love of God Love of Neighbor o The Kingdom of God was coming soon Not an earthly god of wealthy and power A time when all people would live according to God s will. Everyone would know God s love including the poor and suffering.

10 Parables Parables o One of Jesus s favorite ways to teach o Simple stories with morals or religious messages. Parable of the Good Samaritan o A Traveler is beaten and robbed and on his way from Jerusalem to Jericho. The thieves left the man half dead. Two religious leaders passed by without helping the man. The third person, a despised Samaritan, treated the victim s wounds, placed him on his donkey and carried him to an inn. In a final act of compassion, he promised to pay for any expenses the innkeeper incurred in treating the traveler. o By telling the story of the Good Samaritan, Jesus was teaching that you should love your neighbor despite your differences.

11 The Crucifixion of Jesus The Gospels tell a story of Jesus s return to Jerusalem for Passover a festival that celebrated God s rescue of the Jews from Egypt. According to the Gospels, one of Jesus s disciples, Judas, betrayed him. During Passover, Jesus shared a final meal with his disciples. This final meal is know as the Last Supper. After the meal, Jesus went to pray in a garden. Judas then reported to the Romans where Jesus could be found. The Roman guards arrested Jesus.

12 The Roman rulers felt threatened that Jesus had gained such a large following. They were fearful that Jesus may lead a revolt. According to the Christian Bible, the Roman governor of Judea Pontius Pilate order Jesus to be executed. In Roman times, common execution practice was to be crucified, or nailed to a cross. According to the New Testament of the Bible, the Romans took Jesus to a hill outside of the city walls (Calvary), nailed him to a cross and let him to die.

13 The Resurrection of Jesus A few faithful followers of Jesus took his body and buried it in a tomb. According to the Gospels, Jesus rose from the dead three days later. Christians call this event-the Resurrection: Jesus s rise from the dead. The Resurrection convinced Jesus s followers that he was the Son of God. Jesus s disciples began spreading the news of his life and teachings throughout Christiandom.

14 The Missionary Work of Paul The early converts to Christianity were Jews. Paul was a convert who devoted his life to spreading the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. While travelling to Damascus-Paul saw a blinding light and heard the voice of Jesus. After his vision, Paul adopted the Christian faith and became a missionary: someone who tries to convert others to believe in a particular religion or set of beliefs. Paul spent 17 years travelling to convert Gentiles (non-jews) to Christianity. He made many converts and started new churches. In his letters to the Romans, Paul stressed: -Jesus was the Son of God -Jews and Gentiles alike were Gods children -Jesus was Christ-God s chosen one Paul s efforts caused many riots and for a time he was jailed in Rome. He continued to write letters to other Christians. Tradition says that Paul was beheaded by the Romans in 65 C.E.

15 Christianity Spreads Christians refused to worship the other Roman Gods. Additionally, they would not accept that the emperor was a god. Many early Christians refused to serve in the army. Many Romans saw Christians as a threat to Roman order and patriotism and therefore, the Christian religion was declared illegal. Many emperors sentenced Christians to die in cruel and painful ways. -crucifixion, brought in arenas where they were devoured by wild animals in front of cheering crowds

16 Christianity offered people a sense of purpose and hope. It taught that the poor and slaves could look forward to a better life after death by following the teachings of Jesus Christ. By 300 C.E. Nearly 30 million Christians lived in the Roman Empire In 313 CE, the Roman emperor, Constantine announced the Edict of Milan giving Christians the freedom to practice their religion openly. Emperor Theodosisus I banned all pagan sacrifices By 380, Christianity was the official religion of the Roman Empire.

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