1 Credentialed Women in the Foursquare Church: An Exploration of Opportunities and Hindrances in Leadership Karen Tremper Ph.D
2 Preach the Gospel--Introduction
3 Foursquare Resources Summary of the Foursquare Church s Position on Women in Leadership Ministry Schell, Steve, ed. Women in Leadership Ministry. Los Angeles: Foursquare Media, The Foursquare Church Women in Leadership Ministry video series: Episode 1 The Weight of Scriptural Evidence Episode 2 Paul s Prohibitions Episode 3 God s Call to Women /video/
4 It astounds me that in the secular world of law and politics, women generally have more freedom to exercise their gifts and abilities than in the Church. And yet it s in Jesus that we are supposed to experience the greatest love, freedom, and unity. After all, it is for freedom that He sets us free. Our Christian subculture trails secular society in recognizing that gifts, abilities, and callings are not gender exclusive. In my experience, the stained glass ceiling is far more difficult to penetrate than the secular glass ceiling. (The Problem with the Problem of Women in Leadership Ministry 140)
5 Women In Leadership Ministry Proposal for Future Action #2 The identification and removal of all hindrances and barriers that inhibit or prohibit the appointment of women to vocational ministry roles with The Foursquare Church (Schell 2007, 73)
6 Purpose of Research The purpose of this study is to explore how the historical foundations of the Foursquare Church, its perception of leadership, and its organizational dynamics as it relates to women create opportunities or hindrances for credentialed women leaders.
7 Study Design Exploratory Mixed Methodology QUAL Data collection Data analysis results QUAN Data collection Data Analysis results Interpretation QUALà quan
8 Theoretical Constructs and Categories basis for Survey Theoretical Constructs and Categories Items on Survey Opportunities: Sponsor/Mentor 4, 14, 22, 29 Foursquare DNA 1, 2, 13, 15, 16, 23, 29 Leadership 10, 17, 20, 26, 31 Hindrances: All Talk-No Action 5, 7, 9, 15, 19, 30 Gender Prejudice 3, 6, 8, 11, 12, 21, 24, 27 Tokenism 18, 25, 28
11 The Impact of History Foursquare DNA Sister Aimee I think there is an opportunity in our denomination to go anywhere. To be anything, to be president of the denomination, for goodness sake, Aimee Semple McPherson started it (G2-c). I am optimistic about the opportunities for women in Foursquare because of what God decided to do with our founder. It can never be avoided. It can never be overlooked. It s foundational (G1-b).
12 The Impact of History Foursquare DNA Foursquare Heritage The reason [we] need to raise up women in leadership is because the men alone, there s not enough, in the harvest, there s not enough. Jesus said the Laborers are few. Okay, then if we have few Laborers, why are we discarding half the Laborers? Oh let s see we have 100 Laborers, let s just use 50 of them, that doesn t make any sense (G2-b). It s about the harvest field and if we are saying the laborers are few and we are really going to allow a voice and harvesters to be cut out, who is responsible for this when we stand before God if we are all leaders? (G4-a).
13 Leadership Calling I knew I was called as a child I would actually play pastor and I would have neighborhood Bible studies. When I was 13 I was the leader of the youth group I was always rallying people and heading up this kind of stuff but I thought maybe I would be a pastor s wife (G1-d). I went on a journey of trying to make my husband be in ministry because the only model I saw was men were in ministry and if you wanted to be engaged in things that were deeper in the Lord then you had to be married to a guy that was in ministry (G2-b).
14 Leadership Calling not limited by gender What are we to do with this gift God has given us? Whether you lead by humility or submission we are going to lead, that is who God s made us. It can t be stopped (G1-c). The Lord opens doors that have to do with the call. If you know what the Lord has called you to do and you re sure about it, it doesn t matter who will stand against you (G3-b). I always thought if you are called, you do it (G4-e).
15 Opportunities Created by: The Founder, Foursquare heritage, Calling Hebrew 13:8 Jesus Christ the same yesterday, today, and forever.
16 The Impact of Leadership Frameworks Women in careers that are predominately male face some of the same challenges women in leadership ministry experience because the role of pastor is perceived as a position held predominately by men. (Eagly and Carli 2007, 281, Tremper 2013, 180)
17 Impact of Leadership Frameworks All Talk No Action I think that even if the opportunities are available to women that the quality of the opportunity is not equal to what is offered a man. What are the odds that a woman would be asked to fill that senior pastor role? They are pretty small. Now a woman may be asked to pastor a small church or pioneer a church, but to be brought into an existing large congregation, I really don t see that opportunity being available to women at this point (GB-7).
18 Impact of Leadership Frameworks All Talk No Action Well it s the good ol boys club. They don t know that their being [like that]. It really is a good ol boys club and I really think that it s old school (GB-8). We have some hard systemic things we have to fix. And to fix the systemic problems that say, It s okay to put a man in leadership that absolutely will not put a woman in leadership. That s wrong. That is wrong and that has to stop (G2-b).
19 Impact of Leadership Frameworks Gender Prejudice The structure is as we said earlier, a boy s club. It is the mindset, the hierarchy, the leaders for the most part, all come from the paradigm, the wife, the woman is the supporter of the man. That is her proper role. We have perceived value that is not backed up by behavior. It is evident in every single conversation you are in and it generates from the top down and it is a definite barrier Our behavior is [as a denomination] women are wives; men are leaders (G4-b).
20 Impact of Leadership Frameworks Negative Female Attributes Male Traits Female Traits Aggressive (Pushy) Kind Independent Helpful Forceful (Strong) Sympathetic Decisive (Bossy) Concerned for others
21 Impact of Leadership Frameworks Hire the husband Get the wife for free If they hire a woman they don t ever think they get the man for free. The man has no expectation of being the tag-a-long either. The man says, This is your thing. If you want to do this, then go for it. I will support you from a far (G4-e).
22 The Impact of Organizational Dynamics Sponsor/Mentor If you have a sponsor, if you have a male sponsor, then the world is yours. If you are just your average woman out there, then you are swimming upstream. I ve been privileged to have male sponsors who have opened the doors (G4-b).
23 Impact of Organizational Dynamics Key Male Sponsors I m ordained and I m a co-pastor. My husband is the senior pastor, yet we function as a team (GA-5). I m ordained. I co-pastor with my husband and we work as a team (GA-1). My husband is the senior pastor and I m the co-pastor (GB-8).
24 Impact of Organizational Dynamics--TIM Shelley Trebesch
25 Impact of Organizational Dynamics Understanding Historical Faith Assumptions When it came to functioning in priestly roles that were understood to possess ruling authority (e. g., elders, church officials, denominational leaders), women were excluded on the basis of their sex. Legitimation for this type of authority required more than just an experience of Spirit baptism; one must also be male. (Stephenson 2011, 414)
26 Final Thoughts--Denominational Response 1975 official statement on Women in Public Ministry affirmed that the Bible demonstrates that God employs women and men equally declaration was unanimously passed by denomination s Board of Directors that reaffirmed ICFG s position on the issue.
27 Final Thoughts Denominational Response 1998 position statement was constructed that addressed the biblical view on women in ministry, as well as the ministry of women in the denomination. ICFG affirms the place of women in ordained ministry and leadership. This belief affords women positions in all capacities in the local church, on the mission field and at all levels of government in the Foursquare corporate structure (Gospel 1998)
28 Final Thoughts Denominational Response 2002 resolution at the ICFG Convention to develop both a clearer position paper and report regarding women in ministry publication of Women in Leadership Ministry a summary of the biblical position of the Foursquare Church concerning women (Schell 2007) appointment of Tammy Dunahoo to Vice President of US Operations, General Supervisor of the National Church the most significant female executive appointment since 1950 (Gaines 2010)
29 Final Thoughts Opportunities are reflected in the Value we hold. Our founder Aimee Semple McPherson was a woman. All woman can receive a call from the Lord for ministry. Our Foursquare heritage rooted in Pentecostalism supports this value. Sponsors and Mentors that share these values see women as viable and valuable aspect of potential leadership. The Bylaws that determine our organizational dynamics and has no limitations placed on women.
30 Final Thoughts Hindrances are reflected in the actual experiences women have within the denomination Those in leadership positions with the power of appointment who are All Talk-No Action which create systemic issues within the denomination. Gender Prejudice. Tokenism with the wrong women representing the whole of women in Foursquare and no role models.
31 Recommendations For all positions of Leadership Inclusion of women in predominately male networks regardless of whether they are single or married and have young children. Networks for women in leadership. Many of the young leaders are not chronologically young. A more balanced leadership must include more women.
32 Last Thought It is important to remember when addressing opportunities and hindrances it is not about rights and justice. It is about more laborers. We are using only 50% of what we have.
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