World Christianity. The Christian Revolution

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1 World Christianity The Christian Revolution

2

3 References - Authors! Philip Jenkins.. A native of England. Distinguished Professor of History and Religious Studies at Penn State University! Lamin Sanneh. A native of Gambia. D. Willis James Professor of Missions and World Christianity and Professor of History at Yale Divinity School

4 CD-R R disc! This PowerPoint presentation! PowerPoint native format! Adobe Acrobat PDF file! Three other PowerPoint presentations focusing on the History of World Christianity! Acrobat PDF files of articles by Dr. Jenkins in the Atlantic Monthly summarizing points in his book! MP3 audio file of interview with Dr. Jenkins on public radio Jan. 2003

5 All too often, statements about what modern Christians accept or what Catholics today believe refer only to what that ever-shrinking remnant of Western Christians and Catholics believe. Such assertions are outrageous today, and as time goes by they will become ever further removed from reality - Jenkins, p. 3

6 The era of Western Christianity has passed within our lifetimes, and the day of Southern Christianity is dawning. The fact of change itself is undeniable; it has happened, and will continue to happen. - Philip Jenkins, p. 3.

7 Number of Christians in the World billions

8 Number of Christians by Region 2000 versus 2025 Europe Latin America Africa Asia North America millions From: Jenkins, p. 2-3

9 Percentage of Christians by Region % 19% 25% Africa Latin America Asia North America Europe 12% 16% From: Jenkins, p. 2-3

10 Percentage of Christians by Region % 24% 12% Africa Latin America Asia North America Europe 18% 25% From: Jenkins, p. 2-3

11 Strength Christian Denominations 2000 Roman Catholics 1057 Independents Protestants Orthodox 215 Anglicans Marginal Christians millions From: Jenkins, Table 4.1, p. 61

12 Number of Catholics by Region 2000 versus 2025 Oceania 11 8 North America Asia Africa Europe Latin America millions Source: Table 9.1, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 195

13 Percentage of Catholics by 1% Region % 27% 7% 44% Africa Latin America Asia North America Europe Oceania 10% Source: Table 9.1, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 195

14 Percentage of Catholics by 20% 1% Region % 6% 12% Africa Latin America Asia North America Europe Oceania 44% Source: Table 9.1, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 195

15 Percentage of Christians 2050! By 2050, only about one-fifth of Christians will be non-hispanic whites! Soon, the phrase a White Christian may sound like a curious oxymoron, as mildly surprising as a Swedish Buddhist (Jenkins)

16 Decline of Christianity in Europe! The Church of England claims 25 million members! Less than 1.2 million (5%) of them attend services! 5% of the French go to church regularly! 15% of Italians go to church regularly

17 Decline of Christianity in Europe About the decline, the statistics are unequivocal. But beneath and beyond that has been a strategic retreat into isolation where the spirit seems to be wilting. It has taken the form of a mood swing in which people have been preoccupied with taking stock, with the setting sun and lengthening shadows, with memorial armbands, with shades of gray, with requiem. As Sir Edward Grey declared, brooding over the dark clouds of his time, the lamps have gone out all over Europe. The religious imagination seems

18 Decline of Christianity in Europe to have been hit with a bout of melancholy as it labors with strains of Abide with me, fast falls the eventide and The Day Thou gavest, Lord, is ended, / The darkness falls at Thy behest. It s the solemn vespers without the Gloria, and is a far cry from the confident, robust tones of Onward, Christian Soldiers, The Son of God goes forth to war, or Stand up, stand up for Jesus!... Maybe too much history is a bad thing - Lamin Sanneh,, p. 30

19 Growth of Christianity in Africa millions Year Data from: Sanneh, p. 14 and Jenkins, p. 3

20 Growth of Christianity in Africa! Percent of Total Population who are Christians:! 1900: 10% of population! 1965: 25% of population! 2003: 47% of population

21 Growth of Christianity in Africa! 1960 s: Christians began to outnumber Muslims! 1985,, there were 16,500 new Christians a day, an annual rate of over 6 million! In the same period in Europe and North America: 4,300 people were leaving the church each day! 2001: there were 23,000 new Christians a day, an annual rate of 8.4 million, of which 1.5 million are new converts

22 Growth of Christianity in Africa Christianity in Africa After the Colonial Period just as Europe s northern tribes turned to the church after the decay of the Roman Empire, so Africans are embracing Christianity in the face of the massive political, social and economic chaos. - Kenneth Woodward

23 Growth of Christianity in Africa Christianity in Africa After the Colonial Period Africa has become, or is becoming, a Christian continent in cultural as well as numerical terms, while on the same scale the West has become, or is rapidly becoming, a post-christian society. - Sanneh,, p. 36

24 Growth of Christianity in Africa Christianity in Africa After the Colonial Period Black Africa today is totally inconceivable apart from the presence of Christianity - Adrian Hastings, historian

25 The Renewal of a non- Western Religion

26 As Christianity moves South, we are witnessing according to Ghanaian scholar Kwame Bediako,, the renewal of a non- Western religion

27 The Myth of Christianity as a Western Religion! Popular Imagination and Media: Christianity is a Western phenomenon:! Adopted by the Roman Empire! Grew within a European heartland! Exported on an unwilling world beginning in the colonial period as a thin veneer to cover European ambitions for empire

28 The Myth of Christianity as a Western Religion! Christianity began in the Near East! For its first thousand years, it was stronger in Asia and North Africa than in Europe! During its first centuries, its heartland was Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia

29 The Myth of Christianity as a Western Religion! Only one of the five ancient Patriarchates of the Church was in the West! Constantinople! Antioch! Jerusalem! Alexandria! Rome

30 Map courtesy of the Friesian School, Rome and Romania, 27 BC 1453 BC at

31 The Myth of Christianity as a Western Religion! Christian missionaries fanned out from its Near East heart into all the known continents: Europe, Africa, and Asia

32 Spread of Christianity First Five Centuries

33 Distribution of Christians in Ancient and Medieval Times 80 Mongol Invasion millions Islamic Conquests Africa Asia Europe/Russia Year From Jenkins, Table 2.1, page 24 Data from World Christian Encyclopedia

34 Reasons for the Growth of Christianity in the Global South

35 Reasons for the Growth of Christianity! 1. High general population growth in the Global South! 2. The continuing high rate of conversions to Christianity

36 Reasons for the Growth of Christianity! 1. High general population growth in the Global South! 2. The continuing high rate of conversions to Christianity

37 Population Growth! 1950 s: only four countries had populations greater than 100 million:! United States, Soviet Union, China, India! 2000: eight countries have populations greater than 100 million! 2050: seventeen countries are projected to have populations greater than 100 million

38 Population Growth! Most of the population growth is occurring in the Africa, South America, and Asia! Population of many European countries is declining because of low birth rates

39 Ten Most Populous Countries in the World, 2050 millions year India China United States Indonesia Nigeria Pakistan Brazil Bangladesh Ethiopia Dem. R Congo Source: Table 5.1, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 84

40 Most Populous Countries of the World, 2050 (#3 through #10) millions year United States Indonesia Nigeria Pakistan Brazil Bangladesh Ethiopia Dem. R Congo Source: Table 5.1, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 84

41 Most Populous Countries of the World, 2050 (#11 through #20) millions year Philippines Mexico Vietnam Russia Egypt Japan Iran Saudi Arabia Tanzania Turkey Source: Table 5.1, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 84

42 25 Most Populous Countries in the World, 2050 millions India China United States Indonesia Nigeria Pakistan Brazil Bangladesh Ethiopia DR Congo Philippines Mexico Vietnam Russia Egypt Japan Iran Saudi Arabia Tanzania Turkey Sudan Uganda Germany Yemen Thailand Source: Table 5.1, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 84

43 Ten Largest Christian Communities, 2025 and millions year United States Brazil Mexico Philippines Nigeria Zaire/D. R. Congo Ethiopia Russia China Germany Source: Table 5.2, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 90

44 Ten Largest Christian Communities, 2050 millions United States Brazil Mexico Philippines Nigeria Zaire/D. R. Congo Ethiopia Russia China Germany Source: Table 5.2, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 90

45 Largest Urban Populations, 2015 Tokyo, Japan Bombay/Mumbai, India Lagos, Nigeria Shanghai, China Jakarta, Indonesia Sao Paulo, Brazil Karachi, Pakistan Beijing, China Dhaka, Bangladesh Mexico City millions Source: Table 5.3, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 93

46 #1. Tokyo, Japan, 28.7 million

47 #2. Bombay / Mumbai, India, 27.4 million

48 #3 Lagos, Nigeria, 24.4 million

49 #4. Shanghai, China, 23.4 million

50 #5. Jakarta, Indonesia, 21.2 million

51 #6. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 20.8 million

52 #7. Karachi, Pakistan, 20.6 million

53 #8. Beijing, China, 19.4 million

54 #9. Dhaka, Bangladesh, 19.0 million

55 #10. Mexico, Mexico, 18.8 million

56 Urban Centers of Christianity the centers of the church s universality [are] no longer in Geneva, Rome, Athens, Paris, London, New York, but Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and Manila (Philippines) - John Mbiti,, Christianity in Africa, p. 154

57 Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

58 Buenos Aires, Argentina

59 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

60 Manila, Philippines

61 Reasons for the Growth of Christianity! High general population growth in the Global South! The continuing high rate of conversions to Christianity

62 Reasons for the Growth of Christianity! High general population growth in the Global South! The continuing high rate of conversions to Christianity

63 Reasons for the Growth of Christianity! The success of missionary efforts cannot be explained as mere kowtowing to civil authorities! from the earliest days of the missionary enterprise, indigenous peoples found aspects of Christianity exciting, even intoxicating (Jenkins)! the new convert did not keep the discovery for individual consumption but took the message to others (Sundkler & Steed)

64 Reasons for the Growth of Christianity We can suggest all sorts of reasons why Africans and Asians adopted Christianity, whether political, social, or cultural; but one all-too too-obvious obvious explanation is that individuals came to believe the message offered, and found this the best means of explaining the world around them. - Jenkins, p. 44

65 Reasons for the Growth of Christianity Africans embraced Christianity because it resonated so well with the values of the old religions... People sensed in their hearts that Jesus did not mock their respect for the sacred or their clamor for an invincible Savior, so they beat their sacred drums for him until the stars skipped and danced in the skies. After that dance the stars weren t little anymore. Christianity helped Africans to become renewed Africans, not remade Europeans. - Sanneh,, p. 43

66 Reasons for the Growth of Christianity It was not the mad logic of the Trinity that captivated him. He did not understand it. It was the poetry of the new religion, something felt in the marrow He felt relief within as the hymn poured into his parched soul. The words of the hymn were like drops of frozen rain melting on the dry palate of the panting earth. - novelist Chinua Achebe (describing the impact of a sermon on a young Igbo man)

67 Significance of World Christianity for the West

68 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West! 1. New ways of thinking about God, of worshiping God! 2. Potential for Renewal of Western Christianity! 3. Conflict with Western Liberal Thought! 4. Conflict with Islam

69 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West! 1. New ways of thinking about God, of worshiping God! 2. Potential for Renewal of Western Christianity! 3. Conflict with Western Liberal Thought! 4. Conflict with Islam

70 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West New Ways of Thinking About God! Taking in of the gospel message by a new culture may bring new insights, new ways of thinking about God! Just as new insights to the gospel grew from the taking in of the gospel by the Greek and Roman culture of New Testament times! The West can find a gospel embraced by a society not shaped by the Enlightenment

71 African Creed of the Maasai! Life is a journey of faith in a God who created the world and us out of love! They once knew this High God in darkness, but now know this God in the light! Jesus was: a man in the flesh, a Jew by tribe, born poor in a little village, who left his home and was always on safari doing good, curing people by the power of God. until,

72 African Creed of the Maasai! He was rejected by his people, tortured, and nailed, hands and feet, to a cross, and died.! He lay buried in the grave, but the hyenas did not touch him, and on the third day he rose from the grave.! We are waiting for Him. He is alive. He lives. This we believe, Amen.

73 Catholic Eucharistic Prayer (Africa Rite) O Father, Great Ancestor, we lack adequate words to thank you O Great Ancestor, who lives on the brilliant mountain Our Father, father of our ancestors, we are gathered to praise you and to thank you with our sacrifice

74 Confession of Faith of the Pygmies of the Congo In the beginning was God, Today is God, Tomorrow will be God. Who can make an image of God? He has no body. He is a word that comes out of your mouth. That word! It is no more, It is past, and still it lives! So is God.

75 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West! 1. New ways of thinking about God, of worshiping God! 2. Potential for Renewal of Western Christianity! 3. Conflict with Western Liberal Thought! 4. Conflict with Islam

76 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West Renewal of Western Christianity Be nice to whites, they need you to rediscover their humanity - Archbishop Desmond Tutu

77 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West Renewal of Western Christianity! One-sixth of priests in American Catholic Church come from other countries, often from the Global South! There are currently 1500 missionaries in Britain from fifty nations, many expressing disbelief at the spiritual desert they encounter in this green and pagan land.

78 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West Renewal of Western Christianity It was so depressing when I first arrived to find churches empty, and being sold, when in Uganda there is not enough room in our churches for the people. There is a great need for revival in Britain it has become so secular and people so inward looking and individualistic. The country needs reconverting. - Stephen Tirwomwe,, Ugandan missionary in the rustbelt of Northern England

79 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West! 1. New ways of thinking about God, of worshiping God! 2. Potential for Renewal of Western Christianity! 3. Conflict with Western Liberal Thought! 4. Conflict with Islam

80 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West Conflict with Western Liberal Thought! Christianity in the Global South tends to be very conservative and orthodox

81 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West Conflict with Western Liberal Thought The most successful Southern Churches preach a deep personal faith, communal orthodoxy, mysticism, and puritanism,, all founded on obedience to spiritual authority... Whereas Americans imagine a Church freed from hierarchy, superstition, and dogma, Southerners look back to one filled with spiritual power and able to exorcise the demonic forces that cause sickness and poverty. (Jenkins)

82 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West Conflict with Western Liberal Thought! American Catholics who think the only barrier to a more progressive church (married priests, women priests, acceptance of birth control and abortion) is an out-of of-touch, stodgy, conservative pope and Vatican hierarchy, are engaging in a typically Western, very parochial conceit.

83 Percentage of Catholics by 1% Region % 27% 7% 44% Africa Latin America Asia North America Europe Oceania 10% Source: Table 9.1, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 195

84 Percentage of Catholics by 20% 1% Region % 6% 12% Africa Latin America Asia North America Europe Oceania 44% Source: Table 9.1, in Jenkins, The Next Christendom. The Rise of Global Christianity, p. 195

85 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West Conflict with Western Liberal Thought! At the 1998 Lambeth Conference,, Liberal Anglicans from Western Churches found themselves consistently outvoted by Anglicans from the larger, more conservative Churches of Global South.! The more liberal Episcopal Church USA was free to defy the nonbinding decrees of the Lambeth Conference,, and consecrated the openly gay Bishop Gene Robinson on Nov. 2, 2003 in New Hampshire.

86 We, Primates of the Global South, greet you in the name of our Triune God, Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The actions of the Episcopal Church of the United States of America (ECUSA) in the election, confirmation, and consecration of Canon Gene Robinson have created a situation of grave concern for the entire Anglican Communion and beyond... By their actions, ECUSA has separated itself from the remainder of the Anglican Communion and the wider Christian family. - Statement of the Anglican Primates of Nigeria, West Indies, Southern Cone, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Congo, Tanzania, Central Africa, South India, Pakistan, South East Asia, Philippines, February 9, 2004

87 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West! 1. New ways of thinking about God, of worshiping God! 2. Potential for Renewal of Western Christianity! 3. Conflict with Western Liberal Thought! 4. Conflict with Islam

88 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West Conflict with Islam! Both Christianity and Islam are strongly missionary religions! Both are growing in the Global South where populations are rapidly expanding! A resurgent Muslim fundamentalism favors establishment of religious states and sharia law in Muslim majority areas! Christian evangelism prohibited! Islam a one-way door; apostasy punishable by death! Some writers have suggested a new age of Christian crusades from the Christian Global South may compete with Muslim jihads and plunge the world into chronic conflict

89 Distribution of Muslims Source: CIA

90 Distribution of Muslims

91 Most Populous Countries in the World, 2050 millions India China Vietnam Japan Thailand Pakistan Bangladesh Saudi Arabia Turkey Iran Yemen Indonesia Egypt Sudan United States Brazil Mexico Russia DR Congo Philippines Uganda Germany Nigeria Ethiopia Tanzania Overwhelmingly Muslim Mainly Muslim; signif.. Christian Minorities Overwhelmingly Christian Mainly Christian; signif.. Muslim Minorities Christian and Muslim, neither with majority 1620 Source: Jenkins, Table 8.1, p. 167, and Table 5.1, page 84

92 Significance of the Growth of World Christianity for the West Conflict with Islam! The concentration of oil wealth in Muslim majority countries may bode ill for Christianity in the Global South! Western nations will likely deplete their own oil reserves in the next 50 years, and hence may find it in their economic interests to side with Muslim countries

93 As the media have striven in recent years to present Islam in a more sympathetic light, they have tended to suggest that Islam, not Christianity, is the rising faith of Africa and Asia, the authentic or default religion of the world s huddled masses. But Christianity is not only surviving in the global South, it is enjoying a radical revival, a return to scriptural roots. We are living in revolutionary times. - Philip Jenkins

94 The era of Western Christianity has passed within our lifetimes, and the day of Southern Christianity is dawning. The fact of change itself is undeniable; it has happened, and will continue to happen. - Philip Jenkins, p. 3.

95 References! The Next Christendom. The Coming of Global Christianity. Philip Jenkins. Oxford University Press, ISBN ! Whose Religion is Christianity? The Gospel Beyond the West. Lamin Sanneh. Eerdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids, MI, ISBN

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