Evangelicals and the Canadian Census

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1 Evngelicls nd the Cndin Census By Rick Hiemstr, Centre for Reserch on Cndin Evngeliclism Hve you ever wondered why the Cndin census sys Cndin Pentecostlism is on the decline while the Pentecostl Assemblies of Cnd just plnted nother church in your neighbourhood? Did you look in vin for your denomintion in the census dt? Does the 121% growth between 1991 nd 2001 in those identifying themselves s simply Christin men tht denomintionlism hs been in retret? The Cndin census tht is conducted on ten-yer cycle includes question on religious ffilition. In preprtion for the 2011 census, Sttistics Cnd consulted with vrious groups in the fll of The Centre for Reserch on Cndin Evngeliclism (CRCE) prticipted in dy of dilogue with the gency s officils, nd mde forml written submission. Wht follows is the CRCE s written submission on the content of the 2011 Cndin census, with focus on the religious ffilition question. The document surveys how nd why religious dt hve been collected while offering suggestions on how the collection of dt on Cndin Evngelicls cn be improved for This document hs been designed to ssist with understnding how to red the government s numbers on religion both now nd when the 2011 sttistics re relesed. 1. The Evngelicl Fellowship of Cnd s Interest in the Religious Affilition Question The Evngelicl Fellowship of Cnd (EFC) is the ntionl ssocition of evngelicl Christins, gthered together for influence, impct nd identity in ministry nd public witness. Since 1964 the EFC hs provided ntionl forum for Evngelicls nd constructive voice for biblicl principles in life nd society. In ddition to 40 evngelicl denomintions, the EFC ffilites include ministry orgniztions, eductionl institutions nd individul congregtions, ll of whom uphold common sttement of fith. The EFC is n ctive prticipnt in the World Evngelicl Allince. The EFC founded the Centre for Reserch on Cndin Evngeliclism (CRCE) in The CRCE seeks to improve the ccurcy of public nd scholrly representtions of Evngelicls in Cnd; to prompt new reserch on Cndin Evngeliclism; to provide evngelicl ministry leders with informtion tht will enhnce the effectiveness of their work; nd to ct s storehouse nd cleringhouse for reserch on Evngelicls in Cnd. The CRCE engges in high-qulity reserch nd reserch prtnerships, nd publishes the results in Church & Fith Trends. The CRCE mkes extensive use of Sttistics Cnd dt on religious ffilition nd religious prticiption in order to provide better understnding of Cndin Evngeliclism nd generl Cndin trends relted to fith nd spiritulity. pge 1 / 13

2 The EFC would like Sttistics Cnd to mintin the religious ffilition question with improvements in the wy the 2011 question is sked nd coded prticulrly with respect to evngelicl Christin denomintions nd individuls. Further, we believe the usefulness of the religious ffilition dt cn be substntilly improved if it is combined with question mesuring religious prticiption. 2. Religious Affilition The submission begins with n historicl review of the census religious ffilition question. Sttistics Cnd hs n interest in the historicl comprbility of its dt, so it is importnt to understnd how nd why these dt hve been collected in the pst. 2.1 Why the Government Collects Dt on Religious Affilition A 1971 document described the government interest in religious ffilition this wy: The dt re used by governments s bsis for determining denomintionl school grnts. It is used extensively by religious nd eductionl orgniztions, such s the Protestnt School Bord of Greter Montrel, to ssess the need to construct churches nd schools for vrious religious groups in res where there re concentrtions of people of prticulr denomintion. Studies of fmily size nd fertility rtes mong different religious groups re lso crried out by socil reserchers becuse these dt re vilble. The dt re lso used by Members of Prliment in ssessing the importnce of different religious groups in their constituencies. 1 The 1971 document signlled tht the census religious ffilition dt gve the government guidnce on wht resonble ccommodtion ws necessry for different religious groups nd wht extent of ccommodtion ws required in different prts of the country. In 1971 eduction funding ws the principl wy tht religious groups were ccommodted. Tody the Cndin religious lndscpe exhibits more diversity nd poses greter chllenges in ccommodting tht diversity. The government hs n even greter interest now in understnding the diversity of religion in Cnd. This document lso signlled tht religious ffilition dt re useful for helping governments dminister socil progrms. Currently this informtion helps us understnd how to welcome nd integrte new immigrnts into Cndin society. It helps us to understnd the diversity within different ethnic communities. It is n importnt fctor in understnding the culturl mosic nd in discerning Cndin ttitudes on vriety of socil issues. Religious ffilition nd prticiption re importnt indictors of people s intention to hve children. Religious ffilition nd prticiption rtes lso re importnt indictors of the strength nd longevity of mrriges. 1 Sttistics Cnd, 1971 Census of Cnd Questions nd Answers, 51. pge 2 / 13

3 2.2 An Historicl Overview of the Census Religious Affilition Question The religious ffilition question on census forms hs chnged over time. In 1931 the census form simply sked for Religious body, Denomintion or Community to which this person dheres or belongs. The ccompnying Instructions to Commissioners nd Enumertors directed tht, The religion of ech person will be entered ccording s he or she professes, specifying the religious body, denomintion, sect or community to which the person dheres or belongs, or which he or she fvours. An entry MUST be mde in this column regrding the religious belief or ffilition of ech nd every person enumerted in Column 3. 2 In 1941, the census form red, Religious body, denomintion to which this person dheres or belongs. (Do not use indefinite terms such s Christin, Believer, or Protestnt, etc.) Clerly there ws n ttempt to cpture the religious diversity represented by denomintions in country tht ws overwhelmingly Christin t the time. In 1951, census forms were designed to be scored by utomted reders once enumertors hd filled in mrk-in circles with soft led pencils. Although there ws still n option to write in the nswers, there would hve been strong dministrtive impulse to use the ctegories provided on the form, ctegories tht could be scored more esily. The new scoring technology resulted in the introduction of suggested lists of religions on the census forms. The lists continued fter the scoring technology cesed to be used. The 1951 census form simply hd RELIGION heding nd 16 suggested religious groups ech ccompnied by mrkin-circle. There ws lso spce provided where enumertors were directed, if not listed, write below. Enumertors were instructed, Do not ccept brod, generl terms such s Christin, Protestnt, or Believer. 3 The EFC sees this s n importnt chnge in how religious ffilition dt re collected on the census. From this point forwrd the census hs contined suggested list of religions to ccompny the religious ffilition question. As will be rgued lter in this submission, these lists hve tended to increse the reported ffilition for those religious groups contined on the list nd decrese the reported ffilition for those excluded from the list. The 1961 census form ws structured similrly to the 1951 form; however, this time in plce of heding, this question ws dded: Wht is your religion? With the exception of Jewish, ll the options listed were groups tht hd Christin origins. Substntilly then, religion ment denomintion. This qulifying instruction ws given to enumertors in 1961: Also enumertors were instructed to ccept without question the denomintion reported by respondents. They were to enquire more fully when Christin, Protestnt, Believer, etc., were reported but were to ccept these if specific denomintion could not be given. Further, if person stted he hd no religion, the entry none ws recorded. 4 2 Dominion Bureu of Sttistics, Seventh Census of Cnd 1933 Instructions to Commissioners nd Enumertors, Dominion Bureu of Sttistics, Enumertion Mnul 9th Census of Cnd 1951, Dominion Bureu of Sttistics, Census of Cnd 1961, vol. 1, prt 2-6. pge 3 / 13

4 Clerly n effort ws mde to void generl nswers tht would not identify denomintion. In 1971 Sttistics Cnd moved to self-enumertion. The form of the question remined the sme. The suggested list of religions shrnk by four nd dded no religion option. The wording soliciting responses tht were not suggested chnged slightly from If not listed, write here to Other, write here. The list of suggested religions, however, continued to primrily list Christin denomintions. The write-in spce or box on the 1971 census nd ll census forms going forwrd provides between 2.5 cm (1981) nd 3.8 cm (2001) of writing spce for responses. This spce llows for responses in norml hndwriting with mximum of 6-9 chrcters. Denomintionl responses tht exceed this length will tend to be bbrevited, mking ccurte coding more difficult. In 1981 the form of the question ws gin substntilly unltered, with the following chnges: 1) An instruction to Mrk one box only ws dded; 2) A box for unlisted responses ws provided; nd 3) the instruction chnged to Other (specify). This time the composition of the list chnged to dd Islm to the list. This ws the first time world religion other thn Christinity or Judism ws represented on the suggested list of religions on the census form. This begn to introduce some confusion bout the mening of the term religion in the question. Within Christinity, denomintions re subgroups of one common religion. Within substntilly homogenous Christin culture, religion my be understood to be term interchngeble with denomintion. When Christin denomintions re juxtposed with world religions, however, it introduces confusion for Christins bout wht the term religion mens nd wht type of response is being sought by the census. Do they wnt my world religion (which is Christin) or do they wnt my denomintion within Christinity (which my be, for exmple, Bptist or Evngelicl Free)? In 1991 the question chnged to Wht is this person s religion? with the qulifying direction, Indicte specific denomintion or religion even if this person is not prcticing member of tht group. This time the mrk-in boxes were replced by box ccompnied by the following instruction, Specify one denomintion or religion only. A mrk-in circle ws retined only for the option no religion. The suggested list of religions included representtive groups from six world religions: Christinity, Judism, Islm, Buddhism, Sikhism, nd Hinduism. In this cse the instruction indicting tht the list included both denomintions nd religions were cceptble nswers ws helpful. However, the suggested list of religions combined both world religions nd Christin denomintions in the sme list, thus reintroducing the confusion tht the instruction tried to llevite. 2.3 The 2001 Census nd Evngelicl Responses In 2001 the question remined substntilly unchnged with the exception of the suggested list of religions (tble 1). The chnge in the list ws to hve significnt effect on the wy evngelicl Christins nswered the question. pge 4 / 13

5 Tble 1: Suggested List of Religions on Decennil Census Forms, c 1971 c 1981 c 1991 d Romn Ctholic 1. Adventist 1. Anglicn 1. Romn Ctholic 1. Romn Ctholic 1. Romn Ctholic United Church Anglicn Presbyterin 5. Bptist Luthern Ukrinin (Greek) Ctholic Jewish Greek Orthodox Mennonite Pentecostl 12. Evngelicl Church 13. Slvtion Army 14. Mormon 15. Christin Science b 16. Adventist Anglicn Bptist Christin Science Greek Orthodox Jehovh s Witnesses Jewish Luthern Mennonite Mormon 11. Pentecostl 12. Presbyterin 13. Romn Ctholic 14. Slvtion Army 15. Ukrinin Ctholic 16. United Church 2. Bptist Greek Orthodox Jewish Luthern 6. Mennonite 7. Pentecostl Presbyterin Romn Ctholic 10. Slvtion Army 11. Ukrinin Ctholic 12. United Church 13. No religion United Church Anglicn Presbyterin Luthern 6. Bptist Greek Orthodox Jewish Ukrinin Ctholic 10. Pentecostl 11. Jehovh s Witnesses 12. Mennonite 13. Slvtion Army 14. Islm d 15. No religion 2. Ukrinin Ctholic United Church Anglicn Presbyterin Luthern 7. Bptist Pentecostl Greek Orthodox 10. Jewish 11. Mennonite 12. Jehovh s Witnesses 13. Slvtion Army 14. Islm 15. Buddhist 16. Hindu 17. Sikh Ukrinin Ctholic United Church Anglicn Luthern 6. Bptist Greek Orthodox Jewish Islm 10. Buddhist 11. Hindu 12. Sikh e 13. etc. Groups trditionlly understood to be Conservtive Protestnt re in bold. b Until recently, Seventh Dy Adventists would not hve considered themselves Evngelicl nd would not hve been understood to be Evngelicl, lthough they would be understood to be Conservtive Protestnts. c Groups re listed in the order in which they ppered. In 1961 nd 1971 the suggested list of religions ws lphbeticlly ordered. From 1981 on, the groups ppered in order dictted, t lest in prt, by their frequency from the previous census. d The formt of the questions chnged in In 1971 nd 1981 ech item on the list hd its own mrk-in box. Strting in 1991 there ws blnk spce to write in the respondent s religious ffilition, with seprte mrk-in box retined for no religion. e The yer 2001 ws the first in which etc. ws dded to the list, thereby explicitly suggesting tht the list ws not exhustive , 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001 Cndin census forms. pge 5 / 13

6 In 1991 four evngelicl denomintions were listed: Bptist, Pentecostl, Mennonite, nd Slvtion Army. In 1991 this list shrnk to include only the Bptists. Tble 2 below compres the results for the 1991 nd 2001 religious ffilition dt for these evngelicl denomintions nd severl other ctegories. Tble 2: 1991 nd 2001 Census Religious Affilition Counts for Selected Denomintions 6 Included in the 1991 census religion question nd dropped in Census 2001 Census Chnge Pentecostl 436, , % Slvtion Army 112,345 87, % Mennonite 207, , % Included in both 1991 nd 2001 census religion question Other Bptist 663, , % Non-Denomintionl 32,005 40, % Protestnt 628, , % Christin 353, , % The denomintions tht re trditionlly understood to be evngelicl nd were dropped from the suggested list of religions in the 2001 census form ll sw reported decline in religious ffilition, while Bptist, the only trditionlly evngelicl denomintion to remin on the 2001 census form, sw n increse. Those reporting Christin s their religious ffilition grew 121.1% between 1991 nd Compre these dt with dt reported by denomintions on membership nd ttendnce (tble 3). 6 Sttistics Cnd, Religion (95A), Age Groups (7A) nd Sex (3) for Popultion, for Cnd, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitn Ares nd Census Agglomertions, 1991 nd 2001 Censuses 20% Smple Dt Ct. No. 97F0022XCB (ccessed August 20, 2007). pge 6 / 13

7 Tble 3: 1991 nd 2001 Membership nd Attendnce Dt Supplied by Denomintions 7 Religious Group Members Attendnce Chnge Bptist 214, , % 187, , % Mennonite (Evngelicl) b 97, , % 98, , % Mennonite (Other) c 10,356 14, % 8,436 11, % Pentecostl d 328, , % 247, , % Slvtion Army in Cnd 94,733 86, % 25,956 26, % Bptist includes: Assocition of Regulr Bptist Churches; Atlntic Cnd Assocition of Free Will Bptists; Bptist Conventionof Ontrio & Quebec; Bptist Generl Conference; Bptist Union of Western Cnd; Cndin Convention of Southern Bptists; convention of Atlntic Bptist Churches; Fellowship of Evngelicl Bptist Churches; Gospel Missionry Assocition; North Americn Bptist Church; Sovereign Grce Fellowship; Union of French Bptist Churches of Cnd. b Mennonite here includes those in the evngelicl Mennonite fmily s opposed to non-evngelicl Mennonites: Bergthler Mennonite Churches; Brethren in Christ, Cndin Conference; Cndin Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches; Chortizer Mennonite Conference; Christin Anishinbec Fellowship; Church of God in Christ (Mennonite); Conservtive Mennonite Church of Ontrio; Conservtive Mennonite Fellowship; Estern Pennsylvni Mennonite Church; Evngelicl Mennonite Church; Evngelicl Mennonite Mission Conference; Fellowship of Evngelicl Bible Churches; Mrkhm-Wterloo Mennonite Conference; Mennonite Church Albert; Mennonite Church British Columbi; Mennonite Church Estern Cnd; Mennonite Church Mnitob; Mennonite Church Ssktchewn; Mennonite Churches independent/unffilited; Midwest Mennonite Fellowship; Ntionwide Fellowship of Churches (Mennonite); Northwest Mennonite Conference; Sommerfelder Mennonite Churches; United Brethren in Christ (Ontrio); Western Conservtive Mennonite Fellowship. c Mennonite (Other) includes: Bechy Amish Mennonite Church; New Reinlnd Mennonite Church of Ontrio; Old Colony Mennonite Church; Old Order Amish Church; Old Order Mennonite Church; Reformed Mennonite Church; Reinlnd Fellowship Mennonite Church; Reinlnd Mennonite Church. d Pentecostl includes: Apostolic Church in Cnd; Apostolic Church of Pentecost; Apostolic Fith Church; Assocition of Vineyrd Churches Cnd; Cndin Evngelicl Christin Churches; Cndin Fellowship of Churches nd Ministers; Church of Pentecost Cnd, Inc.; Elim Fellowship of Evngelicl Churches nd Ministers; Fellowship of Christin Assemblies; Foursqure Gospel Church of Cnd; Independent Assemblies of God; Itlin Pentecostl Church; Open Bible Fith Fellowship; Prtners in Hrvest; Pentecostl Assemblies of Cnd; Pentecostl Assemblies of Newfoundlnd; Pentecostl Holiness Church of Cnd; Sovereign Grce Ministries; United Church of Jesus Christ (Apostolic); United Pentecostl Church; Victory Churches Interntionl. We believe tht the 2001 census results cn, t lest in prt, be explined by severl fctors. Evngelicl Christins, reding the suggested list of religions, did not see their denomintions listed. In scnning the list, however, they noticed severl world religions listed. While there were severl Christin groups listed they did not, for vrious historicl nd theologicl resons, feel strong enough ffinity with them to chose ny of these options. Therefore, mny evngelicl Christins would feel, bsed on the bsence of suggested groups tht represent their denomintions, nd the presence of six world religions, tht wht ws being sked for ws their world religion, not their denomintion. Mny, therefore, probbly responded with Christin. We suspect tht the mjority of those included in Christin re in fct evngelicl Christins becuse Romn Ctholics, Orthodox Christins, nd minline Protestnts ll find their denomintions listed in the suggested list of religions nd would therefore be more inclined to give their denomintion s response. 7 From tbles compiled by Bruce L. Guenther nd the Reserch Deprtment of Outrech Cnd. pge 7 / 13

8 The 2001 census religious ffilition findings re often t odds with the growth trjectory for membership nd ttendnce sttistics reported by the denomintions themselves nd reserchers on religion in Cnd. The finding of 15.3% decrese in Pentecostl religious ffilition seems to be contrdicted by wht George Rwlyk wrote in 1996: The fstest-growing segment of the evngelicl popultion, it should be stressed, is the chrismtic/pentecostl one. 8 Pentecostl 9 churches themselves reported 33.4% increse in ttendnce. Mennonites were reported to hve 7.9% decrese in religious ffilition while evngelicl Mennonite denomintions reported 15.1% growth in ttendnce. Not ll of the denomintionl growth trjectories re t odds with wht is found in the 1991 nd 2001 census religious ffilition dt. The 2001 census showed 10.0% decdl growth rte for Bptists tht ws similr to the 16.6% reported decdl growth in ttendnce. Tble 4: Comprison of 1991 nd 2001 Decdl Growth Rtes for Selected Denomintions Religious Group or Denomintion 1991 Census Religious Affilition Attendnce Reported by Denomintions 2001 Census Chnge Chnge Associted Gospel 8,620 7, % 15,658 20, % Bptist 663, , % 187, , % Christin nd Missionry Allince 59,235 66, % 56,205 80, % Christin or Plymouth Brethren 8,735 5, % 52,000 60, % Church of the Nzrene 14,950 13, % 10,594 12, % Evngelicl Free Church 9,170 9, % 13,299 18, % Mennonite (All) b 207, , % 106, , % Free Methodist 14,720 14, % 10,299 12, % Pentecostl c 436, , % 247, , % Christin Reformed Church 84,685 76, % 74,909 70, % Wesleyn 11,260 11, % 7,794 10, % Slvtion Army 112,345 87, % 25,956 26, % Attendnce figures include ll groups listed in note from tble 3. b Attendnce figures include ll groups listed in notes b nd c from tble 3. c Attendnce figures include ll groups listed in note d from tble 3. Looking t tble 4, the generl pttern is for the census religious ffilition dt to show either decdl decrese in religious ffilition or substntilly reduced decdl growth rte, nd for denomintions to show decdl increse in ttendnce. While religious ffilition nd denomintionl ttendnce sttistics re different mesures nd we would not expect their rw counts to be the sme, they re still both mesures of denomintion s size. All other things being equl, we would expect the growth trjectories of both mesures to be in the sme direction. 8 George Rwlyk, Is Jesus Your Personl Sviour?: In Serch of Cndin Evngeliclism in the 1990 s, (Montrel nd Kingston: McGill-Queen s University Press): See note c with tble 3 for the list of denomintions included in Pentecostl. pge 8 / 13

9 3. Religious Prticiption Tble 4 highlights two kinds of differences in the religious ffilition dt from the census nd the reported denomintionl ttendnce. The first difference, considered bove, is in decdl growth rtes. The EFC believes tht the difference in direction is substntilly explined by the chnges to the religious ffilition question on the 2001 census. The second difference is in the scle of the rw figures reported. Religious ffilition counts re usully much higher thn the numbers reported by the churches for ttendnce. This difference highlights the distinction between religious ffilition nd religious prticiption, distinction tht current census questions do not cpture (tble 5). Tble 5: Comprison of 2001 Census Religious Affilition Dt nd 2001 Reported Attendnce Dt for Mjor Christin Groupings 2001 Census Reported Attendnce 11 Percentge of Those Who Affilite tht Attend Ctholic 12,793,125 3,451, % Orthodox Christin 479, , % Minline Protestnt 5,891, , % Evngelicl 3,210,235 b 1,130,237 d 49.8% e Other Christin c 467,900 Totl Christin 22,374,025 6,026, % Minline Protestnt includes: Anglicn; Luthern; Presbyterin; United Church of Cnd. b Evngelicl includes those groups identified s evngelicl by Outrech Cnd: Adventist; Apostolic Christin; Associted Gospel; Bptist; Brethren in Christ; Chrismtic Renewl; Christin nd Missionry Allince; Christin Assembly; Christin Congregtion; Churches of Christ, Disciples; Church of God; Church of the Nzrene; Evngelicl Free Church; Mennonite; Evngelicl Methodist; Evngelicl Missionry Church; Free Methodist; Methodist, n.o.s.; Mission de l Esprit Sint; Morvin; New Apostolic; Pentecostl; People s Church; Plymouth or Christin Brethren; Christin Reformed; Cndin Reformed; Dutch Reformed; Reformed Church of Americ; Other Reformed; Slvtion Army; Stndrd Church; Vineyrd Christin Fellowship; Wesleyn; Worldwide Church of God; Protestnt, n.o.s.; Other Christin; Non-denomintionl; Interdenomintionl; Christin, n.o.s. c The census religious code vlues do not correspond perfectly with Guenther nd Outrech Cnd s. The census evngelicl figure (see note b) includes most of those included in the reported ttendnce figure for Other Christin. Therefore the evngelicl census figure could be understood s composite figure for Evngelicl nd Other Christin. d Evngelicl includes ll the denomintions listed in notes, b, nd d from tble 3 nd the following: Armenin Evngelicl Church; Christ Ctholic Church Interntionl; Evngelicl Covennt Church; Evngelicl Free Church; Fellowship of Grce Brethren Churches; Morvin Church in Americ Cndin District; Associted Gospel Churches; Bible Holiness Movement; Christin nd Missionry Allince in Cnd; Church of God in Christ; Church of God of Prophecy in Cnd; Church of God, Anderson; Church of God, Clevelnd All Districts; Church of the Nzrene; Evngelicl Missionry Church of Cnd Cnd Est nd Cnd West; Free Methodist Church in Cnd; Independent Holiness Churches; Slvtion Army in Cnd; Wesleyn Church of Cnd; Assocition of Free Luthern Churches; Christin Reformed Church; Church of the Luthern Brethren; Free Reformed Church; Luthern Church Cnd; Luthern Church Missouri Synod Cnd; Americn Evngelicl Christin Church in Cnd; Clvry Chpels; Cndin Sundy School Mission; Community Christin Fellowship Church of Cnd; Dove Christin Fellowship; Every Ntion Churches nd Ministries; Life Links Interntionl Fellowship; Ntive Evngelicl Fellowship; Slt nd Light Ministries; Villge Missions; World Wide Church of God in Cnd; Christin Brethren; Churches of Christ, World Convention Churches of Christ in Cnd; Congregtionl Christin Church; Seventh-Dy Adventist Church; United Church of God - Cnd. e This is the proportion of the Evngelicl census figure represented by the combined reported ttendnce of Evngelicl nd Other Christin. 10 Sttistics Cnd, Religion (95) nd Sex (3) for Popultion, for Cnd, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitn Ares nd Census Agglomertions, 2001 Census - 20% Smple dt. Ctlogue no. 97F0022XCB sttcn.c/english/census01/products/stndrd/themes/retrieveproducttble.cfm?temporl=2001&pid=55821&apath=3&gid=431515&meth=1&ptype=55440&theme=56&focus=0 &AID=0&PLACENAME=0&PROVINCE=0&SEARCH=0&GC=0&GK=0&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=&FL=0&RL=0&FREE=0 (ccessed November 12, 2007). 11 From tbles compiled by Bruce L. Guenther nd the Reserch Deprtment of Outrech Cnd. pge 9 / 13

10 There is whole dimension of the Cndin religious lndscpe tht the religious ffilition question does not cpture. Weekly ttendnce t religious services in Cnd hs declined from 67% in 1946 to 20% in However, on the 2001 census, 84% of Cndins reported religious ffilition, nd in 2001, 43% of Cndins reported tht they hd not ttended religious services in the pst 12 months. 13 In 2003 n Ipsos Reid survey found tht 81% of Cndins strongly or modertely greed with the sttement, I don t think you need to worship t church in order to be good Christin. 14 The sme Ispos Reid survey found tht 72% of Cndins strongly or modertely greed with the sttement, My privte beliefs bout Christinity re more importnt thn wht is tught by ny church. 15 Severl things re hppening with the denomintionl lndscpe in Cnd. First, Cndins with Christin religious ffilition re not prticipting t the sme rtes s they once did. At the sme time they re tending not to defer to ecclesisticl bodies for their doctrine. In the pst, ffilition ws much better opertionliztion of prticiption. For the most prt, people who ffilited lso prticipted. When we mesure ffilition tody, we re not mesuring prticiption. Religious prticiption, however, does mke difference in Cndin s lives. In Cndin Socil Trends, Sttistics Cnd hs mde the following observtions bout those who frequently prticipte in religious services: 16 Weekly ttenders of religious services hve hppier, longer-lsting mrriges, nd they experience less stress. Women who ttend religious services every week re hlf s likely to experience first common-lw union s women who ttend only occsionlly. 17 People who ttend religious services weekly pln on verge to hve 0.5 more children thn those who never ttend religious services. 18 People who ttend religious services during the yer, even if only severl times, hve between 10% nd 31% lower predicted risk of mritl dissolution thn those who do not ttend t ll. (This excludes ttending services on specil occsions like weddings, christenings nd funerls.) 19 Sttistics Cnd hs lso recognized the difference tht religious prticiption mkes, including it in the following surveys: Cnd Survey of Giving, Volunteering nd Prticipting (n=20,832 in 2004) Cndin Community Helth Survey (n=35,000 in 2007, biennil) Ntionl Longitudinl Survey of Children nd Youth (begn in 1994, biennil, ffilition nd prticiption) Ethnic Diversity Survey (one time, 2002) 20 Generl Socil Survey (for cycle 19, n=19,597). 12 Wrren Clrk, Religious Observnce: Mrrige nd Fmily, Cndin Socil Trends (Autumn 1998): Sttistics Cnd, 2001 Census Anlysis Series: Religions in Cnd (My 13, 2003): 6. Ctlogue: 96F0030XIE Ipsos Reid Survey for The Evngelicl Fellowship et l. (n=3000) Ipsos Reid Survey for The Evngelicl Fellowship et l. (n=3000). 16 Wrren Clrk, Religious Observnce: Mrrige nd Fmily, Cndin Socil Trends (Autumn 1998): Pierre Turcotte nd Alin Belnger, Moving in Together: The formtion of first commonlw unions, Cndin Socil Trends (Winter 1997): Dve Dupuis, Wht influences people s plns to hve children? Cndin Socil Trends (Spring 1998): Wrren Clrk nd Susn Crompton, Till Deth Do Us Prt?: The risk of first nd second mrrige dissolution, Cndin Socil Trends (Summer 2006): Cycle 17 sked only, In the pst 12 months, were you member or prticipnt in: A religious-ffilited group (such s church youth group, choir? In cycle 19, the survey sked, Wht, if ny, is your religion? Only 16 responses were coded nd only two of these represented evngelicl denomintions. pge 10 / 13

11 The religious prticiption question most typiclly sked on Sttistics Cnd surveys is: Not counting events such s weddings or funerls, during the pst 12 months how often did you prticipte in religious ctivities or ttend religious services or meetings? Do not include specil events such s weddings, funerls, bptisms, br mitzvhs, etc. Once week or more Once month 3 or 4 times yer Once yer Not t ll Don t know, Refused The EFC believes this is n excellent question. However, it could tell us so much more bout Cnd s mny nd diverse religious groups if combined with religious ffilition census dt. Most religious groups in Cnd re smll. This is especilly true for evngelicl Christin denomintions. The lrgest evngelicl group reported on in census documents is Bptist, which is itself n ggregte group representing dozens of religious ffilition code vlues. Most of Sttistics Cnd s surveys hve smple sizes tht rnge from 20,000 to 50,000. With smple size of 20,000, one in 1,650 Cndins will be surveyed, nd with smple size of 50,000, one in 660 Cndins will be surveyed. Given tht most evngelicl denomintions hve both prticiption nd ffilition counts of less thn 10,000, this mens tht for most evngelicl denomintions, even Sttistics Cnd s most comprehensive survey will produce smple size of only bout 15, which will not yield ny meningful dt. The EFC believes tht religious prticiption is n importnt mesure of the religious lndscpe in Cnd nd tht it cn be pplied fr more meningfully when it is used in survey the size of the Cndin census. The EFC is lso wre tht requests hve been mde for the census religious ffilition question to be chnged to llow respondents to list more thn one religious ffilition. We believe tht this stted desire, in prt, recognizes tht there is difference between religious ffilition nd religious prticiption. Mny Cndins my ffilite with religious group for culturl or fmily resons nd yet prticipte in nother religious group. We believe tht the nture of religious belief is exclusive, tht person only truly prticiptes in one religion t time. However, both those sking for the possibility of llowing respondents to list multiple religious ffilitions nd those seeking religious prticiption question re recognizing the indequcy of the religious ffilition question to ccurtely describe Cnd s religious lndscpe. Allowing respondents to list multiple religious ffilitions will compromise the historicl comprbility of the census dt. However, sking religious prticiption question should go long wy to ddressing the concerns of those who would like to hve multiple religious ffilition questions listed, s it would distinguish between those who prticipte nd those who re nominlly ffilited. pge 11 / 13

12 4. Coding the Census Religious Affilition Question Cndins regulrly offer hundreds of responses to the religious ffilition question on Cndin censuses. The 1961 Popultion Code Book section on religion lists pproximtely 800 religious code vlues nd the 1971 version lists pproximtely the sme number. Cnd s religious diversity is growing, not shrinking, s immigrtion chnges the fce of the religious lndscpe. In 2001 most census documents reported on only 53 religious code vlues, nd severl of those were ggregtes of others. Over 90% of the diversity of the religious code vlues re obscured in the reporting nd lost in the coding process. The EFC hs prticulr interest in this diversity becuse the mjority of evngelicl denomintions re smll, nd mny of the religious code vlues listed in the vrious Popultion Code Books identify evngelicl Christins or their denomintions. Most of these re plced in n Other ctegory or some other not otherwise specified ctegory during the coding process. In the pst, coding ssignments for evngelicl denomintions nd identifying religious code vlues hve been inccurtely mde. For exmple, the 1971 Popultion Code Book ssigns to the United Church the following groups, of which few re ccurtely ssigned, but most could plusibly be understood to be evngelicl: All People s Church, All People s Mission, Bible Christin, Church of All Ntions, Evngelicl Assocition, Evngelicl Church, Evngelicl Free, Evngelicl United Brethren, Germn United, Methodist Bible Student, Methodist Chpel, New Connection Methodist, Slem Church (Methodist), Swedish Methodist, United Brethren in Christ, United Church Mission, Zion Evngelicl. The other groups often combine religiously diverse groups such s this listing of those included in the other ctegory in 1971 nd broken out on their own in 1981: Polish Ntionl Ctholic Church, Apostolic Christin, Associted Gospel, Christdelphin, Christin Assembly, Christin Congregtionl, Christin n.o.s., Church of God, Interdenomintionl, Mission Covennt, Mission de l Esprit Sint, Missionry Church, Morvin, New Apostolic, New Church, Non-Denomintionl, Other Christin, Other Reformed, People s Church, Qukers, Reformed Church of Americ, Spiritulist, Stndrd Church, Bh i, Hindu, Islm, Other Estern Non-Christin, Other Non-Christin, Sikh, Toist, Pgn, Theosophicl Groups, Agnostic, (New Thought-Unity-Metphysicl, Other Pr-religious groups, other non-religious, other not elsewhere clssified). 21 The very diversity of the group limits its usefulness for understnding religion in Cnd beyond understnding its ggregte size. The EFC believes tht evngelicl Christins mke up distinct religious fmily within Protestntism with identifible beliefs nd prctices. 22 We recommend tht Sttistics Cnd crete n Evngelicl Christin not otherwise specified ctegory nd consult with Cndin church historins nd theologins on how to mke the coding ssignments for this nd other Protestnt ctegories. We further recommend tht Sttistics Cnd undertke consulttion with Cndin religious historins nd theologins to improve ccurcy of its religious ffilition coding. The EFC s Centre for Reserch on Cndin Evngeliclism hs network of historins nd theologins tht it would be plesed to put Sttistics Cnd officils in contct with. 22 See John Stckhouse, Defining Evngelicl, Church & Fith Trends vol. 1, no. 1 (October 2007). 21 Brcketed groups were vriously ssigned to Other/Not included or Other/No religion in See 1981 Census Dictionry. pge 12 / 13

13 5. Privcy The EFC understnds tht some groups hve rised privcy concerns over the federl government s collection of religious ffilition dt. We believe tht the government hs mteril interest in collecting religious ffilition nd religious prticiption dt for the following resons: As demnds for religious ccommodtion increse, the government needs to understnd how lrge the groups re nd wht ccommodting them will men. Religious ffilition dt re n importnt fctor in dministering government progrms nd mking popultion projections. The EFC s Centre for Reserch on Cndin Evngeliclism is committed to improving the ccurcy of representtions of evngelicl Christins, nd therefore desires to hve more ccurte nd more detiled informtion generted nd disseminted bout Cndin Evngelicls. 6. Recommendtions The EFC mkes the following recommendtions for chnges on the 2011 census. 1) We recommend tht the religious ffilition question be chnged. To include two lists: world religions list nd denomintions list. b. To include direction tht Sttistics Cnd is seeking the gretest specificity possible from respondents. 2) 3) 4) c. In light of the problems with the religious ffilition responses of evngelicl Christins on the 2001 census, we recommend tht Sttistics Cnd review the evngelicl Christin religions included on their suggested list of religions (or denomintions) in consulttion with the CRCE nd Cndin church historins nd theologins. We recommend tht Sttistics Cnd dd to the 2011 census question on religious prticiption similr to the one used on some cycles of the Generl Socil Survey. We recommend tht Sttistics Cnd crete n Evngelicl Christin n.o.s. ctegory nd consult with Cndin church historins nd theologins on how to mke the coding ssignments for this nd other Protestnt ctegories. We recommend tht Sttistics Cnd undertke consulttion with Cndin religious historins nd theologins to improve ccurcy of ll its religious ffilition coding. pge 13 / 13

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