The Transformation of Europe: Period One ( ) AP European History

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1 The Transformation of Europe: Period One ( ) AP European History

2 Learning Objectives 1.1 The worldview of European intellectuals shifted from one based on ecclesiastical and classical authority to one based primarily on inquiry and observation of the natural world. 1.2 The struggle for sovereignty within and among states resulted in varying degrees of political centralization 1.3 Religious pluralism challenged the concept of a unified Europe

3 Learning Objectives 1.4 Europeans explored and settled overseas territories, encountering and interacting with indigenous populations. 1.5 European society and the experiences of everyday life were increasingly shaped by commercial and agricultural capitalism, notwithstanding the persistence of medieval social and economic structures

4 Changes Cultural and Intellectual: Renaissance, Religion, Science think questioning and individualism allow European to explore their world Political consolidation of strong centralized states kings power and money Technological advances and development of capitalism riches through trade and expansion of territory to new lands

5 The Big Picture From the reliance on religious authority shifted to the belief that human beings often control their own destinies. Western states centralized power at the expense of the nobility. Other states political and economic development was hampered because did not centralize.

6 The Big Picture Economic innovations supported trade and business this leads to claiming new lands. Become central to global economy. (Shift away from Asia) Religious pluralism replaced the Catholic Church. Religious strife characterized period from 1517 to No more feudalism. New social classes emerge. Towns and cities become more important. Serfdom still in the East.

7 THE RENAISSANCE

8 Italian Renaissance Economic changes trade Social structure trade, manufacture, and banking; patriarchs Political organization city states (republics, principalities, oligarchies) Venice trade, republic Florence more turmoil than Venice; Cosimo de Medici, Lorenzo de Medici Milan manufacturing, Sforza family The Papal States Naples kingdom

9 Italian Renaissance Intellectual developments humanism, scholasticism, Petrarch Publication (printing press), Castiglione s The Courtier, Machiavelli s The Prince Art and Architecture da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Brunelleschi, Alberti, perspective

10 Northern Renaissance Northern Humanism focus on Christian texts rather than on the writings of Greek and Roman antiquity, Erasmus, More Northern Artists Van Eyck, Durer

11 Nations in the Renaissance France Valois family centralized government, Burgundians (acted like independent kingdom) Spain Isabella & Ferdinand, Reconquista, Inquisition England War of the Roses, Tudor Decentralized states Italy (Treaty of Lodi) & Germany (lots of princes)

12 RELIGIOUS REFORMATION

13 Background The Great Schism Avignon Papacy Unum Sanctum Indulgences Nepotism simony

14 Luther and the Protestant Reformation Problems with the church John Tetzel 95 Thesis Main beliefs Diet of Worms/Edict of Worms

15 Swiss Reformation Zwingli Individual belief, less emphasis on clergy Anabaptists Adult baptism

16 Calvinism John Calvin Predestination Theocracy Huguenots John Knox - Presbyterian

17 English Reformation King Henry VIII Act of Supremacy of 1534 Anglican Church Personal reasons for creation not religious Elizabeth had to issue another Act of Supremacy since she was a woman

18 Catholic (Counter) Reformation Council of Trent Reaffirm beliefs Clean up some issues Thomas Aquinas ideas become central in defining practices and beliefs of church Jesuits Ignatius of Loyola Defenders of the pope Set of schools, missionaries to new world and Asia (Matteo Ricci China)

19 Impacts of the Reformation Political impacts: France persecution of the Huguenots Scotland Mary Stuart German States fighting, Peace of Augsburg Social impacts: Marriage and family strong proponent of marriage, divorce in limited cases, women mother and educator women should be able to read and write Social class all classes impacted and became protestant, fair taxation, Peasants War of 1525 failed not supported by Luther (needed support of the princes)

20 CONFLICT AND CRISIS

21 French Wars of Religion The Families: Guise strong Catholic faction (land in the east and wanted control of Scotland) Montmorency-Chatillons leaders of French Protestant resistance (land in central France) Bourbons strong Huguenot sympathies (land in south and west) Catherine de Medici St. Bartholomew s Day massacre Henry of Navarre (Henry IV), Edict of Nantes

22 Philip II and Militant Catholicism Philip II inherits Habsburg lands in Spain, Italy, and the Netherlands Wants to consolidate lands Uniform religion Battle of Lepanto (stop Ottoman advance) Revolt in the Netherlands William of Orange Duke of Alba (appointed) Defeat of the Spanish Armada

23 Thirty Years War Four Phases: Bohemian Danish Swedish French Impacts Germany devastated, population plummets, agriculture ruined, disease & starvation Peace of Westphalia (1648) Recognize the sovereign and independent authority of the German princes Independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands Augsburg agreement modified to include Calvinism

24 Puritans v. Anglicans (England) Puritans (Congregationalists) Conflicts in Stuart England James I, divine right of kings Parliament Charles I Long Parliament, Petition of Right, Short Parliament English Civil War Roundheads v. Cavaliers Oliver Cromwell, rump Parliament

25 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHANGES

26 Economic Commercial revolution Mercantilism Capitalism Joint stock companies Putting out system Change in economic balance of power northern Europe becomes stronger by end of period

27 Technological Advances lead to exploration Henry the Navigator, caravel Spanish Columbus, conquistadors Cortes, Pizarro Encomienda system, mit a Peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, mulattoes Treaty of Tordesillas North America Dutch East India Company, Jamestown, mercantilism, indentured servants

28 Global Exchanges Columbian Exchange

29 Social Bourgeoisie Education takes on new importance In 16 th & 17 th centuries: Only 50% of population lived beyond the age of 20 Childbirth leading cause of death for women Towards the end of the time period: Trend toward later marriage = less kids Husband = head of household Wife = manage household, respect husband Witch hunts

30 CULTURE AND SCIENCE

31 Art and Literature Art Mannerism Baroque Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt Literature Michel de Montaigne (skepticism), Cervantes, Shakespeare

32 Scientific Revolution Empirical evidence Astronomy Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo Chemistry, Biology, Medicine Vesalius, Harvey, Boyle Thinking, Math Bacon, Descartes, deductive & inductive thinking

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